keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

retroviruses

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730326/infectious-diseases-causing-autonomic-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Francisco Javier Carod Artal
OBJECTIVES: To review infectious diseases that may cause autonomic dysfunction. METHODS: Review of published papers indexed in medline/embase. RESULTS: Autonomic dysfunction has been reported in retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus), herpes viruses, flavivirus, enterovirus 71 and lyssavirus infections. Autonomic dysfunction is relatively common in HIV-infected patients and heart rate variability is reduced even in early stages of infection...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726547/three-dimensional-bio-printing-of-hepatic-structures-with-direct-converted-hepatocyte-like-cells
#2
Kyojin Kang, Yohan Kim, Seung Bum Lee, Ji Sook Kim, Sua Park, Wan-Doo Kim, Heung-Mo Yang, Sung-Joo Kim, Jaemin Jeong, Dongho Choi
Three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing technology is a promising new technology in the field of bio-artificial organ generation with regard to overcoming the limitations of organ supply. The cell source for bio-printing is very important. Here, we generated 3D hepatic scaffold with mouse induced hepatocyte-like cells (miHeps), and investigated whether their function was improved after transplantation in vivo. To generate miHeps, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were transformed with pMX retroviruses individually expressing hepatic transcription factors Hnf4a and Foxa3...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715971/a-consensus-view-of-escrt-mediated-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-abscission
#3
J Lippincott-Schwartz, E O Freed, S B van Engelenburg
The strong dependence of retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), on host cell factors is no more apparent than when the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is purposely disengaged. The resulting potent inhibition of retrovirus release underscores the importance of understanding fundamental structure-function relationships at the ESCRT-HIV-1 interface. Recent studies utilizing advanced imaging technologies have helped clarify these relationships, overcoming hurdles to provide a range of potential models for ESCRT-mediated virus abscission...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715454/reduction-of-cav1-3-channels-in-dorsal-hippocampus-impairs-the-development-of-dentate-gyrus-newborn-neurons-and-hippocampal-dependent-memory-tasks
#4
Su-Hyun Kim, Ye-Ryoung Park, Boyoung Lee, Byungil Choi, Hyun Kim, Chong-Hyun Kim
Cav1.3 has been suggested to mediate hippocampal neurogenesis of adult mice and contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. However, the mechanism of Cav1.3 contribution in these processes is unclear. Here, roles of Cav1.3 of mouse dorsal hippocampus during newborn cell development were examined. We find that knock-out (KO) of Cav1.3 resulted in the reduction of survival of newborn neurons at 28 days old after mitosis. The retroviral eGFP expression showed that both dendritic complexity and the number and length of mossy fiber bouton (MFB) filopodia of newborn neurons at ≥ 14 days old were significantly reduced in KO mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713896/an-optimized-gene-transfection-system-in-weri-rb1-cells
#5
Ying Liu, Zhigang Fan, Kang Li, Fei Deng, Yunfan Xiong, Meixin Liang, Jian Ge
The pathogenesis of Rb1 gene inactivation indicates that gene therapy could be a promising treatment for retinoblastoma. An appropriate gene transfer system is the basis for successful gene therapy; however, little attention has been given to an effective gene transfer system for retinoblastoma therapy in previous studies. This study was designed to provide an optimized transgene system for WERI‑Rb1 cells (W-RBCs). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was adopted as a reporter. Four classic viral vectors based on retroviruses, recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV2, rAAV2/1), lentiviruses (LVs) and a novel non-viral vector X-treme HP reagent were adopted for W-RBC gene transfection...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704541/increased-genetic-diversity-and-prevalence-of-co-infection-with-trypanosoma-spp-in-koalas-phascolarctos-cinereus-and-their-ticks-identified-using-next-generation-sequencing-ngs
#6
Amanda D Barbosa, Alexander W Gofton, Andrea Paparini, Annachiara Codello, Telleasha Greay, Amber Gillett, Kristin Warren, Peter Irwin, Una Ryan
Infections with Trypanosoma spp. have been associated with poor health and decreased survival of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), particularly in the presence of concurrent pathogens such as Chlamydia and koala retrovirus. The present study describes the application of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay to characterise the prevalence and genetic diversity of trypanosome communities in koalas and two native species of ticks (Ixodes holocyclus and I. tasmani) removed from koala hosts. Among 168 koalas tested, 32...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703129/precise-inhibitory-microcircuit-assembly-of-developmentally-related-neocortical-interneurons-in-clusters
#7
Xin-Jun Zhang, Zhizhong Li, Zhi Han, Khadeejah T Sultan, Kun Huang, Song-Hai Shi
GABA-ergic interneurons provide diverse inhibitions that are essential for the operation of neuronal circuits in the neocortex. However, the mechanisms that control the functional organization of neocortical interneurons remain largely unknown. Here we show that developmental origins influence fine-scale synapse formation and microcircuit assembly of neocortical interneurons. Spatially clustered neocortical interneurons originating from low-titre retrovirus-infected radial glial progenitors in the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area preferentially develop electrical, but not chemical, synapses with each other...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700586/systematic-identification-and-characterization-of-regulatory-elements-derived-from-human-endogenous-retroviruses
#8
Jumpei Ito, Ryota Sugimoto, Hirofumi Nakaoka, Shiro Yamada, Tetsuaki Kimura, Takahide Hayano, Ituro Inoue
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and other long terminal repeat (LTR)-type retrotransposons (HERV/LTRs) have regulatory elements that possibly influence the transcription of host genes. We systematically identified and characterized these regulatory elements based on publicly available datasets of ChIP-Seq of 97 transcription factors (TFs) provided by ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects. We determined transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs) using the ChIP-Seq datasets and identified TFBSs observed on HERV/LTR sequences (HERV-TFBSs)...
