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Laboratory Medicine

Douglas J Demetrick
Context Specimen misidentification is the most significant error in laboratory medicine, potentially accounting for hundreds of millions of dollars in extra health care expenses and significant morbidity in patient populations in the United States alone. New technology allows the unequivocal documentation of specimen misidentification or contamination; however, the value of this technology currently depends on suspicion of the specimen integrity by a pathologist or other health care worker. Objective To test the hypothesis that there is a detectable incidence of unsuspected tissue specimen misidentification among cases submitted for routine surgical pathology examination...
June 18, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
K L Knopp, C Stenfors, C Baastrup, A W Bannon, M Calvo, O Caspani, G Currie, N B Finnerup, W Huang, J D Kennedy, I Lefevre, I Machin, M Macleod, H Rees, A S C Rice, K Rutten, M Segerdahl, J Serra, R Wodarski, O-G Berge, R-D Treedef
Background and aims Pain is a subjective experience, and as such, pre-clinical models of human pain are highly simplified representations of clinical features. These models are nevertheless critical for the delivery of novel analgesics for human pain, providing pharmacodynamic measurements of activity and, where possible, on-target confirmation of that activity. It has, however, been suggested that at least 50% of all pre-clinical data, independent of discipline, cannot be replicated. Additionally, the paucity of "negative" data in the public domain indicates a publication bias, and significantly impacts the interpretation of failed attempts to replicate published findings...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Cristiano Ialongo, Sergio Bernardini
There is a compelling need for quality tools that enable effective control of the extra-analytical phase. In this regard, Six Sigma seems to offer a valid methodological and conceptual opportunity, and in recent times, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has adopted it for indicating the performance requirements for non-analytical laboratory processes. However, the Six Sigma implies a distinction between short-term and long-term quality that is based on the dynamics of the processes...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Martin Casapia, Raúl Chuquiyauri, Juan-Carlos Hinojosa, Nicola Kerr, Maria Rosario, Stephen Toovey, Robert H Arch, Margaret A Phillips, Felix D Rozenberg, Jade Bath, Caroline L Ng, Annie N Cowell, Elizabeth A Winzeler, David A Fidock, Mark Baker, Jörg J Möhrle, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Nathalie Gobeau, Nada Araeipour, Nicole Andenmatten, Thomas Rückle, Stephan Duparc
BACKGROUND: DSM265 is a novel, long-duration inhibitor of plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) with excellent selectivity over human DHODH and activity against blood and liver stages of Plasmodium falciparum. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of DSM265 in patients with P falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria infection. METHODS: This proof-of-concept, open-label, phase 2a study was conducted at the Asociación Civil Selva Amazónica in Iquitos, Peru...
June 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Michael A Noble, Robert Rennie
BACKGROUND: Reporting on the presence of antimicrobial resistance is of considerable concern both for individual patient care and for understanding the underlying health status within the community at large. Antimicrobial resistance is solely dependent upon clinical laboratory detection and thus can be impacted upon by the quality and competence of medical laboratories. Proficiency testing or external quality assessment (PT/EQA) is the international standard for the direct measurement of medical laboratory performance on critical testing...
June 15, 2018: Diagnosis
Michael L Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Morgan Meyer
Do-it-yourself (DIY) biology and medicine are based on various practices and logics: amateur and DIY practices, the ethics of hacking and open source, the drive to domesticate molecular biology and genetics, the ideal of participation and citizen science. The article shows that this democratization is a process that is at once spatial (construction of new spaces), technical (creative workarounds equipment), social (establishment of accessible networks/laboratories) and political. It is therefore through their practices, gestures and questions - tinkering, experimenting, working around, amaterializing, ethicizing, comparing, valuating, etc...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Erin Rooney Riggs, Danielle R Azzariti, Annie Niehaus, Scott R Goehringer, Erin M Ramos, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Bartha Knoppers, Heidi L Rehm, Christa Lese Martin
PURPOSE: Data sharing between clinicians, laboratories, and patients is essential for improvements in genomic medicine, but obtaining consent for individual-level data sharing is often hindered by a lack of time and resources. To address this issue, the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) developed tools to facilitate consent, including a one-page consent form and online supplemental video with information on key topics, such as risks and benefits of data sharing. METHODS: To determine whether the consent form and video accurately conveyed key data sharing concepts, we surveyed 5,162 members of the general public...
