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MicroRNA nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295476/detection-of-plant-mirnas-abundance-in-human-breast-milk
#1
Anna Lukasik, Iwona Brzozowska, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Piotr Zielenkiewicz
Breast milk is a natural food and important component of infant nutrition. Apart from the alimentary substances, breast milk contains many important bioactive compounds, including endogenous microRNA molecules (miRNAs). These regulatory molecules were identified in various mammalian biological fluids and were shown to be mostly packed in exosomes. Recently, it was revealed that plant food-derived miRNAs are stably present in human blood and regulate the expression of specific human genes. Since then, the scientific community has focused its efforts on contradicting or confirming this discovery...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278767/mir-183-regulates-milk-fat-metabolism-via-mst1-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#2
Zhi Chen, HuaiPing Shi, Shuang Sun, Jun Luo, Wei Zhang, Yu Hou, Juan J Loor
The nutritional value of goat milk largely depends on its fatty acid content and composition. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules 18-25nt in length that regulate gene expression and play crucial roles in several biological processes, including fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between differentially expressed miRNAs in goat mammary tissue and the fatty acid composition of goat milk by using Pearson correlations. Results revealed that levels of miR-183 were highly and positively correlated with the fatty acid content in the milk...
December 23, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248758/poor-cognitive-ageing-vulnerabilities-mechanisms-and-the-impact-of-nutritional-interventions
#3
REVIEW
Sophie Miquel, Claire Champ, Jon Day, Esther Aarts, Ben A Bahr, Martijntje Bakker, Diána Bánáti, Vittorio Calabrese, Tommy Cederholm, John Cryan, Louise Dye, Jonathan A Farrimond, Aniko Korosi, Sophie Layé, Stuart Maudsley, Dragan Milenkovic, M Hasan Mohajeri, John Sijben, Alina Solomon, Jeremy P E Spencer, Sandrine Thuret, Wim Vanden Berghe, David Vauzour, Bruno Vellas, Keith Wesnes, Peter Willatts, Raphael Wittenberg, Lucie Geurts
BACKGROUND: Ageing is a highly complex process marked by a temporal cascade of events, which promote alterations in the normal functioning of an individual organism. The triggers of normal brain ageing are not well understood, even less so the factors which initiate and steer the neuronal degeneration, which underpin disorders such as dementia. A wealth of data on how nutrients and diets may support cognitive function and preserve brain health are available, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological action in both normal ageing, age-related cognitive decline, and in the development of neurodegenerative disorders have not been clearly elucidated...
December 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197334/identification-and-characterization-of-prunus-persica-mirnas-in-response-to-uvb-radiation-in-greenhouse-through-high-throughput-sequencing
#4
Shaoxuan Li, Zhanru Shao, Xiling Fu, Wei Xiao, Ling Li, Ming Chen, Mingyue Sun, Dongmei Li, Dongsheng Gao
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression of target mRNAs involved in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress. As one of the most important model plants, peach (Prunus persica) has high agricultural significance and nutritional values. It is well adapted to be cultivated in greenhouse in which some auxiliary conditions like temperature, humidity, and UVB etc. are needed to ensure the fruit quality. However, little is known about the genomic information of P...
December 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170059/the-clinical-potential-of-adipogenesis-and-obesity-related-micrornas
#5
REVIEW
M Zaiou, H El Amri, A Bakillah
Obesity is a growing health problem commonly associated with numerous metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. The burden of obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases are believed to arise through complex interplay between genetics and epigenetics predisposition, nutrition, environment, and lifestyle. However, the molecular basis and the repertoire of obesity-affecting factors are still unknown. Emerging evidence is connecting microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation with adipogenesis and obesity...
November 20, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154903/in-vitro-mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-in-nih3t3-fibroblasts-results-in-onset-of-low-dose-radiation-hypersensitivity-coupled-with-attenuated-connexin-43-response
#6
Ankit Mathur, Ashish Kumar, Bincy Babu, Sudhir Chandna
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) is associated with altered cell adhesion patterns. Independent studies showed that cellular adhesion regulates low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS), a phenomenon reported widely in tumour cells. Therefore, present study aimed to investigate whether MET and associated cellular adhesion alterations affect cellular radiosensitivity. METHODS: We established multiple stages of MET by in vitro transformation of NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141971/role-of-microrna-regulation-in-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-nutritional-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Ravi Kasiappan, Dheeran Rajarajan
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119269/molecular-regulation-of-aluminum-resistance-and-sulfur-nutrition-during-root-growth
#8
REVIEW
Edith Alarcón-Poblete, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Miren Alberdi, Zed Rengel, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter ( SULTR2;1 ) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene ( SULTR12 ), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al(3+)) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S)...
November 8, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102386/understanding-the-biology-of-thermogenic-fat-is-browning-a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Ariana Vargas-Castillo, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Leonardo A Rodriguez-Lopez, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning...
July 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077020/nutrimiromics-role-of-micrornas-and-nutrition-in-modulating-inflammation-and-chronic-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Bruna J Quintanilha, Bruna Z Reis, Graziela B Silva Duarte, Silvia M F Cozzolino, Marcelo M Rogero
Nutrimiromics studies the influence of the diet on the modification of gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to microRNAs (miRNAs), which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that are usually involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing by inducing mRNA degradation or translational repression by binding to a target messenger RNA. They can be controlled by environmental and dietary factors, particularly by isolated nutrients or bioactive compounds, indicating that diet manipulation may hold promise as a therapeutic approach in modulating the risk of chronic diseases...
