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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144838/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-persistence-and-pathogenesis
#1
Charles R M Bangham
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), also known as human T lymphotropic virus type 1, was the first exogenous human retrovirus discovered. Unlike the distantly related lentivirus HIV-1, HTLV-1 causes disease in only 5-10% of infected people, depending on their ethnic origin. But whereas HIV-1 infection and the consequent diseases can be efficiently contained in most cases by antiretroviral drug treatment, there is no satisfactory treatment for the malignant or inflammatory diseases caused by HTLV-1...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139200/allosteric-mechanism-of-quinoline-inhibitors-for-hiv-rt-associated-rnase-with-md-simulation-and-dynamics-fluctuation-network
#2
Yi Cai, Hao Liu, Haifeng Chen
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which infects T lymphocyte of human body and causes Immunodeficiency. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) can inhibit some functions of RT, preventing virus synthesis (double-stranded DNA), so that HIV virus replication can be reduced. Experimental results indicate a series of benzimidazole-based inhibitors which target HIV RT-associate RNase to inhibit the reverse transcription of HIV virus. However, the allosteric mechanism is still unclear. Here, molecular dynamics simulations and dynamics fluctuation network analysis were used to reveal the binding mode between the inhibitors and RT-associate RNase...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137669/blocked-expression-of-key-genes-of-the-angiogenic-pathway-in-jsrv-induced-pulmonary-adenocarcinomas
#3
Maryline Gomes, Fabienne Archer, Nicolas Girard, Barbara Gineys, Christine Dolmazon, Alexandra Bobet Erny, Jean-François Mornex, Caroline Leroux
JSRV (Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus) is a retrovirus inducing a transmissible lung adenocarcinoma in sheep and goats with predominantly lepidic and papillary lesions. This naturally occurring lung cancer in large animals shares many features with human pneumonic-type lung adenocarcinomas with predominant lepidic growth. The metastatic spread is rare in both human and animal cancers. This unique feature prompted us to decipher the angiogenesis pathway in these cancers. We focused on the levels of mRNA and proteins of genes implicated in the extension of JSRV-induced lung adenocarcinomas by studying their expression in lung cancers (n = 10) and normal lungs (n = 10) and in primary epithelial alveolar type II cells derived from cancers (n = 10) or normal lungs (n = 6)...
November 14, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134339/feline-immudeficiency-virus-subtypes-b-and-a-in-cats-from-s%C3%A3-o-luis-maranh%C3%A3-o-brazil
#4
Nathálya Dos S Martins, Ana Paula de S Rodrigues, Luciana A da Luz, Luana da L Dos Reis, Renata M de Oliveira, Rudson A de Oliveira, Ana Lucia Abreu-Silva, Jenner Karlisson P Dos Reis, Ferdinan A Melo
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the genus Lentivirus that is distributed worldwide, with prevalence rates varying between 2.5% and 44%. FIV causes immunosuppression, with depletion of TCD4(+) lymphocytes, with the majority of clinical signs caused by secondary and opportunistic infections. Blood samples were collected from nine domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) from the city of São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil. All samples were positive in a rapid immunochromatographic test (SNAP® Combo FeLV Ag/FIV Antibody Test) and in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
November 14, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133530/human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-new-take-on-a-retro-idea
#5
EDITORIAL
Miranda K Culley, Stephen Y Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132963/screening-for-viral-extraneous-agents-in-live-attenuated-avian-vaccines-by-using-a-microbial-microarray-and-sequencing
#6
Majken Lindholm Olesen, Lotte Leick Jørgensen, Merete Blixenkrone-Møller, Eva Sandberg, Peer Lyng Frandsen, Erik Østergaard, Eva Rauhe Bækdahl, Helena Fridholm, Anders Fomsgaard, Maiken Worsøe Rosenstierne
The absence of extraneous agents (EA) in the raw material used for production and in finished products is one of the principal safety elements related to all medicinal products of biological origin, such as live-attenuated vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial detection array version 2 (LLMDAv2) combined with whole genome amplification and sequencing for screening for viral EAs in live-attenuated vaccines and specific pathogen-free (SPF) eggs...
