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Laboratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830120/detection-of-carfentanil-by-lc-ms-ms-and-reports-of-associated-fatalities-in-the-usa
#1
Kevin G Shanks, George S Behonick
Carfentanil is a mu (μ) opioid receptor agonist and is estimated to be ~10,000 times more potent than morphine in animal (non-human) models. It is not approved for human use and is only used to immobilize large exotic animals in veterinary medicine. In mid-2016, carfentanil emerged as a contaminant in street heroin in the USA and was central to a large number of emergency department visits and deaths. We describe an analytical method for the detection and quantification of carfentanil in whole blood specimens via a protein precipitation extraction with acetonitrile and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828199/implementation-of-automated-calculation-of-free-and-bioavailable-testosterone-in-epic-beaker-laboratory-information-system
#2
Michael C Chung, Saurabh Gombar, Run Zhang Shi
BACKGROUND: Automated calculations by laboratory information system (LIS) are efficient and accurate ways of providing calculated laboratory test results. Due to the lack of established advanced mathematical functions and equation logic in LIS software, calculations beyond simple arithmetic functions require a tedious workaround. Free and bioavailable testosterone (BT) calculations require a quadratic solver currently unavailable as ready to use the function on most commercial LIS platforms...
2017: Journal of Pathology Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828153/effect-of-polyethelene-oxide-on-the-thermal-degradation-of-cellulose-biofilm-low-cost-material-for-soft-tissue-repair-in-dentistry
#3
Anna Akkus, Rakim Tyler, David Schiraldi, Renato Roperto, Fady Faddoul, Sorin Teich
BACKGROUND: Bio cellulose is a byproduct of sweet tea fermentation known as kombusha. During the biosynthesis by bacteria cellulose chains are polymerized by enzyme from activated glucose. The single chains are then extruded through the bacterial cell wall. Interestingly, a potential of the Kombucha's byproduct bio cellulose (BC) as biomaterial had come into focus only in the past few decades. The unique physical and mechanical properties such as high purity, an ultrafine and highly crystalline network structure, a superior mechanical strength, flexibility, pronounced permeability to gases and liquids, and an excellent compatibility with living tissue that reinforced by biodegradability, biocompatibility, large swelling ratios...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827526/measuring-and-modelling-the-response-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpc-prey-to-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation-in-human-serum-and-defined-buffer
#4
Michelle Baker, David Negus, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Paul Radford, Chris Moore, Gemma Clark, Mathew Diggle, Jess Tyson, Jamie Twycross, R Elizabeth Sockett
In worldwide conditions of increasingly antibiotic-resistant hospital infections, it is important to research alternative therapies. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria naturally prey on Gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains and so B. bacteriovorus have been proposed as "living antibiotics" to combat antimicrobially-resistant pathogens. Predator-prey interactions are complex and can be altered by environmental components. To be effective B. bacteriovorus predation needs to work in human body fluids such as serum where predation dynamics may differ to that studied in laboratory media...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827079/application-of-genomics-for-transfusion-therapy-in-sickle-cell-anemia
#5
Stella T Chou, Connie M Westhoff
The application of genomic approaches is impacting all areas of laboratory testing including transfusion medicine. Use of DNA-based test methods is particularly applicable for red cell and platelet antigen typing as the majority of genes encoding the carrier proteins and carbohydrates are now known and were cloned in the 1990's. Many of the antigenic polymorphisms are due to single nucleotide changes (SNP's) in the respective genes and DNA-arrays that target these changes have been validated by comparison with conventional serologic typing...
August 8, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826658/trends-in-pediatric-urologic-consultations-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-setting
#6
K O Rove, J C Warncke, V M Vemulakonda
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the general activities of a pediatric urologist, whose specialty remains young in the spectrum of modern, organized medicine. Unplanned activities, which are more commonly referred to as consultations, can represent significant additional workload for the urologist seeing scheduled clinic patients or completing elective operative cases. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to better understand the practice patterns surrounding inpatient consultations of pediatric urology, and to describe patterns in reasons, timing, patient and service factors that may lead to patient intervention...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823018/prevalence-and-nature-of-potential-drug-drug-interactions-among-kidney-transplant-patients-in-a-german-intensive-care-unit
#7
Julia Amkreutz, Alexander Koch, Lukas Buendgens, Anja Muehlfeld, Christian Trautwein, Albrecht Eisert
Background Complex polypharmacotherapy makes kidney transplant patients vulnerable to drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Objective To study prevalence and nature of potential DDIs (pDDIs) in kidney transplant patients. Setting Internal medicine ICU, University Hospital RWTH Aachen. Method In this retrospective observational study, pDDIs were identified in the first week after transplant from 1999 to 2010. Patients aged at least 18 years with prescription of at least two drugs were included. Patients with incomplete data were excluded...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821273/a-practical-guide-to-single-cell-rna-sequencing-for-biomedical-research-and-clinical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Ashraful Haque, Jessica Engel, Sarah A Teichmann, Tapio Lönnberg
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a genomic approach for the detection and quantitative analysis of messenger RNA molecules in a biological sample and is useful for studying cellular responses. RNA-seq has fueled much discovery and innovation in medicine over recent years. For practical reasons, the technique is usually conducted on samples comprising thousands to millions of cells. However, this has hindered direct assessment of the fundamental unit of biology-the cell. Since the first single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) study was published in 2009, many more have been conducted, mostly by specialist laboratories with unique skills in wet-lab single-cell genomics, bioinformatics, and computation...