July 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698047/identification-of-a-novel-linear-b-cell-epitope-in-the-p27-of-avian-leukosis-virus
#9
Wiaam O A Khairy, Lin Wang, Xue Tian, Jianqiang Ye, Kun Qian, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce virus-associated neoplasia and causes great economic loss in poultry industry. It is known that the capsid antigen p27 is the group-specific antigen that is highly conserved among all ALV subgroups, and is the most abundant immunogenic viral protein. In the present study, five overlapping fragments (GST- p27-F1/2, GST- p27-F2-1/2/3) of ALV-p27 were subjected to Western blotting analysis using a monoclonal antibody (5D3) against ALV-p27 to identify the epitope...
July 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695283/aids-in-chimpanzees-the-role-of-mhc-genes
#10
REVIEW
Natasja G de Groot, Corinne M C Heijmans, Ronald E Bontrop
The ancestral progenitor of common chimpanzees and bonobos experienced a selective sweep that ravaged its major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I repertoire. The causative agent was probably an ancestral retrovirus, highly related to the contemporary HIV-1 strain, which initiated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic in the human population. As a direct result, MHC class I allotypes with the capability of targeting conserved retroviral elements were enriched in the ancestral progenitor. Even today, the impact can be traced back by studying the functional capacities of the contemporary MHC class I allotypes of common chimpanzees...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694798/dynamic-co-evolution-and-interaction-of-avian-leukosis-virus-genetic-variants-and-host-immune-responses
#11
Xuan Dong, Fanfeng Meng, Tao Hu, Sidi Ju, Yang Li, Peng Sun, Yixin Wang, Wenqing Chen, Fushou Zhang, Hongqin Su, Sifei Li, He Cui, Junxia Chen, Shuzhen Xu, Lichun Fang, Huaibiao Luan, Zhenjie Zhang, Shuang Chang, Jianliang Li, Lei Wang, Peng Zhao, Weifeng Shi, Zhizhong Cui
Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), a typical retrovirus, is characterized of existence of a cloud of diverse variants and considerable genetic diversity. Previous studies describing the evolutionary dynamics of ALV-J genetic variants mainly focused on the early infection period or few randomly selected clones. Here, we inoculated 30 specific-pathogen-free chickens with the same founder ALV-J stock of known genetic background. Six (three antibody positive and three antibody negative) chickens were selected among 15 chickens with viremia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688086/sequencing-the-biology-of-entry-the-retroviral-env-gene
#12
Ronald Swanstrom, William D Graham, Shuntai Zhou
The surface envelope protein of any virus is major determinant of the host cell that is infected and as a result a major determinant of viral pathogenesis. Retroviruses have a single surface protein named Env. It is a trimer of heterodimers and is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor and mediating fusion between the viral and host membranes. In this review we will discuss the history of the discovery of the avian leukosis virus (ALV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env proteins and their receptor specificity, comparing the many differences but having some similarities...
July 9, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684413/a-crispr-cas9-approach-reveals-that-the-polymerase-activity-of-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-is-dispensable-for-hiv-1-infection-in-dividing-and-nondividing-cells
#13
Russell W Goetze, Dong-Hyun Kim, Raymond F Schinazi, Baek Kim
Retrovirus integration into the host genome relies on several host enzymes, potentially including DNA polymerase β (Pol β). However, whether human Pol β; is essential for lentivirus replication in human cells is unclear. Here, we abolished Pol β expression by targeting its DNA polymerase domain with CRISPR/Cas9 in human monocytic THP-1 cells to investigate Pol β's role in HIV-1 transduction in both dividing and nondividing macrophage stages of THP-1 cells. Pol β-knockout was confirmed by enhanced sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate - induced DNA damage...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683400/azidothymidine-triphosphate-impairs-mitochondrial-dynamics-by-disrupting-the-quality-control-system
#14
Ryosuke Nomura, Takeya Sato, Yuka Sato, Jeffrey A Medin, Shigeki Kushimoto, Teruyuki Yanagisawa
Highly active anti-retrovirus therapy (HAART) has been used to block the progression and symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although it decreases morbidity and mortality, clinical use of HAART has also been linked to various adverse effects such as severe cardiomyopathy resulting from compromised mitochondrial functioning. However, the mechanistic basis for these effects remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy...
