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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938603/inhibition-of-avian-tumor-virus-replication-by-ccch-type-zinc-finger-antiviral-protein
#1
Mingjun Zhu, Xiaoqian Ma, Xiyao Cui, Jing Zhou, Chengui Li, Libo Huang, Yingli Shang, Ziqiang Cheng
CCCH type zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of a variety of viruses in mammals. However, little is known about its antiviral activity on avian tumor virus. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), an oncogenic retrovirus, induces myelocytomas and various other tumors in meat and egg type chickens. Here, we identified a chicken ZAP (chZAP) that increased at early stage, and subsequently decreased after infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, indicating the inducible feature of the endogenous chZAP...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936718/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures-in-noda-epileptic-rat
#2
Takashi Kuramoto, Birger Voigt, Satoshi Nakanishi, Kazuhiro Kitada, Tadashi Nakamura, Kaori Wakamatsu, Minako Yoshihara, Mikita Suyama, Risa Uemura, Miyuu Tanaka, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Saki Shimizu, Yukihiro Ohno, Masashi Sasa, Tadao Serikawa
The Noda epileptic rat (NER) exhibits generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). A genetic linkage analysis identified two GTCS-associated loci, Ner1 on Chr 1 and Ner3 on Chr 5. The wild-type Ner1 and Ner3 alleles suppressed GTCS when combined in double-locus congenic lines, but not when present in single-locus congenic lines. Global expression analysis revealed that cholecystokinin B receptor (Cckbr) and suppressor of tumorigenicity 5 (St5), which map within Ner1, and PHD finger protein 24 (Phf24), which maps within Ner3, were significantly downregulated in NER...
September 21, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935667/upregulation-of-herv-k-is-linked-to-immunity-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#3
Toshie Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Shih-Yu Chen, Rasa Tamosiuniene, Lingli Wang, Orr Sharp, Erik Samayoa, Daisuke Harada, Jan-Renier A J Moonen, Aiqin Cao, Pin-I Chen, Jan K Hennigs, Mingxia Gu, Caiyun G Li, Ryan D Leib, Dan Li, Christopher M Adams, Patricia A Del Rosario, Matthew A Bill, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya, William Robinson, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Roham T Zamanian, Mark R Nicolls, Charles Y Chiu, Maria E Ariza, Marlene Rabinovitch
Background -Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies...
September 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934476/crystal-structure-of-an-engineered-hiv-specific-recombinase-for-removal-of-integrated-proviral-dna
#4
Gretchen Meinke, Janet Karpinski, Frank Buchholz, Andrew Bohm
As part of the HIV infection cycle, viral DNA inserts into the genome of host cells such that the integrated DNA encoding the viral proteins is flanked by long terminal repeat (LTR) regions from the retrovirus. In an effort to develop novel genome editing techniques that safely excise HIV provirus from cells, Tre, an engineered version of Cre recombinase, was designed to target a 34-bp sequence within the HIV-1 LTR (loxLTR). The sequence targeted by Tre lacks the symmetry present in loxP, the natural DNA substrate for Cre...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932623/proteomics-technique-opens-new-frontiers-in-mobilome-research
#5
COMMENT
Andrew D Davidson, David A Matthews, Kevin Maringer
A large proportion of the genome of most eukaryotic organisms consists of highly repetitive mobile genetic elements. The sum of these elements is called the "mobilome," which in eukaryotes is made up mostly of transposons. Transposable elements contribute to disease, evolution, and normal physiology by mediating genetic rearrangement, and through the "domestication" of transposon proteins for cellular functions. Although 'omics studies of mobilome genomes and transcriptomes are common, technical challenges have hampered high-throughput global proteomics analyses of transposons...
2017: Mobile Genetic Elements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931682/susceptibility-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-to-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors
#6
Rafael A Contreras-Galindo, Derek Dube, Koh Fujinaga, Mark H Kaplan, David M Markovitz
Human Endogenous Retroviruses make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV-K HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germline and are transcriptionally active. In HIV-1 infection and cancer, HK2 genes produce retroviral particles that appear to be infectious, yet the replication capacity of these viruses and potential pathogenicity has been difficult to ascertain. In this report, we screened the efficacy of commercially available reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) at inhibiting the enzymatic activity of the HK2 RT and HK2 genomic replication...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931021/zoonotic-infection-of-brazilian-primate-workers-with-new-world-simian-foamy-virus
#7
Cláudia P Muniz, Liliane T F Cavalcante, Hongwei Jia, HaoQiang Zheng, Shaohua Tang, Anderson M Augusto, Alcides Pissinatti, Luiz P Fedullo, André F Santos, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are retroviruses present in nearly all nonhuman primates (NHPs), including Old World primates (OWP) and New World primates (NWP). While all confirmed human infections with SFV are from zoonotic transmissions originating from OWP, little is known about the zoonotic transmission potential of NWP SFV. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of 56 workers occupationally exposed to NWP in Brazil. Plasma from these workers was tested using Western blot (WB) assays containing NWP SFV antigens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919546/phylodynamics-of-the-brazilian-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#8
Lucía Cano-Ortiz, Dennis Maletich Junqueira, Juliana Comerlato, Cristina Santos Costa, André Zani, Naila Blatt Duda, Caroline Tochetto, Raissa Nunes Dos Santos, Fernanda Vieira Amorim da Costa, Paulo Michel Roehe, Ana Cláudia Franco
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil...
