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Laboratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734822/icotinib-versus-whole-brain-irradiation-in-patients-with-egfr-mutant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-multiple-brain-metastases-brain-a-multicentre-phase-3-open-label-parallel-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Jin-Ji Yang, Caicun Zhou, Yisheng Huang, Jifeng Feng, Sun Lu, Yong Song, Cheng Huang, Gang Wu, Li Zhang, Ying Cheng, Chengping Hu, Gongyan Chen, Li Zhang, Xiaoqing Liu, Hong Hong Yan, Fen Lai Tan, Wenzhao Zhong, Yi-Long Wu
BACKGROUND: For patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and multiple brain metastases, whole-brain irradiation (WBI) is a standard-of-care treatment, but its effects on neurocognition are complex and concerning. We compared the efficacy of an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), icotinib, versus WBI with or without chemotherapy in a phase 3 trial of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and multiple brain metastases. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, parallel randomised controlled trial (BRAIN) at 17 hospitals in China...
July 19, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734809/-severe-poisoning-by-traditional-medication-in-the-newborn
#2
A Oulmaati, F Hmami, S Achour, A Bouharrou
The use of traditional products for therapeutic purposes in the newborn cause many cases of severe poisoning, especially in newborns. The aim of this study was to identify the main medicinal plants causing poisoning and emphasize the seriousness of poisonous plants. We report a series of eight newborns admitted for intake of poisonous medicinal plants admitted to the neonatal unit and neonatal intensive care unit at the Fez (Morocco) Hassan II University Hospital in 2014. The reasons for use were dominated by the infant's refusing to suckle...
July 19, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733374/the-fallacy-of-average-how-using-hba1c-alone-to-assess-glycemic-control-can-be-misleading
#3
Roy W Beck, Crystal G Connor, Deborah M Mullen, David M Wesley, Richard M Bergenstal
HbA1c is a valuable metric for comparing treatment groups in a randomized trial, for assessing glycemic trends in a population over time, or for cross-sectional comparisons of glycemic control in different populations. However, what is not widely appreciated is that HbA1c may not be a good indicator of an individual patient's glycemic control because of the wide range of mean glucose concentrations and glucose profiles that can be associated with a given HbA1c level. To illustrate this point, we plotted mean glucose measured with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) versus central laboratory-measured HbA1c in 387 participants in three randomized trials, showing that not infrequently HbA1c may underestimate or overestimate mean glucose, sometimes substantially...
August 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733195/the-evolving-role-of-companion-diagnostics-for-breast-cancer-in-an-era-of-next-generation-omics
#4
REVIEW
Jason N Rosenbaum, Paul Weisman
A companion diagnostic is a test for a specific biomarker-approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration-qualifying a patient to receive a specific, associated therapy. As interest has grown in precision medicine over the last decade, the principle of companion diagnostics has gained increasing purchase among laboratory professionals, clinicians, regulators, and even patients. The evolution of the biomarkers used to stratify and treat breast cancer illustrates the history of companion diagnostics, and provides a lens through which to examine potential challenges...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732324/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-levels-in-premenopausal-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-taxane-based-adjuvant-chemotherapy-a-translational-research-project-of-the-success-a-study
#5
E K Trapp, J Steidl, B Rack, M S Kupka, U Andergassen, J Jückstock, A Kurt, T Vilsmaier, A de Gregorio, N de Gregorio, M Tzschaschel, C Lato, A Polasik, H Tesch, A Schneeweiss, M W Beckmann, P A Fasching, W Janni, V Müller
BACKGROUND: Premenopausal women undergoing chemotherapy are at high risk for premature ovarian failure and its long-term consequences. Data on potential markers to evaluate ovarian reserve pre- and posttreatment are limited. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) known for ovarian reserve in reproductive medicine could be a surrogate marker and was assessed in premenopausal breast cancer patients of the SUCCESS A study (EUDRA-CT no. 2005-000490-21). METHODS: We identified 170 premenopausal patients, age ≤ 40 years at trial entry, who received FEC-Doc as taxane-anthracylince based chemotherapy...
July 18, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731005/preparing-medical-students-with-congenital-colour-vision-deficiency-for-safe-practice
#6
Rajat Dhingra, Jolly Rohatgi, Upreet Dhaliwal
BACKGROUND: Colour vision of candidates is tested in many medical colleges in India at the time of admission to undergraduate courses; however, there are no guidelines, and therefore no counselling, on how students with congenital colour vision deficiency (CCVD) should negotiate the medical course, and how best they can practise safely after graduation. Problems in interpreting coloured signs may lead to misdiagnosis. This study aimed to explore difficulties during clinical work that requires colour discrimination, and to offer suggestions on safe practice based on the findings and a review of the literature...