June 29, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679769/down-regulation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-type-k-herv-k-viral-env-rna-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-decreases-cell-proliferation-and-tumor-growth
#15
Ming Li, Laszlo G Radvanyi, Bingnan Yin, Jia Li, Raghavender Chivukula, Kevin Lin, Yue Lu, Jianjun Shen, David Z Chang, Donghui Li, Gary L Johanning, Feng Wang-Johanning
We investigated the role of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) envelope (env) gene in pancreatic cancer (PC). <p>Experimental Design: shRNA was employed to knockdown (KD) the expression of HERV-K in PC cells.</p> <p>Results: HERV-K env expression was detected in seven PC cell lines and in 80% of PC patient biopsies, but not in two normal pancreatic cell lines or uninvolved normal tissues. A new HERV-K splice variant was discovered in several PC cell lines. RT activity and virus-like particles were observed in culture media supernatant obtained from Panc-1 and Panc-2 cells...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679758/a-cell-fusion-based-screening-method-identifies-the-gpi-anchored-protein-ly6e-as-the-receptor-for-the-mouse-endogenous-retroviral-envelope-syncytin-a
#16
Agathe Bacquin, Caroline Bireau, Maxime Tanguy, Charlotte Romanet, Cécile Vernochet, Anne Dupressoir, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been exapted for a role in placentation. They are involved in the formation of a syncytial structure (the syncytiotrophoblast) at the fetomaternal interface via their fusogenic activity. The mouse placenta is rather unique among placental mammals since the fetomaternal interface comprises two syncytiotrophoblast layers (ST-I and ST-II) instead of one, as observed in humans and all other hemochorial placentae. Each layer specifically expresses a distinct mouse syncytin, namely syncytin-A (SynA) for ST-I and syncytin-B (SynB) for ST-II, which have been shown to be essential to placentogenesis and embryo survival...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679751/aim2-like-receptors-positively-and-negatively-regulate-the-interferon-response-induced-by-cytosolic-dna
#17
Yuki Nakaya, Jingtao Lilue, Spyridon Stavrou, Eileen A Moran, Susan R Ross
Cytosolic DNAs derived from retrotransposons serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that stimulate the induction of interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines, leading to autoimmune disease. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is one PRR that senses retrotransposon DNA, activating type I IFN responses through the stimulator of IFN genes (STING). Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptors (ALRs) have also been implicated in these pathways. Here we show that the mouse ALR IFI205 senses cytosolic retrotransposon DNA independently of cyclic GMP-AMP production...
July 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674813/efficient-gene-knockdowns-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-using-microrna-based-shrnas
#18
Jianlong Wang
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful gene knockdown technology that has been applied for functional genetic loss-of-function studies in many model eukaryotic systems, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Application of RNAi in ESCs allows for dissection of mechanisms by which ESCs self-renew and maintain pluripotency and also for specifying particular cell types needed for cell replacement therapies. Potent RNAi response can be induced by expression of a microRNA-embedded short-hairpin RNA (shRNA(mir)) cassette that is integrated in the genome by virus infection or site-specific recombination at a defined locus...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673822/discovery-of-novel-long-non-coding-rnas-induced-by-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-infection-in-chicken
#19
Lingling Qiu, Zhiteng Li, Guobin Chang, Yulin Bi, Xiangping Liu, Lu Xu, Yang Zhang, Wenming Zhao, Qi Xu, Guohong Chen
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that has led to severe economic losses in the poultry industry in China in recent decades. Here, using high throughput transcriptome sequencing of HD11 and CEF cells infected with ALV-J, a set of 4804 novel long non-coding transcripts and numerous differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were identified. We also found that they share relatively shorter transcripts and fewer exon numbers compared to mRNA. Correlation analysis suggested that many lncRNAs may activate gene expression in an enhancer-like manner other than through transcriptional regulation...
June 30, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672915/induction-of-reprogramming-of-human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-into-ips-cells-by-overexpression-of-yap-oct4-and-sox2-through-the-activation-of-the-hippo-yap-pathway
#20
Yanhui Zhao, Xinfeng Fei, Jianming Guo, Gang Zou, Weidong Pan, Jingju Zhang, Yongyi Huang, Te Liu, Weiwei Cheng
The present study has reported a novel method for producing induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Primary human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) were isolated from the amniotic membranes of pregnant women who received Cesarean sections. These cells were infected with retroviruses carrying octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2) and Yes-associated protein (Yap) (OSY). Following in vitro culture for ~14 days, epithelial-like HuAECs exhibited several iPS clone-like cell colonies (OSY-iPS)...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
keyword
keyword
117643
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"