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MicroRNA nutrition

Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Janos Zempleni, Ana Aguilar-Lozano, Mahrou Sadri, Sonal Sukreet, Sonia Manca, Di Wu, Fang Zhou, Ezra Mutai
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Laureane Nunes Masi, Tamires Duarte Afonso Serdan, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Elaine Hatanaka, Leonardo Dos Reis Silveira, Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura, Tania Cristina Pithon-Curi, Rui Curi, Renata Gorjão, Sandro Massao Hirabara
Gene expression control by microRNAs (miRs) is an important mechanism for maintenance of cellular homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions as well as in response to different stimuli including nutritional factors and exercise. MiRs are involved in regulation of several processes such as growth and development, fuel metabolism, insulin secretion, immune function, miocardium remodeling, cell proliferation, differenciation, survival, and death. These molecules have also been proposed to be potential biomarkers and/or therapeutical targets in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Heng Yang, Shan Lin, Xiaoping Lei, Cong Yuan, Zhanwei Tian, Yaosheng Yu, Zongsheng Zhao, Jingbo Chen
Estrous regulation in sheep has an important role in the sheep industry in improving production of meat and wool. It has been reported that an enhanced nutritional status can induce estrus resulting in an end of the anestrous season earlier than occurs in ewes with a lesser nutritional status. However, the endocrine and physiological mechanisms that induce the increased incidence of estrus remains unclear. In the present study, the differences in amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in ewes at estrus or during the anestrous season were screened by using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology...
December 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
L Dioni, S Sucato, V Motta, S Iodice, L Angelici, C Favero, T Cavalleri, L Vigna, B Albetti, S Fustinoni, P Bertazzi, A Pesatori, V Bollati
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies suggest a link between chromium (Cr) status and cardiovascular disease. Increased urinary excretion of Cr was reported in subjects with diabetes compared with non-diabetic controls and those with non-diabetic insulin resistance. Epigenetic alterations have been linked to the presence of Cr, and microRNA (miRNA) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the association between Cr excretion and miRNA expression in leukocytes from obese subjects...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Dimitrios Athanasopoulos, George Karagiannis, Magda Tsolaki
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with no effective cure so far. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD and how nutrition can influence the course of this disease through regulation of gene expression, according to the latest scientific findings. The search strategy was the use of scientific databases such as PubMed and Scopus in order to find relative research or review articles published in the years 2012-2015. By showing the latest data of various nutritional compounds, this study aims to stimulate the scientific community to recognize the value of nutrition in this subject...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
Marcin Buler, Ulf Andersson, Jukka Hakkola
Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent enzymes that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they regulate crucial cellular functions and are traditionally associated with aging and longevity. Dysregulation of sirtuins plays an important role in major diseases, including cancer and metabolic, cardiac, and neurodegerative diseases. They are extensively regulated in response to a wide range of stimuli, including nutritional and metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic and oxidative stress...
December 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Zhen Guo, Jianfeng Gong, Yi Li, Lili Gu, Lei Cao, Zhiming Wang, Weiming Zhu, Jieshou Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective therapy for inducing remission in CD. We aimed to investigate the alteration of miRNAs expression profile in the terminal ileal mucosa of CD patients before and after EEN. Twenty-five patients and ten healthy individuals were included. MiRNAs expression profile was firstly assessed using microarray technology and then validation was performed by qRT-PCR. The correlations between miRNAs and CD activity index (CDAI) score and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level were also evaluated...
August 22, 2016: Nutrients
Elena Loche, Susan E Ozanne
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge on the impact of early life nutrition on cardiovascular diseases that have emerged from studies in humans and experimental animal models. The involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease will be discussed in relation to the implications for the heart and the cardiovascular system. RECENT FINDINGS: Environmental cues, such as parental diet and a suboptimal in utero environment can shape growth and development, causing long-lasting cardiometabolic perturbations...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Phil A Hart, Mark Topazian, Massimo Raimondo, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, William E Fisher, Gregory B Lesinski, Hanno Steen, Darwin L Conwell
Pancreatic secretions have an important role in the regulation of a normal nutritional state but can be altered owing to a variety of pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of exocrine pancreatic disease. The development of an endoscopic technique for collection of pancreatic fluid, termed endoscopic pancreatic function testing, has led to improved understanding of these alterations and is particularly helpful to characterize chronic pancreatitis. In addition, investigators have found endoscopically collected pancreatic fluid to be a valuable biofluid for the purposes of translational science...