September 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916320/exosomes-carring-gag-env-of-alv-j-possess-negative-effect-on-immunocytes
#9
Guihua Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Pingping Zhuang, Xiaomin Zhao, Ziqiang Cheng
J subgroup avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) is an exogenous retrovirus of avian. A key feature of ALV-J infection is leading to severe immunosuppressive characteristic of diseases. Viral components of retrovirus were reported closely associated with immunosuppression, and several similarities between exosomes and retrovirus preparations have lead to the hypotheses of retrovirus hijacker exosomes pathway. In this study, we purified exosomes from DF-1 cells infected and uninfected by ALV-J. Electron microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis showed that ALV-J not only increased the production of exosomes from ALV-J infected DF-1 cells (Exo-J) but also stimulated some proteins expression, especially ALV-J components secreted in exosomes...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915137/xenoislets-porcine-pancreatic-islets-for-the-treatment-of-type-i-diabetes
#10
Nizar I Mourad, Pierre Rene Gianello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Porcine islets are being extensively investigated as alternative sources of insulin-secreting cells for transplantation in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The present review focuses on recent advances in porcine islet transplantation with particular emphasis on new transgenic pig models, islet encapsulation, and biosafety considerations. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic modifications aimed to reduce islet cell immunogenicity, to prolong their survival, and to improve their secretory function have been reported...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912093/lentiviral-gene-delivery-to-plasmolipin-expressing-cells-using-mus-caroli-endogenous-retrovirus-envelope-protein
#11
REVIEW
M M Prokofjeva, G M Proshkina, T D Lebedev, A A Shulgin, P V Spirin, V S Prassolov, S M Deyev
Gene therapy is a promising method for treating malignant diseases. One of the main problems is target delivery of therapeutic genes. Here we show that lentiviral vector particles pseudotyped with Mus caroli endogenous retrovirus (McERV) envelope protein can be used for selective transduction of PLLP-expressing cells. As a therapeutic gene in McERV-pseudotyped vector particles we used miniSOG encoding the cytotoxic FMN-binding protein, which can generate reactive oxygen species under illumination. Significant cytotoxic effect (up to 80% of dead cells in population) was observed in PLLP-expressing cells transduced with McERV-pseudotyped vector particles and subjected to illumination...
September 11, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904289/restoration-of-yap-activation-rescues-hl-1-cardiomyocytes-from-apoptotic-death-by-ethanol
#12
Kanako Noritake, Toshihiko Aki, Moe Kimura, Takeshi Funakoshi, Kana Unuma, Koichi Uemura
We reported previously that when mouse atrium-derived HL-1 cardiomyocytes undergo apoptosis upon exposure to 2% ethanol, the cellular cytoskeleton is severely disrupted and the anti-apoptotic transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) is inactivated. Consistent with our previous observations, the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), an anti-apoptotic growth factor and a target of YAP, decreases in a time-dependent manner during exposure to 2% ethanol. The restoration of YAP activation rescues the cells from apoptosis: both the retrovirus-mediated expression of constitutively active YAP and the stabilization of the actomyosin cytoskeleton by jasplakinolide prevent cell death...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904197/differential-inhibitory-receptor-expression-on-t-cells-delineates-functional-capacities-in-chronic-viral-infection
#13
Jeffrey E Teigler, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Michael A Eller, Diane L Bolton, Mary Marovich, Alexander D Gordon, Aljawharah Alrubayyi, Galit Alter, Merlin L Robb, Jeffrey N Martin, Steven G Deeks, Nelson L Michael, Ulf Dittmer, Hendrik Streeck
Inhibitory receptors have been extensively described for their importance in regulating immune responses in chronic infections and cancers. Blocking the function of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1, CTLA-4, 2B4, Tim-3, and LAG-3 have shown promise for augmenting CD8 T cell activity and boosting pathogen-specific immunity. However, the prevalence of inhibitory receptors on CD4 T cells and their relative influence on CD4 T cell functionality in chronic HIV infection remains poorly described. We therefore determined and compared inhibitory receptor expression patterns of 2B4, CTLA-4, LAG-3, PD-1, and Tim-3 on virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells in relation to their functional T cell profile...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904191/the-dose-of-retroviral-infection-determines-the-induction-of-anti-viral-nk-cell-responses
#14
Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer
Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and recognize virus-infected cells as well as tumor cells. Conflicting data about the beneficial or even detrimental role of NK cells in different infectious diseases were described. While the type of pathogen strongly influences NK cell functionality, less is known about how the infection dose influences the quality of a NK cell response against retroviruses. Here we used the well-established Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model to investigate the impact of virus dose on the induction of anti-viral NK cell functions...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903753/acquisition-of-resistance-to-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-b-through-mutations-on-tvb-cysteine-rich-domains-in-df-1-chicken-fibroblasts
#15
Hong Jo Lee, Kyung Youn Lee, Young Hyun Park, Hee Jung Choi, Yongxiu Yao, Venugopal Nair, Jae Yong Han
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a retrovirus that causes tumors in avian species, and its vertical and horizontal transmission in poultry flocks results in enormous economic losses. Despite the discovery of specific host receptors, there have been few reports on the modulation of viral susceptibility via genetic modification. We therefore engineered acquired resistance to ALV subgroup B using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts. Using this method, we efficiently modified the tumor virus locus B (tvb) gene, encoding the TVB receptor, which is essential for ALV subgroup B entry into host cells...
