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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550453/exchange-of-genetic-sequences-between-viruses-and-hosts
#1
Robin A Weiss
Although genetic transfer between viruses and vertebrate hosts occurs less frequently than gene flow between bacteriophages and prokaryotes, it is extensive and has affected the evolution of both parties. With retroviruses, the integration of proviral DNA into chromosomal DNA can result in the activation of adjacent host gene expression and in the transduction of host transcripts into retroviral genomes as oncogenes. Yet in contrast to lysogenic phage, there is little evidence that viral oncogenes persist in a chain of natural transmission or that retroviral transduction is a significant driver of the horizontal spread of host genes...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548882/finding-conducting-and-nurturing-science-a-virologist-s-memoir
#2
Anna Marie Ann Skalka Skalka
My laboratory investigations have been driven by an abiding interest in understanding the consequences of genetic rearrangement in evolution and disease, and in using viruses to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in biology. Starting with bacteriophages and moving to the retroviruses, my use of the tools of genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics has spanned more than half a century-from the time when DNA structure was just discovered to the present day of big data and epigenetics. Both riding and contributing to the successive waves of technology, my laboratory has elucidated fundamental mechanisms in DNA replication, repair, and recombination...
May 26, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548572/analytical-validation-of-a-reference-laboratory-elisa-for-the-detection-of-feline-leukemia-virus-p27-antigen
#3
Jesse S Buch, Genevieve H Clark, Roberta Cahill, Brendon Thatcher, Peter Smith, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Christian M Leutenegger, Thomas P O'Connor, Melissa J Beall
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an oncogenic retrovirus of cats. Immunoassays for the p27 core protein of FeLV aid in the detection of FeLV infections. Commercial microtiter-plate ELISAs have rapid protocols and visual result interpretation, limiting their usefulness in high-throughput situations. The purpose of our study was to validate the PetChek FeLV 15 ELISA, which is designed for the reference laboratory, and incorporates sequential, orthogonal screening and confirmatory protocols. A cutoff for the screening assay was established with 100% accuracy using 309 feline samples (244 negative, 65 positive) defined by the combined results of FeLV PCR and an independent reference p27 antigen ELISA...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545228/aberrant-dna-methylation-as-a-biomarker-and-a-therapeutic-target-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#4
REVIEW
Toshiaki Nakaoka, Yoshimasa Saito, Hidetsugu Saito
Cholangiocarcinoma is an epithelial malignancy arising in the region between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the ampulla of Vater at the distal end of the common bile duct. The effect of current chemotherapy regimens against cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and the prognosis of patients with cholangiocarcinoma is poor. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification induce silencing of tumor suppressor genes and chromosomal instability during carcinogenesis. Studies have shown that the tumor suppressor genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) including MLH1, p14, p16, death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), miR-370 and miR-376c are frequently methylated in cholangiocarcinoma...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542724/viruses-and-endogenous-retroviruses-in-multiple-sclerosis-from-correlation-to-causation
#5
REVIEW
A-F A Mentis, E Dardiotis, N Grigoriadis, E Petinaki, G M Hadjigeorgiou
Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disease with an environmental component. According to a long-standing but unproven hypothesis dating to initial descriptions of multiple sclerosis (MS) at the end of the 19th century, viruses are either directly or indirectly implicated in MS pathogenesis. Whether viruses in MS are principally causal or simply contributory remains to be proven, but many viruses or viral elements-predominantly Epstein-Barr virus, human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) but also less common viruses such as Saffold and measles viruses-are associated with MS...
