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MicroRNA nutrition

L Dioni, S Sucato, V Motta, S Iodice, L Angelici, C Favero, T Cavalleri, L Vigna, B Albetti, S Fustinoni, P Bertazzi, A Pesatori, V Bollati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest a link between chromium (Cr) status and cardiovascular disease. Increased urinary excretion of Cr was reported in subjects with diabetes compared with non-diabetic controls and those with non-diabetic insulin resistance. Epigenetic alterations have been linked to the presence of Cr, and microRNA (miRNA) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the association between Cr excretion and miRNA expression in leukocytes from obese subjects...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dimitrios Athanasopoulos, George Karagiannis, Magda Tsolaki
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with no effective cure so far. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD and how nutrition can influence the course of this disease through regulation of gene expression, according to the latest scientific findings. The search strategy was the use of scientific databases such as PubMed and Scopus in order to find relative research or review articles published in the years 2012-2015. By showing the latest data of various nutritional compounds, this study aims to stimulate the scientific community to recognize the value of nutrition in this subject...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Marcin Buler, Ulf Andersson, Jukka Hakkola
Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent enzymes that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they regulate crucial cellular functions and are traditionally associated with aging and longevity. Dysregulation of sirtuins plays an important role in major diseases, including cancer and metabolic, cardiac, and neurodegerative diseases. They are extensively regulated in response to a wide range of stimuli, including nutritional and metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic and oxidative stress...
September 2, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Zhen Guo, Jianfeng Gong, Yi Li, Lili Gu, Lei Cao, Zhiming Wang, Weiming Zhu, Jieshou Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective therapy for inducing remission in CD. We aimed to investigate the alteration of miRNAs expression profile in the terminal ileal mucosa of CD patients before and after EEN. Twenty-five patients and ten healthy individuals were included. MiRNAs expression profile was firstly assessed using microarray technology and then validation was performed by qRT-PCR. The correlations between miRNAs and CD activity index (CDAI) score and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level were also evaluated...
August 22, 2016: Nutrients
Elena Loche, Susan E Ozanne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge on the impact of early life nutrition on cardiovascular diseases that have emerged from studies in humans and experimental animal models. The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease will be discussed in relation to the implications for the heart and the cardiovascular system. RECENT FINDINGS: Environmental cues, such as parental diet and a suboptimal in utero environment can shape growth and development, causing long-lasting cardiometabolic perturbations...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Phil A Hart, Mark Topazian, Massimo Raimondo, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, William E Fisher, Gregory B Lesinski, Hanno Steen, Darwin L Conwell
Pancreatic secretions have an important role in the regulation of a normal nutritional state but can be altered owing to a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of exocrine pancreatic disease. The development of an endoscopic technique for collection of pancreatic fluid, termed endoscopic pancreatic function testing, has led to improved understanding of these alterations and is particularly helpful to characterize chronic pancreatitis. In addition, investigators have found endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid to be a valuable biofluid for the purposes of translational science...
September 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Dayong Li, Qian Hu, Hong Luo
Sulfur participates in many important mechanisms and pathways of plant development. The most common source of sulfur in soil -SO4(2-)- is absorbed into root tissue and distributed into aerial part through vasculature system, where it is reduced into sulfite and finally sulfide within the subcellular organs such as chloroplasts and mitochondria and used for cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. MicroRNAs are involved in many regulation pathways by repressing the expression of their target genes. MiR395 family in Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported to be an important regulator involved in sulfate transport and assimilation, and a high-affinity sulphate transporter and three ATP sulfurylases (ATPS) were the target genes of AthmiR395 (Arabidopsis thaliana miR395)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joao Tomé-Carneiro, María Carmen Crespo, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutierrez, Roberto Martín, Judit Gil-Zamorano, Cristina Tomas-Zapico, Emma Burgos-Ramos, Carlos Correa, Diego Gómez-Coronado, Miguel A Lasunción, Emilio Herrera, Francesco Visioli, Alberto Dávalos
Dietary microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation could be important for health and wellbeing. Part of the healthful activities of polyphenols might be due to a modulation of miRNAs' expression. Among the most biologically active polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol (HT) has never been studied for its actions on miRNAs. We investigated whether HT could modulate the expression of miRNAs in vivo. We performed an unbiased intestinal miRNA screening in mice supplemented (for 8 weeks) with nutritionally relevant amounts of HT. HT modulated the expression of several miRNAs...
August 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jean-Malo Couzigou, Jean-Philippe Combier
Contents 22 I. 22 II. 24 III. 25 IV. 27 V. 29 VI. 10 31 References 32 SUMMARY: Plants have evolved a remarkable faculty of adaptation to deal with various and changing environmental conditions. In this context, the roots have taken over nutritional aspects and the root system architecture can be modulated in response to nutrient availability or biotic interactions with soil microorganisms. This adaptability requires a fine tuning of gene expression. Indeed, root specification and development are highly complex processes requiring gene regulatory networks involved in hormonal regulations and cell identity...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Karl-Heinz Wagner, David Cameron-Smith, Barbara Wessner, Bernhard Franzke
Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging...