September 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ning Yuan, Shuangrong Yuan, Zhigang Li, Dayong Li, Qian Hu, Hong Luo
Sulfur participates in many important mechanisms and pathways of plant development. The most common source of sulfur in soil -SO4(2-)- is absorbed into root tissue and distributed into aerial part through vasculature system, where it is reduced into sulfite and finally sulfide within the subcellular organs such as chloroplasts and mitochondria and used for cysteine and methionine biosynthesis. MicroRNAs are involved in many regulation pathways by repressing the expression of their target genes. MiR395 family in Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported to be an important regulator involved in sulfate transport and assimilation, and a high-affinity sulphate transporter and three ATP sulfurylases (ATPS) were the target genes of AthmiR395 (Arabidopsis thaliana miR395)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joao Tomé-Carneiro, María Carmen Crespo, Eduardo Iglesias-Gutierrez, Roberto Martín, Judit Gil-Zamorano, Cristina Tomas-Zapico, Emma Burgos-Ramos, Carlos Correa, Diego Gómez-Coronado, Miguel A Lasunción, Emilio Herrera, Francesco Visioli, Alberto Dávalos
Dietary microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation could be important for health and wellbeing. Part of the healthful activities of polyphenols might be due to a modulation of miRNAs' expression. Among the most biologically active polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol (HT) has never been studied for its actions on miRNAs. We investigated whether HT could modulate the expression of miRNAs in vivo. We performed an unbiased intestinal miRNA screening in mice supplemented (for 8 weeks) with nutritionally relevant amounts of HT. HT modulated the expression of several miRNAs...
August 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Jean-Malo Couzigou, Jean-Philippe Combier
Contents 22 I. 22 II. 24 III. 25 IV. 27 V. 29 VI. 10 31 References 32 SUMMARY: Plants have evolved a remarkable faculty of adaptation to deal with various and changing environmental conditions. In this context, the roots have taken over nutritional aspects and the root system architecture can be modulated in response to nutrient availability or biotic interactions with soil microorganisms. This adaptability requires a fine tuning of gene expression. Indeed, root specification and development are highly complex processes requiring gene regulatory networks involved in hormonal regulations and cell identity...
October 2016: New Phytologist
Karl-Heinz Wagner, David Cameron-Smith, Barbara Wessner, Bernhard Franzke
Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging...
2016: Nutrients
Edwina Wing-Lun, Sally A Eaton, Suzy S J Hur, Alastair Aiken, Paul E Young, Michael E Buckland, Cheryl C Y Li, Jennifer E Cropley, Catherine M Suter
The complex interaction between obesity, Western-style diets, and cardiovascular disease is of increasing interest, with a growing number of children being born to obese parents with poor lifestyle choices. These offspring have themselves an increased susceptibility to obesity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in adult life, which may be 'programmed' by their intrauterine environment. Cardiac microRNAs (miRNAs) are affected by multiple disease states, and have also been shown to be capable of exerting a hormone-like control on whole body metabolism...
July 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Ben Wade, Michelle Cummins, Anthony Keyburn, Tamsyn M Crowley
BACKGROUND: The egg is a vital part of the chicken developmental process and an important protein source for humans. Despite the chicken egg being a subject of intense research little attention has been given to the role of microRNAs within the egg. FINDINGS: We report a method for the reproducible and reliable isolation of miRNA from the albumen and yolk of chicken eggs. We also report the detection via real-time PCR of a number of miRNAs from both of these biological fluids...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Joëlle V Fritz, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Anubrata Ghosal, Linda Wampach, Alton Etheridge, David Galas, Paul Wilmes
Various biotypes of endogenous small RNAs (sRNAs) have been detected in human circulation, including microRNAs, transfer RNAs, ribosomal RNA, and yRNA fragments. These extracellular sRNAs (ex-sRNAs) are packaged and secreted by many different cell types. Ex-sRNAs exhibit differences in abundance in several disease states and have, therefore, been proposed for use as effective biomarkers. Furthermore, exosome-borne ex-sRNAs have been reported to elicit physiological responses in acceptor cells. Exogenous ex-sRNAs derived from diet (most prominently from plants) and microorganisms have also been reported in human blood...
July 17, 2016: Annual Review of Nutrition
Amanda Auerbach, Gopi Vyas, Anne Li, Marc Halushka, Kenneth Witwer
Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs...
2016: F1000Research
Erwin Lemche, Oleg S Chaban, Alexandra V Lemche
Impact of environmental stress upon pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been substantiated by epidemiological, psychophysiological, and endocrinological studies. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of causative roles of nutritional factors, sympathomedullo-adrenal (SMA) and hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axes, and adipose tissue chronic low-grade inflammation processes in MetS. Disturbances in the neuroendocrine systems for leptin, melanocortin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein systems have been found resulting directly in MetS-like conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jia Zheng, Qian Zhang, Joram D Mul, Miao Yu, Jianping Xu, Cuijuan Qi, Tong Wang, Xinhua Xiao
High-calorie diet (HCD) feeding in mice predisposes offspring for impaired glucose homeostasis and obesity. However, the mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects of maternal nutrition, especially during early life of offspring, are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can regulate target gene expression. Here we hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from HCD-fed dams at weaning is associated with dysregulated expression of hepatic miRNAs. Dams were fed a chow diet (CD; 11...
April 22, 2016: Endocrine
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