May 23, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539452/interactions-between-hiv-1-gag-and-viral-rna-genome-enhance-virion-assembly
#6
Kari A Dilley, Olga A Nikolaitchik, Andrea Galli, Ryan C Burdick, Louis Levine, Kelvin Li, Alan Rein, Vinay K Pathak, Wei-Shau Hu
Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious virus-like particles and the viral RNA is dispensable in this process. The mechanism that allows HIV-1 to achieve such high efficiency of genome packaging when a packageable viral RNA is not required for virus assembly is currently unknown. In this report, we examined the role of HIV-1 RNA in virus assembly and found that packageable HIV-1 RNA enhances particle production when Gag is expressed at levels similar to those in cells containing one provirus...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536474/gcn2-phosphorylates-hiv-1-integrase-and-decreases-hiv-1-replication-by-limiting-viral-integration
#7
A Jaspart, C Calmels, O Cosnefroy, P Bellecave, P Pinson, S Claverol, V Guyonnet-Dupérat, B Dartigues, M S Benleulmi, E Mauro, P A Gretteau, V Parissi, M Métifiot, M L Andreola
GCN2 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in cellular stress response related to amino acid starvation. Previously, we showed that GCN2 interacts with HIV-1 integrase and is activated during HIV-1 infection. Herein, we identified HIV-1 integrase as a previously unknown substrate of GCN2 in vitro with a major site of phosphorylation at residue S255 located in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase. The underlying mechanism was investigated and it appeared that the integrase active site was required in order for GCN2 to target the integrase residue S255...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522611/long-terminal-repeats-power-evolution-of-genes-and-gene-expression-programs-in-mammalian-oocytes-and-zygotes
#8
Vedran Franke, Sravya Ganesh, Rosa Karlic, Radek Malik, Josef Pasulka, Filip Horvat, Maja Kuzman, Helena Fulka, Marketa Cernohorska, Jana Urbanova, Eliska Svobodova, Jun Ma, Yutaka Suzuki, Fugaku Aoki, Richard M Schultz, Kristian Vlahovicek, Petr Svoboda
Retrotransposons are 'copy-and-paste' insertional mutagens that substantially contribute to mammalian genome content. Retrotransposons often carry long terminal repeats (LTRs) for retrovirus-like reverse transcription and integration into the genome. We report an extraordinary impact of a group of LTRs from the mammalian endogenous retrovirus-related ERVL retrotransposon class on gene expression in the germline and beyond. In mouse, we identified >800 LTRs from ORR1, MT, MT2, and MLT families, which resemble mobile gene-remodeling platforms that supply promoters and first exons...
May 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514743/htlv-1-tax-upregulates-early-growth-response-protein-1-through-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#9
Qingsong Huang, Zhiguo Niu, Jingxian Han, Xihong Liu, Zhuangwei Lv, Huanhuan Li, Lixiang Yuan, Xiangping Li, Shuming Sun, Hui Wang, Xinxiang Huang
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512091/conformational-flexibility-in-the-immunoglobulin-like-domain-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2
#10
Ieva Vasiliauskaite, Ania Owsianka, Patrick England, Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Sarah Cole, Dorothea Bankwitz, Steven K H Foung, Thomas Pietschmann, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Felix A Rey, Arvind H Patel, Thomas Krey
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. Its structure features a central immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich that contributes to the binding site for the cellular receptor CD81. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to a β-strand of this Ig-like domain forms an α-helix in complex with the anti-E2 antibody DAO5, demonstrating an inside-out flip of hydrophobic residues and a secondary structure change in the composite CD81 binding site...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510253/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-and-feline-leukemia-virus-frequency-and-associated-factors-in-cats-in-northeastern-brazil
#11
L C Lacerda, A N Silva, J S Freitas, R D S Cruz, R A Said, A D Munhoz
Our aims were to determine the frequencies of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in owned and stray cats in the northeastern region of Brazil, ascertain the status of FeLV infection, and investigate potential associated factors among the owned cats. Blood samples from 200 asymptomatic owned cats and 30 stray cats were processed using nested PCR and commercial immunochromatographic tests to diagnose infections. To evaluate the factors associated with FIV and/or FeLV in owned cats, a semi-structured interview was conducted with each owner about the animal's environment, and these data were subjected to unconditional logistic regression...
May 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503733/long-term-safety-from-transmission-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-after-pig-to-non-human-primate-corneal-transplantation
#12
Hyuk Jin Choi, Jiyeon Kim, Jae Young Kim, Hyun Ju Lee, Won Ryang Wee, Mee Kum Kim, Eung Soo Hwang
BACKGROUND: The risk of xenozoonosis mainly by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) has been considered as one of the main hurdles in xenotransplantation and therefore should be elucidated prior to the clinical use of porcine corneal grafts. Accordingly, an investigation was performed to analyze the infectivity of PERVs from porcine keratocytes to human cells, and the long-term risk of transmission of PERVs was determined using pig-to-non-human primate (NHP) corneal transplantation models...
May 14, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502830/with-me-or-against-me-tumour-suppressor-and-drug-resistance-activities-of-samhd1
#13
REVIEW
Nikolas Herold, Sean G Rudd, Kumar Sanjiv, Juliane Kutzner, Ida Hed Myrberg, Cynthia B J Paulin, Thale Kristin Olsen, Thomas Helleday, Jan-Inge Henter, Torsten Schaller
Sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a (deoxy)guanosine triphosphate (dGTP/GTP)-activated deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase that is involved in cellular dNTP homoeostasis. Mutations in SAMHD1 have been associated with the hyperinflammatory disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). SAMHD1 also limits the permissivity of cells to infection with diverse viruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and controls endogenous retroviruses...