November 10, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131519/displaying-tetra-membrane-spanning-claudins-on-enveloped-virus-like-particles-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#7
Irene C Schneider, Jessica Hartmann, Gundula Braun, Jörn Stitz, Thorsten Klamp, Mahjoub Bihi, Ugur Sahin, Christian J Buchholz
Virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying foreign antigens have become an important tool in vaccination including the induction of immune responses against self-antigens. Claudin 6 (CLDN6) has been identified as tumor-associated antigen and is therefore a potential target for tumor vaccination strategies. However, as tetra-membrane spanning protein its incorporation into VLPs while preserving a native fold is challenging. Here, we attempted the incorporation of a panel of engineered CLDN6 variants into the membrane of retrovirus-derived VLPs...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131463/inactivation-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-in-pigs-using-crispr-cas9-editorial-commentary
#8
Linda Scobie, Joachim Denner, Henk-Jan Schuurman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128756/integrase-c-terminal-residues-determine-the-efficiency-of-feline-foamy-viral-dna-integration
#9
Jinsun Kim, Ga-Eun Lee, Martin Lochelt, Cha-Gyun Shin
Integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme in retroviral life cycle. It mediates viral cDNA integration into host cellular DNA. Feline foamy virus (FFV) is a member of the Spumavirus subfamily of Retroviridae. Recently, its life cycle has been proposed to be different from other retroviruses. Despite this important finding, FFV IN is not understood clearly. Here, we constructed point mutations in FFV IN C-terminal domain (CTD) to obtain a clear understanding of its integration mechanism. Mutation of the amino acid residues in FFV IN CTD interacting with target DNA reduced both IN enzymatic activities in vitro and viral productions in infected cells...
November 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120299/bovine-leukaemia-virus-genotypes-5-and-6-are-circulating-in-cattle-from-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#10
Lilian Gregory, Natália Carrillo Gaeta, Jansen Araújo, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, Ricardo Harakawa, Alice A Ikuno, Liria Hiromi Okuda, Eliana de Stefano, Edviges Maristela Pituco
PURPOSE: Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. METHODOLOGY: Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120263/trna-derived-small-rnas-new-players-in-genome-protection-against-retrotransposons
#11
German Martinez
Previously believed to be mere random degradation products, tRNA-derived small RNAs have been lately connected to a series of functions that include, surprisingly, genome protection against retrotransposons. tRNAs have been known for a long time to be involved in the replication cycle of retroviruses, pararetroviruses and retrotransposons as primers of their reverse transcription. tRNA-derived small RNAs, as functional small RNAs or as mere tRNA degradation products, have emerged as important players in the regulation of genic transcription...
November 9, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118853/identification-of-a-novel-herv-k-hml10-comprehensive-characterization-and-comparative-analysis-in-non-human-primates-provide-insights-about-hml10-proviruses-structure-and-diffusion
#12
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Maria Paola Pisano, Francesca Esposito, Jonas Blomberg, Enzo Tramontano
Background: About half of the human genome is constituted of transposable elements, including human endogenous retroviruses (HERV). HERV sequences represent the 8% of our genetic material, deriving from exogenous infections occurred millions of years ago in the germ line cells and being inherited by the offspring in a Mendelian fashion. HERV-K elements (classified as HML1-10) are among the most studied HERV groups, especially due to their possible correlation with human diseases. In particular, the HML10 group was reported to be upregulated in persistent HIV-1 infected cells as well as in tumor cells and samples, and proposed to have a role in the control of host genes expression...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116009/lack-of-cytomegalovirus-detection-in-human-glioma
#13
Araceli Garcia-Martinez, Cristina Alenda, Esperanza Irles, Enrique Ochoa, Teresa Quintanar, Alvaro Rodriguez-Lescure, Jose L Soto, Victor M Barbera
Gliomas are the most common brain tumors and include a variety of histologic types and grades of malignancy. They arise from glial cells and represent approximately 70% of the primary brain tumors. According to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO), the majority of gliomas can be classified into four grades of malignancy (I-IV). Virus infection, especially by DNA viruses and retroviruses, which may cause insertion of viral DNA sequences into the host genome, often triggers the host defense mechanisms...
