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MicroRNA nutrition

Sandeep Kumar Verma, Ashok Kumar Das, Manoj Kumar Patel, Ashish Shah, Vinay Kumar, Saikat Gantait
With the overwhelmingly rapid advancement in the field of nanotechnology, the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been extensively used in various areas of the plant system, including quality improvement, growth and nutritional value enhancement, gene preservation etc. There are several recent reports on the ENMs' influence on growth enhancements, growth inhibition as well as certain toxic impacts on plant. However, translocation, growth responses and stress modulation mechanisms of ENMs in the plant systems call for better and in-depth understanding...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Brian D Adams, Hannah Arem, Monica J Hubal, Brenda Cartmel, Fangyong Li, Maura Harrigan, Tara Sanft, Christopher J Cheng, Lajos Pusztai, Melinda L Irwin
PURPOSE: Obesity and weight gain are associated with comorbidities including a higher risk of tumor recurrence and cancer-related deaths among breast cancer (BC) survivors; however, the underlying mechanisms linking obesity and cancer are poorly understood. Given the lack of clinically validated BC biomarkers, obesity and weight-loss studies utilize serum biomarkers as the intermediary outcomes of tumor recurrence. Studies have indicated microRNAs (miRNA)s are reliable biomarkers for cancer...
March 6, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jian Ding, Chengjiang Ruan, Ying Guan, Priti Krishna
Sea buckthorn is a plant of medicinal and nutritional importance owing in part to the high levels of essential fatty acids, linoleic (up to 42%) and α-linolenic (up to 39%) acids in the seed oil. Sea buckthorn can produce seeds either via the sexual pathway or by apomixis. The seed development and maturation programs are critically dependent on miRNAs. To understand miRNA-mediated regulation of sea buckthorn seed development, eight small RNA libraries were constructed for deep sequencing from developing seeds of a low oil content line 'SJ1' and a high oil content line 'XE3'...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dan Wang, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse, Feng Li, Li Xin, Dapeng Li
Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid naturally occurring in most of the plant foods and is often found in the human diet. It can act as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, and plays significant roles in the prevention of various chronic diseases. Recent findings revealed that quercetin could affect metabolic traits by regulating certain transcription factors or key proteins involved in cellular signal pathways and influencing the expression of functional genes along with related regulatory pathway(s), and that microRNAs (miRNAs) circulate in body fluids and are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and regulation of gene expression in various biological processes including development, proliferation, metabolism and inflammation...
February 15, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Chen Chen, Alejandro Soto-Gutierrez, Pedro M Baptista, Bart Spee
The incidence of liver disease is increasing globally. The only curative therapy for severe end-stage liver disease, liver transplantation, is limited by the shortage of organ donors. In vitro models of liver physiology have been developed and new technologies and approaches are progressing rapidly. Stem cells might be used as a source of liver tissue for development of models, therapies, and tissue-engineering applications. However, we have been unable to generate and maintain stable and mature adult liver cells ex vivo...
February 8, 2018: Gastroenterology
Jack Hearn, Franklin Wang-Ngai Chow, Harriet Barton, Matthew Tung, Phil Wilson, Mark Blaxter, Amy Buck, Tom J Little
Maternal effects, where the performance of offspring is determined by the condition of their mother, are widespread and may in some cases be adaptive. The crustacean Daphnia magna shows strong maternal effects: offspring size at birth and other proxies for fitness are altered when their mothers are older or when mothers have experienced dietary restriction. The mechanisms for this transgenerational transmission of maternal experience are unknown, but could include changes in epigenetic patterning. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression that have been shown to play roles in intergenerational information transfer, and here we test whether miRNAs are involved in D...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Gabriella B Oliveira, Luciana C A Regitano, Aline S M Cesar, James M Reecy, Karina Y Degaki, Mirele D Poleti, Andrezza M Felício, James E Koltes, Luiz L Coutinho
BACKGROUND: The amount of intramuscular fat can influence the sensory characteristics and nutritional value of beef, thus the selection of animals with adequate fat deposition is important to the consumer. There is growing knowledge about the genes and pathways that control the biological processes involved in fat deposition in muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a well-conserved class of non-coding small RNAs that modulate gene expression across a range of biological functions in animal development and physiology...
February 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
Heng Yang, Shan Lin, Xiaoping Lei, Cong Yuan, Yaosheng Yu, Zongsheng Zhao, Jingbo Chen
Recent studies on the seasonal regulation of the oestrous cycle in sheep have focussed mainly on the responses to photoperiod. However, the brain systems that control reproductive activity also respond to nutritional inputs, although the molecular mechanisms involved are not completely understood. One possibility is that small, non-coding RNAs, such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs), have significant influence. In the present study, the amounts and characteristics of miRNAs in hypothalamus from oestrous and anestrous ewes, fed low- or high-nutrient diets, were compared using Illumina HiSeq sequencing technology...
January 25, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
A Balakrishnan
Short bowel syndrome occurs following the loss of a large portion of functional intestine and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The intestine exhibits pronounced diurnal rhythms in glucose absorption and mounts a profound proliferative response following massive small bowel resection. Understanding the molecular pathways that underpin this could yield novel treatment options. Two in vivo models were employed using the nocturnally active Sprague Dawley® rat, namely daytime feeding and massive small bowel resection...