May 11, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500258/transposon-driven-transcription-is-a-conserved-feature-of-vertebrate-spermatogenesis-and-transcript-evolution
#14
Matthew P Davis, Claudia Carrieri, Harpreet K Saini, Stijn van Dongen, Tommaso Leonardi, Giovanni Bussotti, Jack M Monahan, Tania Auchynnikava, Angelo Bitetti, Juri Rappsilber, Robin C Allshire, Alena Shkumatava, Dónal O'Carroll, Anton J Enright
Spermatogenesis is associated with major and unique changes to chromosomes and chromatin. Here, we sought to understand the impact of these changes on spermatogenic transcriptomes. We show that long terminal repeats (LTRs) of specific mouse endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) drive the expression of many long non-coding transcripts (lncRNA). This process occurs post-mitotically predominantly in spermatocytes and round spermatids. We demonstrate that this transposon-driven lncRNA expression is a conserved feature of vertebrate spermatogenesis...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497736/-implication-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#15
Pierre Ellul, Laurent Groc, Marion Leboyer
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are neuropsychiatric disorders of unknown origin. It seems that these two disorders share some common etiopathogenic mechanisms including genetic, environmental and inflammatory ones. Reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus type W (HERV-W) can be a shared element in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, linked to immuno-genetic and environment risk factors. We will present studies that have highlighted the presence of HERV-W in schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patients...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497735/-endogenous-retroviral-sequences-in-the-human-genome-can-play-a-physiological-or-pathological-role
#16
Julie Medina, Benjamin Charvet, Pascal Leblanc, Raphaële Germi, Branka Horvat, Patrice N Marche, Hervé Perron
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) represent a large part of our genome and the few elements that have retained a potential of expression still remain "dormant" in physiological conditions. In some instances, they can be awakened by environmental factors activating their expression. The best studied conditions of HERV activation are infections caused by microorganisms such as viruses of the Herpesvirus family. This activation can thus lead to the expression of pathogenic proteins such as envelope proteins belonging to the HERV-W and HERV-K families, respectively involved in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491433/evaluation-of-rapid-diagnostic-test-kits-for-feline-leukemia-virus-infection-using-samples-from-naturally-infected-cats
#17
Jiayou Liu, Thomas O'Connor, Melissa Beall, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Michael Lappin
OBJECTIVES: Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis)...
July 2016: JFMS Open Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490736/extracellular-vesicles-carry-hiv-env-and-facilitate-hiv-infection-of-human-lymphoid-tissue
#18
Anush Arakelyan, Wendy Fitzgerald, Sonia Zicari, Christophe Vanpouille, Leonid Margolis
Cells productively infected with HIV-1 release virions along with extracellular vesicles (EVs) whose biogenesis, size, and physical properties resemble those of retroviruses. Here, we found that a significant number of EVs (exosomes) released by HIV-1 infected cells carry gp120 (Env), a viral protein that mediates virus attachment and fusion to target cells, and also facilitates HIV infection in various indirect ways. Depletion of viral preparations of EVs, in particular of those that carry gp120, decreases viral infection of human lymphoid tissue ex vivo...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490494/structural-basis-for-spumavirus-gag-tethering-to-chromatin
#19
Paul Lesbats, Erik Serrao, Daniel P Maskell, Valerie E Pye, Nicola O'Reilly, Dirk Lindemann, Alan N Engelman, Peter Cherepanov
The interactions between a retrovirus and host cell chromatin that underlie integration and provirus expression are poorly understood. The prototype foamy virus (PFV) structural protein GAG associates with chromosomes via a chromatin-binding sequence (CBS) located within its C-terminal region. Here, we show that the PFV CBS is essential and sufficient for a direct interaction with nucleosomes and present a crystal structure of the CBS bound to a mononucleosome. The CBS interacts with the histone octamer, engaging the H2A-H2B acidic patch in a manner similar to other acidic patch-binding proteins such as herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)...
May 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490211/aav-vectors-and-stem-cells-friends-or-foes
#20
Nolan Brown, Liujiang Song, Nageswara Rao Kollu, Matt Hirsch
The infusion of healthy stem cells into a patient, termed stem cell therapy, has shown great promise for the treatment of genetic and non-genetic diseases including mucopolysaccharidosis type 1, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, numerous immunodeficiency disorders, and aplastic anemia. Stem cells for cell therapy can be collected from the patient (autologous) or collected from another "healthy" individual (allogeneic). The use of allogenic stem cells is accompanied with the potentially fatal risk that the transplanted donor T cells will reject the patient's cells, a process termed graft-versus-host disease...
May 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
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