September 13, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900618/comparative-genomic-in-situ-hybridization-and-the-possible-role-of-retroelements-in-the-karyotypic-evolution-of-three-akodontini-species
#16
Naiara Pereira Araújo, Gustavo Campos Silva Kuhn, Flávia Nunes Vieira, Thaís Queiroz Morcatty, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Marta Svartman
South American Akodontini rodents are characterized by a large number of chromosome rearrangements. Among them, the genus Akodon has been extensively analyzed with classical and molecular cytogenetics, which allowed the identification of a large number of intra- and interspecific chromosomal variation due to Robertsonian rearrangements, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions/deletions. In order to shed some light on the cause of these rearrangements, we comparatively analyzed the karyotypes of three Akodontini species, Akodon cursor (2n = 14, FN = 19), A...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899944/novel-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-transcript-expressed-in-the-bovine-placenta-is-regulated-by-wnt-signaling
#17
Toshihiro Sakurai, So Nakagawa, Hanako Bai, Rulan Bai, Kazuya Kusama, Atsushi Ideta, Yoshito Aoyagi, Kazuyuki Kaneko, Kosuke Iga, Jiro Yasuda, Takayuki Miyazawa, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are involved in placentation; perhaps the most well-known ERV s are the syncytins, actively transcribed env genes involved in cell-cell fusion and possible morphological variations. However, ERVs other than syncytins that play an important role in placental development have not been well characterized. To identify ERV genes expressed during the onset of placentation in the bovine species, we characterized the expression profiles of bovine conceptus transcripts during the peri-attachment period using RNA-seq analysis, and confirming some candidates through real-time PCR...
September 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895844/integrating-vectors-for-gene-therapy-and-clonal-tracking-of-engineered-hematopoiesis
#18
REVIEW
Luca Biasco, Michael Rothe, Juliane W Schott, Axel Schambach
Gene therapy using autologous or allogeneic cells offers promising possibilities to treat inherited and acquired diseases, ideally leading to a long-lasting therapeutic correction. This article summarizes efforts that use integrating vectors derived from retroviruses and transposons, and briefly explains integrating vector biology and integration site analysis and recent successful application of this technology in clinical trials. Moreover, outlined is how these vectors can be used for cancer gene discovery and clonal tracking of benign and malignant hematopoiesis to gain insights into the dynamics of hematopoiesis...
October 2017: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893944/making-a-virtue-of-necessity-the-pleiotropic-role-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#19
REVIEW
George Kassiotis, Jonathan P Stoye
Like all other mammals, humans harbour an astonishing number of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), as well as other retroelements, embedded in their genome. These remnants of ancestral germline infection with distinct exogenous retroviruses display various degrees of open reading frame integrity and replication capability. Modern day exogenous retroviruses, as well as the infectious predecessors of ERVs, are demonstrably oncogenic. Further, replication-competent ERVs continue to cause cancers in many other species of mammal...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888628/neuropathological-survey-reveals-underestimation-of-the-prevalence-of-neuroinfectious-diseases-in-cattle-in-switzerland
#20
Laura Truchet, Julia Walland, Daniel Wüthrich, Céline L Boujon, Horst Posthaus, Rémy Bruggmann, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Anna Oevermann, Torsten Seuberlich
Neuroinfectious diseases in livestock represent a severe threat to animal health, but their prevalence is not well documented and the etiology of disease often remains unidentified. The aims of this study were to generate baseline data on the prevalence of neuroinfectious diseases in cattle in Switzerland by neuropathological survey, and to identify disease-associated pathogens. The survey was performed over a 1-year period using a representative number of brainstem samples (n=1816) from fallen cattle. In total, 4% (n=73) of the animals had significant lesions, the most frequent types of which were indicative of viral (n=27) and bacterial (n=31) etiologies...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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