January 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729806/evidence-provided-for-the-use-of-oscillating-instruments-in-restorative-dentistry-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Panagiotis Ntovas, Spyridon Doukoudakis, John Tzoutzas, Panagiotis Lagouvardos
Oscillating diamond instruments are considered gentle sources for the removal of demineralized tooth hard tissues and the preparation of cavity angles and margins needed in minimally invasive dentistry. However, there is a question if literature provides enough evidence for their efficacy in restorative dentistry procedures. A literature search until May 2016 was conducted, using PubMed, Scopus, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The quality of the studies was assessed using the recommendation of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728257/-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-analysis-of-22-cases
#8
M F Sun, W Z Gu, K R Peng, M N Liu, X L Shu, L Q Jiang, M Z Jiang
Objective: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated esophageal disease.The current domestic reports of EoE in children is rare.The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features, the diagnosis and treatment advance of EoE in children by case analysis and literature review. Method: Clinical data of 22 children with EoE from January, 2011 to December, 2015 in Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine were recorded, retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, gastroendoscopy and histopathological examination features and the treatment...
July 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727969/fetal-dysmorphology-still-an-essential-art-analysis-of-the-limitations-of-microarray-in-a-fetal-population-and-a-look-toward-the-genome-sequencing-era
#9
E Fletcher, M Porteous, K J McKenzie, E J Maher, M J Evans
Cytogenomic microarray allows assessment of the genome at higher resolutions than traditional karyotyping. The objective of this study is to evaluate the utility of microarray in a routine fetal autopsy setting before the advent of routine fetal exome/genome sequencing and the issues these technologies may generate. A systematic review of fetal postmortems at 12-24 weeks gestation between January 2011 and December 2014 was undertaken. Cases where there was no consent for audit, research, or genetic testing were excluded as were cases referred to the Procurator Fiscal, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths...
July 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726934/clove-extract-functions-as-a-natural-fatty-acid-synthesis-inhibitor-and-prevents-obesity-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Yiran Ding, Zhennan Gu, Yihe Wang, Shunhe Wang, Haiqin Chen, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
Numerous medicinal plants have been reported to prevent various chronic diseases. In this study, we screened a new FASN inhibitor-alcohol extract of clove (AEC) using a fast microplate method developed in our laboratory. The major components of AEC were: eugenol (42.27%), acetyl eugenol (29.12%), caryophyllene (15.40%), and humulene (3.22%). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme for de novo lipogenesis, and it has been suggested as a potential therapeutic target in cancer and obesity. We have tested the ability of AEC to inhibit FASN in mammalian cells and tissues...
July 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726806/data-sharing-as-a-national-quality-improvement-program-reporting-on-brca1-and-brca2-variant-interpretation-comparisons-through-the-canadian-open-genetics-repository-cogr
#11
Matthew S Lebo, Kathleen-Rose Zakoor, Kathy Chun, Marsha D Speevak, John S Waye, Elizabeth McCready, Jillian S Parboosingh, Ryan E Lamont, Harriet Feilotter, Ian Bosdet, Tracy Tucker, Sean Young, Aly Karsan, George S Charames, Ronald Agatep, Elizabeth L Spriggs, Caitlin Chisholm, Nasim Vasli, Hussein Daoud, Olga Jarinova, Robert Tomaszewski, Stacey Hume, Sherryl Taylor, Mohammad R Akbari, Jordan Lerner-Ellis
PurposeThe purpose of this study was to develop a national program for Canadian diagnostic laboratories to compare DNA-variant interpretations and resolve discordant-variant classifications using the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes as a case study.MethodsBRCA1 and BRCA2 variant data were uploaded and shared through the Canadian Open Genetics Repository (COGR; http://www.opengenetics.ca). A total of 5,554 variant observations were submitted; classification differences were identified and comparison reports were sent to participating laboratories...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726804/diagnostic-cytogenetic-testing-following-positive-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-results-a-clinical-laboratory-practice-resource-of-the-american-college-of-medical-genetics-and-genomics-acmg
#12
Athena M Cherry, Yassmine M Akkari, Kimberly M Barr, Hutton M Kearney, Nancy C Rose, Sarah T South, James H Tepperberg, Jeanne M Meck
Disclaimer: ACMG Clinical Laboratory Practice Resources are developed primarily as an educational tool for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these practice resources is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. This Clinical Laboratory Practice Resource should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724050/higher-meld-score-increases-the-overall-cost-on-the-waiting-list-for-liver-transplantation-a-micro-costing-analysis-based-study
#13
Jose Antonio Orellana Turri, Tassia Cristina Decimoni, Leandro Augusto Ferreira, Marcio Augusto Diniz, Luciana Bertocco de Paiva Haddad, Alessandro Gonçalves Campolina
BACKGROUND: The pre-transplant period is complex and includes lots of procedures. The severity of liver disease predisposes to a high number of hospitalizations and high costs procedures. Economic evaluation studies are important tools to handle costs on the waiting list for liver transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the total cost of the patient on the waiting list for liver transplantation and the main resources related to higher costs...