January 24, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Anna Lukasik, Iwona Brzozowska, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Piotr Zielenkiewicz
Breast milk is a natural food and important component of infant nutrition. Apart from the alimentary substances, breast milk contains many important bioactive compounds, including endogenous microRNA molecules (miRNAs). These regulatory molecules were identified in various mammalian biological fluids and were shown to be mostly packed in exosomes. Recently, it was revealed that plant food-derived miRNAs are stably present in human blood and regulate the expression of specific human genes. Since then, the scientific community has focused its efforts on contradicting or confirming this discovery...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhi Chen, HuaiPing Shi, Shuang Sun, Jun Luo, Wei Zhang, Yu Hou, Juan J Loor
The nutritional value of goat milk largely depends on its fatty acid content and composition. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules 18-25nt in length that regulate gene expression and play crucial roles in several biological processes, including fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we analyzed the correlation between differentially expressed miRNAs in goat mammary tissue and the fatty acid composition of goat milk by using Pearson correlations. Results revealed that levels of miR-183 were highly and positively correlated with the fatty acid content in the milk...
December 23, 2017: Gene
Sophie Miquel, Claire Champ, Jon Day, Esther Aarts, Ben A Bahr, Martijntje Bakker, Diána Bánáti, Vittorio Calabrese, Tommy Cederholm, John Cryan, Louise Dye, Jonathan A Farrimond, Aniko Korosi, Sophie Layé, Stuart Maudsley, Dragan Milenkovic, M Hasan Mohajeri, John Sijben, Alina Solomon, Jeremy P E Spencer, Sandrine Thuret, Wim Vanden Berghe, David Vauzour, Bruno Vellas, Keith Wesnes, Peter Willatts, Raphael Wittenberg, Lucie Geurts
BACKGROUND: Ageing is a highly complex process marked by a temporal cascade of events, which promote alterations in the normal functioning of an individual organism. The triggers of normal brain ageing are not well understood, even less so the factors which initiate and steer the neuronal degeneration, which underpin disorders such as dementia. A wealth of data on how nutrients and diets may support cognitive function and preserve brain health are available, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying their biological action in both normal ageing, age-related cognitive decline, and in the development of neurodegenerative disorders have not been clearly elucidated...
March 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Shaoxuan Li, Zhanru Shao, Xiling Fu, Wei Xiao, Ling Li, Ming Chen, Mingyue Sun, Dongmei Li, Dongsheng Gao
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression of target mRNAs involved in plant growth, development, and abiotic stress. As one of the most important model plants, peach (Prunus persica) has high agricultural significance and nutritional values. It is well adapted to be cultivated in greenhouse in which some auxiliary conditions like temperature, humidity, and UVB etc. are needed to ensure the fruit quality. However, little is known about the genomic information of P...
December 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
M Zaiou, H El Amri, A Bakillah
Obesity is a growing health problem commonly associated with numerous metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. The burden of obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases are believed to arise through complex interplay between genetics and epigenetics predisposition, nutrition, environment, and lifestyle. However, the molecular basis and the repertoire of obesity-affecting factors are still unknown. Emerging evidence is connecting microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation with adipogenesis and obesity...
February 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Ankit Mathur, Ashish Kumar, Bincy Babu, Sudhir Chandna
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) is associated with altered cell adhesion patterns. Independent studies showed that cellular adhesion regulates low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS), a phenomenon reported widely in tumour cells. Therefore, present study aimed to investigate whether MET and associated cellular adhesion alterations affect cellular radiosensitivity. METHODS: We established multiple stages of MET by in vitro transformation of NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
March 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ravi Kasiappan, Dheeran Rajarajan
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in women, and the incidence of breast cancer is increasing every year. Obesity has been identified as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer progression. The mechanisms by which obesity contributes to breast cancer development is not yet understood; however, there are a few mechanisms counted as potential producers of breast cancer in obesity, including insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and sex hormones...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Edith Alarcón-Poblete, Claudio Inostroza-Blancheteau, Miren Alberdi, Zed Rengel, Marjorie Reyes-Díaz
Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter ( SULTR2;1 ) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene ( SULTR12 ), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al(3+)) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S)...
November 8, 2017: Planta
Ariana Vargas-Castillo, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Leonardo A Rodriguez-Lopez, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning...
July 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Bruna J Quintanilha, Bruna Z Reis, Graziela B Silva Duarte, Silvia M F Cozzolino, Marcelo M Rogero
Nutrimiromics studies the influence of the diet on the modification of gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to microRNAs (miRNAs), which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that are usually involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing by inducing mRNA degradation or translational repression by binding to a target messenger RNA. They can be controlled by environmental and dietary factors, particularly by isolated nutrients or bioactive compounds, indicating that diet manipulation may hold promise as a therapeutic approach in modulating the risk of chronic diseases...
October 27, 2017: Nutrients
Sourav Roy, Tusar T Saha, Zhen Zou, Alexander S Raikhel
The synthesis of vitellogenin and its uptake by maturing oocytes during egg maturation are essential for successful female reproduction. These events are regulated by the juvenile hormones and ecdysteroids, and the nutritional signaling pathway regulated by neuropeptides. Juvenile hormones act as gonadotropins, regulating vitellogenesis in most insects, but ecdysteroids control this process in Diptera and some Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. The complex crosstalk between the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, and nutritional signaling pathways differs distinctly depending on the reproductive strategies adopted by various insects...
October 20, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
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