November 7, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100331/targeting-signaling-and-apoptotic-pathways-involved-in-chemotherapeutic-drug-resistance-of-hematopoietic-cells
#14
Stephen L Abrams, Peter P Ruvolo, Vivian R Ruvolo, Giovanni Ligresti, Alberto M Martelli, Lucio Cocco, Stefano Ratti, Agostino Tafuri, Linda S Steelman, Saverio Candido, Massimo Libra, James A McCubrey
A critical problem in leukemia as well as other cancer therapies is the development of chemotherapeutic drug-resistance. We have developed models of hematopoietic drug resistance that are based on expression of dominant-negative TP53 [TP53 (DN)] or constitutively-active MEK1 [MEK1(CA)] oncogenes in the presence of chemotherapeutic drugs. In human cancer, functional TP53 activity is often lost in human cancers. Also, activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK pathway frequently occurs due to mutations/amplification of upstream components of this and other interacting pathways...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099869/selection-for-avian-leukosis-virus-integration-sites-determines-the-clonal-progression-of-b-cell-lymphomas
#15
Sanandan Malhotra, Shelby Winans, Gary Lam, James Justice, Robin Morgan, Karen Beemon
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a simple retrovirus that causes a wide range of tumors in chickens, the most common of which are B-cell lymphomas. The viral genome integrates into the host genome and uses its strong promoter and enhancer sequences to alter the expression of nearby genes, frequently inducing tumors. In this study, we compare the preferences for ALV integration sites in cultured cells and in tumors, by analysis of over 87,000 unique integration sites. In tissue culture we observed integration was relatively random with slight preferences for genes, transcription start sites and CpG islands...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097664/high-frequency-recombination-between-members-of-an-ltr-retrotransposon-family-during-transposition-bursts
#16
Diego H Sanchez, Hervé Gaubert, Hajk-Georg Drost, Nicolae Radu Zabet, Jerzy Paszkowski
Retrotransposons containing long terminal repeats (LTRs) form a substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes. The timing of past transposition can be estimated by quantifying the accumulation of mutations in initially identical LTRs. This way, retrotransposons are divided into young, potentially mobile elements, and old that moved thousands or even millions of years ago. Both types are found within a single retrotransposon family and it is assumed that the old members will remain immobile and degenerate further...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093716/tripartite-motif-22-and-class-ii-transactivator-restriction-factors-unveiling-their-concerted-action-against-retroviruses
#17
REVIEW
Greta Forlani, Roberto S Accolla
Coevolution of the three basic mechanisms of immunity, intrinsic, innate and adaptive, is a constant feature of the host defense against pathogens. Within this frame, a peculiar role is played by restriction factors (RFs), elements of intrinsic immunity that interfere with viral life cycle. Often considered as molecules whose specific functions are distinct and unrelated among themselves recent results indicate instead, at least for some of them, a concerted action against the pathogen. Here we review recent findings on the antiviral activity of tripartite motif 22 (TRIM22) and class II transactivator (CIITA), first discovered as human immunodeficiency virus 1 RFs, but endowed with general antiviral activity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081790/the-melim-minipig-an-original-spontaneous-model-to-explore-cutaneous-melanoma-genetic-basis
#18
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Bourneuf
Melanoma is the deadliest skin cancer and is a major public health concern with a growing incidence worldwide. As for other complex diseases, animal models are needed in order to better understand the mechanisms leading to pathology, identify potential biomarkers to be used in the clinics, and eventually molecular targets for therapeutic solutions. Cutaneous melanoma, arising from skin melanocytes, is mainly caused by environmental factors such as UV radiation; however a significant genetic component participates in the etiology of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080983/autoimmune-responses-to-exosomes-and-candidate-antigens-contribute-to-type-1-diabetes-in-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#19
REVIEW
Yang D Dai, Huiming Sheng, Peter Dias, M Jubayer Rahman, Roman Bashratyan, Danielle Regn, Kristi Marquardt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The initial autoimmune trigger of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. In non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, islet inflammation starts early in life, suggesting the presence of an endogenous trigger for the spontaneous autoimmune response in this T1D mouse model. In this review, we argue that abnormal release of exosomes might be the trigger of the early inflammatory and autoimmune responses in the islets. RECENT FINDINGS: Exosomes are nano-sized membrane complexes that are secreted by cells following fusion of late endosomes and/or multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
October 28, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077482/correction-to-aids-res-hum-retroviruses-2016-32-992-1004
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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