August 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821199/keratin-17-is-a-prognostic-biomarker-in-endocervical-glandular-neoplasia
#9
Daniel Mockler, Luisa F Escobar-Hoyos, Ali Akalin, Jamie Romeiser, A Laurie Shroyer, Kenneth R Shroyer
Objectives: Previous work in our laboratory identified keratin 17 (K17) as a specific and sensitive biomarker for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). K17, however, has not been previously evaluated in endocervical glandular neoplasia. Based on the similar pathogenesis of squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix, we hypothesized that K17 overexpression could also be a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for endocervical neoplasia...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820484/platelet-aggregometry-testing-molecular-mechanisms-techniques-and-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Katalin Koltai, Gabor Kesmarky, Gergely Feher, Antal Tibold, Kalman Toth
Platelets play a fundamental role in normal hemostasis, while their inherited or acquired dysfunctions are involved in a variety of bleeding disorders or thrombotic events. Several laboratory methodologies or point-of-care testing methods are currently available for clinical and experimental settings. These methods describe different aspects of platelet function based on platelet aggregation, platelet adhesion, the viscoelastic properties during clot formation, the evaluation of thromboxane metabolism or certain flow cytometry techniques...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818163/evaluation-of-ckd-epi-pakistan-equation-for-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-egfr-acomparison-of-egfr-prediction-equations-in-pakistani-population
#11
Sibtain Ahmed, Lena Jafri, Aysha Habib Khan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), CKD-EPI Pakistan (CKD-EPI Pak), Cockcroft Gault (CG) and 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to October 2013...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816878/do-formal-laminectomy-and-timing-of-decompression-for-patients-with-sacral-fracture-and-neurologic-deficit-affect-outcome
#12
Christopher K Kepler, Gregory D Schroeder, Douglas A Hollern, Jens R Chapman, Michael G Fehlings, Marcel Dvorak, Carlo Bellabarba, Alexander R Vaccaro
OBJECTIVES: To identify whether formal sacral decompression provides improvement in outcome for patients with neurologic deficit after sacral fracture compared with patients treated with indirect decompression and whether the timing of surgical decompression influences neurologic outcome? DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched via PubMed using combinations of the following search terms: "Sacral fracture," "Traumatic Sacral fracture," "Sacral fracture decompression," "Sacral fracture time to decompression," "Sacral Decompression...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815200/the-case-for-laboratory-developed-procedures-quality-and-positive-impact-on-patient-care
#13
Karen L Kaul, Linda M Sabatini, Gregory J Tsongalis, Angela M Caliendo, Randall J Olsen, Edward R Ashwood, Sherri Bale, Robert Benirschke, Dean Carlow, Birgit H Funke, Wayne W Grody, Randall T Hayden, Madhuri Hegde, Elaine Lyon, Kazunori Murata, Melissa Pessin, Richard D Press, Richard B Thomson
An explosion of knowledge and technology is revolutionizing medicine and patient care. Novel testing must be brought to the clinic with safety and accuracy, but also in a timely and cost-effective manner, so that patients can benefit and laboratories can offer testing consistent with current guidelines. Under the oversight provided by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, laboratories have been able to develop and optimize laboratory procedures for use in-house. Quality improvement programs, interlaboratory comparisons, and the ability of laboratories to adjust assays as needed to improve results, utilize new sample types, or incorporate new mutations, information, or technologies are positive aspects of Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments oversight of laboratory-developed procedures...