2016: Nutrients
Edwina Wing-Lun, Sally A Eaton, Suzy S J Hur, Alastair Aiken, Paul E Young, Michael E Buckland, Cheryl C Y Li, Jennifer E Cropley, Catherine M Suter
The complex interaction between obesity, Western-style diets, and cardiovascular disease is of increasing interest, with a growing number of children being born to obese parents with poor lifestyle choices. These offspring have themselves an increased susceptibility to obesity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in adult life, which may be 'programmed' by their intrauterine environment. Cardiac microRNAs (miRNAs) are affected by multiple disease states, and have also been shown to be capable of exerting a hormone-like control on whole body metabolism...
July 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Ben Wade, Michelle Cummins, Anthony Keyburn, Tamsyn M Crowley
BACKGROUND: The egg is a vital part of the chicken developmental process and an important protein source for humans. Despite the chicken egg being a subject of intense research little attention has been given to the role of microRNAs within the egg. FINDINGS: We report a method for the reproducible and reliable isolation of miRNA from the albumen and yolk of chicken eggs. We also report the detection via real-time PCR of a number of miRNAs from both of these biological fluids...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Joëlle V Fritz, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Anubrata Ghosal, Linda Wampach, Alton Etheridge, David Galas, Paul Wilmes
Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in acceptor cells. Exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from diet (most prominently from plants) and microorganisms have also been reported in human blood...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Amanda Auerbach, Gopi Vyas, Anne Li, Marc Halushka, Kenneth Witwer
Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs...
2016: F1000Research
Erwin Lemche, Oleg S Chaban, Alexandra V Lemche
Impact of environmental stress upon pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been substantiated by epidemiological, psychophysiological, and endocrinological studies. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of causative roles of nutritional factors, sympathomedullo-adrenal (SMA) and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axes, and adipose tissue chronic low-grade inflammation processes in MetS. Disturbances in the neuroendocrine systems for leptin, melanocortin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein systems have been found resulting directly in MetS-like conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jia Zheng, Qian Zhang, Joram D Mul, Miao Yu, Jianping Xu, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xinhua Xiao
High-calorie diet (HCD) feeding in mice predisposes offspring for impaired glucose homeostasis and obesity. However, the mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects of maternal nutrition, especially during early life of offspring, are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can regulate target gene expression. Here we hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from HCD-fed dams at weaning is associated with dysregulated expression of hepatic miRNAs. Dams were fed a chow diet (CD; 11...
April 22, 2016: Endocrine
Anoop Kishor Singh Gurjar, Abhijeet Singh Panwar, Rajinder Gupta, Shrikant S Mantri
High-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequencing technology enables an entirely new perspective for plant microRNA (miRNA) research and has immense potential to unravel regulatory networks. Novel insights gained through data mining in publically available rich resource of sRNA data will help in designing biotechnology-based approaches for crop improvement to enhance plant yield and nutritional value. Bioinformatics resources enabling meta-analysis of miRNA expression across multiple plant species are still evolving...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Hui Wang, Jun Luo, Tianying Zhang, Huibin Tian, Yue Ma, Huifen Xu, Dawei Yao, Juan J Loor
The microRNA-26 (miR-26) family is known to control adipogenesis in non-ruminants. The genomic loci of miR-26a and miR-26b have been localized in the introns of genes encoding for the proteins of the C-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase (CTDSP) family. Insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) encodes a protein with a key role in the regulation of lipogenesis in rodent liver. In the present study, we investigated the synergistic function of the miR-26 family and their host genes in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC)...
May 3, 2016: RNA Biology
Arthur Luhur, Nicholas Sokol
In this Extra View, we extend our recent work on the protein LIN-28 and its role in adult stem cell divisions. LIN-28 is an mRNA- and microRNA-binding protein that is conserved from worms to humans. When expressed ectopically, it promotes the reprogramming of differentiated vertebrate cells into pluripotent stem cells as well as the regeneration of vertebrate tissues after injury. However, its endogenous function in stem cell populations is less clear. We recently reported that LIN-28 is specifically expressed in progenitor cells in the adult Drosophila intestine and enhances insulin signaling within this population...
2015: Fly
Stefano Pirrò, Letizia Zanella, Maurice Kenzo, Carla Montesano, Antonella Minutolo, Marina Potestà, Martin Sanou Sobze, Antonella Canini, Marco Cirilli, Rosario Muleo, Vittorio Colizzi, Andrea Galgani
Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform...
2016: PloS One
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