July 13, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720681/the-eubivas-project-within-and-between-subject-biological-variation-data-for-serum-creatinine-using-enzymatic-and-alkaline-picrate-methods-and-implications-for-monitoring
#14
Anna Carobene, Irene Marino, Abdurrahman Coŝkun, Mustafa Serteser, Ibrahim Unsal, Elena Guerra, William A Bartlett, Sverre Sandberg, Aasne Karine Aarsand, Marit Sverresdotter Sylte, Thomas Røraas, Una Ørvim Sølvik, Pilar Fernandez-Calle, Jorge Díaz-Garzón, Francesca Tosato, Mario Plebani, Niels Jonker, Gerhard Barla, Ferruccio Ceriotti
BACKGROUND: The European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) European Biological Variation Study (EuBIVAS) has been established to deliver rigorously determined biological variation (BV) indices. EuBIVAS determined BV for serum creatinine using the enzymatic and alkaline picrate measurement methods. METHOD: In total, 91 healthy individuals (38 males, 53 females; age range, 21-69 years) were bled for 10 consecutive weeks at 6 European laboratories...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720541/biological-sources-of-variation-of-serum-adiponectin-among-healthy-individuals-in-comparison-with-related-nutritional-and-inflammatory-markers
#15
Yoshihisa Shimizu, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Katsuyuki Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Serum adiponectin (AN) is a nutritional and inflammatory marker of various diseases. Its biological sources of variation (SVs) have been widely evaluated in, but its relationships with other related markers remain to be studied comprehensibly by use of multivariate analyses including factor analysis. METHODS: Serum specimens from 752 well-defined healthy subjects (295 males; 457 females) obtained from Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Vietnam were tested for total AN (tAN) and high-molecular-weight AN (hmAN) together with 71 major analytes...
July 15, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719379/critical-evaluation-of-metallization-in-electric-injury
#16
Sigitas Laima, Jana Bytautaite, Sigitas Chmieliauskas, Dmitrij Fomin, Algimantas Jasulaitis, Arturas Jukna, Sandra Mazeikiene, Jurgita Stasiuniene
The article presents 3 forensic medicine cases in the field of electric injury. In addition to traditional findings in electric injury (electric mark and histological findings), the forensic medicine experts in Lithuania also perform an atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. This method confirms the effects of electric current to the body through the electric conductor. Typical macroscopic finding in the skin is electric mark. Histologically, the damaged skin possesses characteristic features of thermal burns...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716187/impact-of-albumin-based-approaches-in-nanomedicine-imaging-targeting-and-drug-delivery
#17
REVIEW
Bharat Bhushan, Vitaly Khanadeev, Boris Khlebtsov, Nikolai Khlebtsov, P Gopinath
A major challenge in the field of nanomedicine is to transform laboratory innovations into commercially successful clinical products. In this campaign, a variety of nanoenabled approaches have been designed and investigated for their role in biomedical applications. The advantages associated with the unique structure of albumin imparts it with the ability to interact with variety of molecules, while the functional groups present on their surface provide base for large number of modifications making it as an ideal nanocarrier system...
July 1, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716156/generic-atorvastatin-is-as-effective-as-the-brand-name-drug-lipitor-%C3%A2-in-lowering-cholesterol-levels-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Alexander Loch, Jan Philipp Bewersdorf, Daniel Kofink, Dzafir Ismail, Imran Zainal Abidin, Ramesh Singh Veriah
BACKGROUND: In a world of ever increasing health care costs, generic drugs represent a major opportunity to ensure access to essential medicines for people who otherwise would be unable to afford them. However, some clinicians and patients are still questioning the safety and effectiveness of generic formulations compared to the proprietary drugs necessitating further systematic research analyzing the generic drugs' efficacy. Our objective was to compare the lipid lowering effects of generic and branded atorvastatin...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715306/a-data-rich-longitudinal-wellness-study-for-the-digital-age-fixing-a-broken-medical-system-requires-data-about-each-patient
#19
Gustavo Glusman
We live in an age of plentiful information, collected continuously by pervasive gadgetry, distributed through digital and social networks, and mined deeply by ever-more-powerful analytics systems. And yet, one of the things we know the least about is our bodies. When it comes to our own health, we are driving blindly. Modern medicine has clearly been remarkably successful, as evidenced by continually growing life expectancies. For example, the number of people 65 and older in the United States has seen a steady increase over the last century, rising from 3...
July 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715070/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-renal-resistive-index-and-extensivity-and-complexity-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#20
Alaa Quisi, Ibrahim Halil Kurt, Durmuş Yıldıray Şahin, Onur Kaypaklı, Gökhan Söker, Ömer Kaya, Samir Allahverdiyev, Ömer Genç, Gökhan Alıcı, Mevlüt Koç
BACKGROUND: Despite the advances in cardiovascular medicine, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Synergy between PCI ™ with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score is used to determine the extensivity and complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Renal resistive index (RRI), a renal Doppler ultrasound parameter, is used to detect renal hemodynamics. Although some risk factors for CAD, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus were demonstrated to have an association with RRI, direct relationship between the presence...
July 17, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
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