January 2017: Acad Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814702/reorganizing-hospital-space-the-1894-plague-epidemic-in-hong-kong-and-the-germ-theory
#14
Kyu-Hwan Sihn
This paper examined whether the preventive measures taken by the Hong Kong's colonial authorities were legitimate during the 1894 Hong Kong plague epidemic, and illuminated the correlation between the plague epidemic and hospital space in Hong Kong in the late 19th century. The quarantine measures taken by the colonial authorities were neither a clear-cut victory for Western medicine nor for a rational quarantine based on scientific medical knowledge. Hong Kong's medical officials based on the miasma theory, and focused only on house-to-house inspections and forced quarantine or isolation, without encouraging people to wear masks and without conducting disinfection...
April 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#15
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810808/advances-and-challenges-in-cardiovascular-gene-therapy
#16
Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Johanna Lähteenvuo
25 years of gene therapy have not yet yielded standard therapeutic solutions for clinical use in cardiovascular medicine, but several therapeutic targets have been identified and foundations for future therapies have been set. The safety of viral gene therapy has been established with a wide variety of vectors and transgenes. Adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses have established their role as vectors of choice for many cardiovascular applications and appropriate viral doses have been established for several tissues and applications...
August 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808509/an-educational-intervention-to-increase-awareness-reduces-unnecessary-laboratory-testing-in-an-internal-medicine-resident-run-clinic
#17
Erika Leung, Shuang Song, Omar Al-Abboud, Shahed Shams, John English, Wisam Naji, Yafei Huang, Leon Robison, Fred Balis, Hameem I Kawsar
At our resident-run clinic in an underserved community, laboratory test costs in 2013 exceeded the government subsidy by $400 000. To optimize limited resources and improve patient care, an education program to reduce testing was implemented. Between November 2014 and January 2015, residents attended lectures on utilization of laboratory testing, focusing on standard practice guidelines, and analyses of unnecessary tests. Multivariate nonparametric statistical methods and subgroup analysis were used to evaluate cost reduction...
July 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808384/molecular-authentication-of-the-traditional-medicinal-plant-lakshman-booti-smithia-conferta-sm-and-its-adulterants-through-dna-barcoding
#18
Suraj D Umdale, Parthraj R Kshirsagar, Manoj M Lekhak, Nikhil B Gaikwad
BACKGROUND: Smithia conferta Sm. is an annual herb widely used in Indian traditional medical practice and commonly known as "Lakshman booti" in Sanskrit. Morphological resemblance among the species of genus Smithia Aiton. leads to inaccurate identification and adulteration. This causes inconsistent therapeutic effects and also affects the quality of herbal medicine. AIM: This study aimed to generate potential barcode for authentication of S. conferta and its adulterants through DNA barcoding technique...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807909/development-and-use-of-personalized-bacteriophage-based-therapeutic-cocktails-to-treat-a-patient-with-a-disseminated-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection
#19
Robert T Schooley, Biswajit Biswas, Jason J Gill, Adriana Hernandez-Morales, Jacob Lancaster, Lauren Lessor, Jeremy J Barr, Sharon L Reed, Forest Rohwer, Sean Benler, Anca M Segall, Randy Taplitz, Davey M Smith, Kim Kerr, Monika Kumaraswamy, Victor Nizet, Leo Lin, Melanie D McCauley, Steffanie A Strathdee, Constance A Benson, Robert K Pope, Brian M Leroux, Andrew C Picel, Alfred J Mateczun, Katherine E Cilwa, James M Regeimbal, Luis A Estrella, David M Wolfe, Matthew S Henry, Javier Quinones, Scott Salka, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, Ry Young, Theron Hamilton
Widespread antibiotic use in clinical medicine and the livestock industry has contributed to the global spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii We report on a method used to produce a personalized bacteriophage-based therapeutic treatment for a 68-year old diabetic patient with necrotizing pancreatitis complicated by a MDR A. baumannii infection. Despite multiple antibiotic courses and efforts at percutaneous drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst, the patient deteriorated over a four-month period...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807880/-broad-spectrum-bactericidal-activity-of-a-new-bioactive-grafting-material-f18-against-clinically-important-bacterial-strains
#20
M T Souza, L A Campanini, C R Chinaglia, O Peitl, E D Zanotto, C W O Souza
Infection is the most relevant surgical complication in implant or grafting procedures. Osteomyelitis and other chronic conditions pose a constant challenge in the current practice of medicine. In this context, a grafting biomaterial that possesses antibacterial properties combined with bioactivity could have great clinical impact. Researchers at the Vitreous Materials Laboratory (LaMaV-UFSCar) recently developed a glass composition, F18, which presents an improved workability range combined with high bioactivity...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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