October 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058980/regulatory-pathways-controlling-female-insect-reproduction
#11
Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids, and the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994416/a-high-quality-genome-assembly-of-quinoa-provides-insights-into-the-molecular-basis-of-salt-bladder-based-salinity-tolerance-and-the-exceptional-nutritional-value
#12
Changsong Zou, Aojun Chen, Lihong Xiao, Heike M Muller, Peter Ache, Georg Haberer, Meiling Zhang, Wei Jia, Ping Deng, Ru Huang, Daniel Lang, Feng Li, Dongliang Zhan, Xiangyun Wu, Hui Zhang, Jennifer Bohm, Renyi Liu, Sergey Shabala, Rainer Hedrich, Jian-Kang Zhu, Heng Zhang
Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots...
November 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961976/disentangling-puberty-novel-neuroendocrine-pathways-and-mechanisms-for-the-control-of-mammalian-puberty
#13
M S Avendaño, M J Vazquez, M Tena-Sempere
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a complex developmental event, controlled by sophisticated regulatory networks that integrate peripheral and internal cues and impinge at the brain centers driving the reproductive axis. The tempo of puberty is genetically determined but is also sensitive to numerous modifiers, from metabolic and sex steroid signals to environmental factors. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the onset of puberty is advancing in humans, through as yet unknown mechanisms...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946660/molecular-mechanisms-and-pathways-as-targets-for-cancer-prevention-and-progression-with-dietary-compounds
#14
REVIEW
Nagisa Nosrati, Marica Bakovic, Gopinadhan Paliyath
A unique feature of bioactive food ingredients is their broad antioxidant function. Antioxidants having a wide spectrum of chemical structure and activity beyond basic nutrition; display different health benefits by the prevention and progression of chronic diseases. Functional food components are capable of enhancing the natural antioxidant defense system by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, protecting and repairing DNA damage, as well as modulating the signal transduction pathways and gene expression...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880477/exosomes-as-new-players-in-metabolic-organ-cross-talk
#15
REVIEW
Claudiane Guay, Romano Regazzi
Blood glucose homeostasis requires a constant communication between insulin-secreting and insulin-sensitive cells. A wide variety of circulating factors, including hormones, cytokines and chemokines work together to orchestrate the systemic response of metabolic organs to changes in the nutritional state. Failure in the coordination between these organs can lead to a rise in blood glucose levels and to the appearance of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are produced via the endosomal pathway and are released from the cells upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864990/exploitation-of-non-mammalian-model-organisms-in-epigenetic-research
#16
William V Holt
Model organisms are widely used in research that is ultimately aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of human disease. It may seem counterintuitive to expect clinically useful information to be obtained from species as diverse as fishes and insects, but because fundamental biological mechanisms share evolutionary origins they transcend species barriers. Epigenetic mechanisms fulfil this expectation admirably as more and more is discovered about the basic operational rules of inheritance, which are much more elaborate than formerly thought...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856768/meat-and-nutritional-quality-comparison-of-purebred-and-crossbred-pigs
#17
Jie Zhang, Jie Chai, Zonggang Luo, Hang He, Lei Chen, Xueqin Liu, Qinfei Zhou
Crossbreeding is an effective method of improving the efficiency and profit of production in commercial pig operations. To understand the effect of crossbreeding on meat and nutrient quality, a combination including three purebred (Duroc, D; Landrace, L; Yorkshire, Y) and two crossbred pig lines (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY; Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), DLY) frequently used internationally were studied. The results showed that meat from the LY and DLY crosses had lower values for lightness L24h∗, shear force and epinephrine and higher values for drip loss, C18:1, insulin, glucagon and monounsaturated fatty acids than D, L and Y pigs...
August 30, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839162/microrna-204-promotes-vascular-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-by-targeting-sirtuin1
#18
Modar Kassan, Ajit Vikram, Qiuxia Li, Young-Rae Kim, Santosh Kumar, Mohanad Gabani, Jing Liu, Julia S Jacobs, Kaikobad Irani
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in vascular endothelial dysfunction of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. MicroRNAs play an important role in regulating ER stress. Here we show that microRNA-204 (miR-204) promotes vascular ER stress and endothelial dysfunction by targeting the Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) lysine deacetylase. Pharmacologic ER stress induced by tunicamycin upregulates miR-204 and downregulates Sirt1 in the vascular wall/endothelium in vivo and in endothelial cells in vitro. Inhibition of miR-204 protects against tunicamycin-induced vascular/endothelial ER stress, associated impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and preserves endothelial Sirt1...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800318/mir-513c-suppresses-neuroblastoma-cell-migration-invasion-and-proliferation-through-direct-targeting-glutaminase-gls
#19
Hong-Liang Xia, Yao Lv, Chun-Wei Xu, Ming-Cui Fu, Ting Zhang, Xiang-Ming Yan, Shu Dai, Qian-Wei Xiong, Yun Zhou, Jian Wang, Xu Cao
Neuroblastoma is a brain malignancy of childhood and accounts for 7-10% of childhood cancers, leading to approximately 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short (about 18-25 nucleotides), noncoding and single stranded endogenous RNAs, which complementarily bind to the 3' untranslated regions of their target genes. Recently, glutamine metabolism has been recognized as an important nutrition source for tumor cells, and hence targeting glutamine metabolism could benefit to development of anti-cancer agents...
July 2, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742088/genome-wide-identification-of-hami-melon-mirnas-with-putative-roles-during-fruit-development
#20
Hong Zhang, Lan Yin, Huaisong Wang, Guangzhi Wang, Xinli Ma, Meihua Li, Haibo Wu, Qiushi Fu, Yi Zhang, Hongping Yi
MicroRNAs represent a family of small endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play critical regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Hami melon is famous for its attractive flavor and excellent nutritional value, however, the mechanisms underlying the fruit development and ripening remains largely unknown. Here, we performed small RNA sequencing to investigate the roles of miRNAs during Hami melon fruit development. Two batches of flesh samples were collected at four fruit development stages...
2017: PloS One
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