June 13, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Despoina Iatridou, Zsuzsanna Nagy, Nancy De Briyne, Jimmy Saunders, Ana Bravo
Developing a common market and allowing free movement of goods, services, and people is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Area. In the field of scientific research, Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes aims to improve the welfare of laboratory animals by following the principle of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement). Each breeder, supplier, and user must appoint a designated veterinarian to advise on the well-being and treatment of the animals...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
Jaak Ph Janssens, Klaus Schuster, Andreas Voss
Preventive, predictive, and personalized medicine (PPPM) has created a wealth of new opportunities but added also new complexities and challenges. The European Cancer Prevention Organization already embraced unanimously molecular biology for primary and secondary prevention. The rapidly exploding genomic language and complexity of methods face oncologists with exponentially growing knowledge they need to assess and apply. Tissue specimen quality becomes one major concern. Some new innovative medicines cost beyond any reasonable threshold of financial support from patients, health care providers, and governments and risk sustainability for the health care system...
June 2018: EPMA Journal
Mohammad A Sakr, Sara M Abdelhakam, Hany M Dabbous, Ahmed S Abdelmoaty, Hend E Ebada, Wael M Al-Banna, Mohamed S Ghazy, Mohamed E Aboelmaaty, Ahmed K Eldorry
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is caused by hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This work aims to analyze the pattern of vascular involvement in Egyptian patients with BCS, demonstrates its relation to etiology and shows its impact on clinical presentation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The current retrospective study was conducted at The Tropical Medicine Department, Ain Shams University on one hundred Egyptian patients with confirmed diagnosis of primary BCS who were presented to the Budd-Chiari Study Group (BCSG) from April 2014 to May 2016 by collecting clinical, laboratory and radiological data from their medical records...
July 2018: Annals of Hepatology
Dajana Vuckovic
This Feature Article highlights some of the key challenges within the field of metabolomics and examines what role separation and analytical sciences can play to improve the use of metabolomics in biomarker discovery and personalized medicine. Recent progress in four key areas is highlighted: (i) improving metabolite coverage, (ii) developing accurate methods for unstable metabolites including in vivo global metabolomics methods, (iii) advancing inter-laboratory studies and reference materials and (iv) improving data quality, standardization and quality control of metabolomics studies...
June 11, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Robin G Lorenz, Donald S Karcher, Michael D Gautreaux, Melvin Limson, Dani S Zander
There has been a recent recognition of the need to prepare PhD-trained scientists for increasingly diverse careers in academia, industry, and health care. The PhD Data Task Force was formed to better understand the current state of PhD scientists in the clinical laboratory workforce and collect up-to-date information on the training and certification of these laboratorians. In this report, we summarize the findings of the PhD Data Task Force and discuss the relevance of the data collected to the future supply of and demand for PhD clinical laboratory scientists...
January 2018: Academic Pathology
Samar Mahmood, Muqadus Tabraze
The issue of overprescribing laboratory investigations is an old one in the world of medical practice and it has unfortunately seen a tremendous increase with the digitalisation of medicine, in more recent times. Phrased usually as 'defensive medicine,' this kind of overmedicalisation steers medical practice away from the ethical, skill-refining fronts on the part of doctors and imposes an unnecessary financial burden on the patients' pockets, adding to their suffering. Pakistan has not been able to save itself either, from the impropriety that roots out of what is now almost a norm in medical practice...
April 8, 2018: Curēus
Jason Peeler, Hugo Bergen, Alison Bulow
Medical schools have traditionally used a lecture and dissection-based approach for educating students about human anatomy. There is growing interest in the adoption of alternative teaching and learning activities (TLAs) that incorporate the use of cadaveric prosection and computer-based learning into musculoskeletal (MSK) anatomy curricula. The purpose of this investigation was to examine retrospectively how different TLAs influenced student perceptions about learning, and performance on MSK anatomy examinations...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Domenico Ribatti
Sir Mac Farlane Burnet was the most honored of all Australian scientists. In 1960, Burnet shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Peter Medawar of Britain for the discovery of acquired immunological tolerance, He developed techniques for growing influenza viruses in the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. This became standard laboratory practice. He continued to work with chick embryos long after the use of cell cultures had become general. His virology research resulted in significant discoveries concerning the nature and replication of viruses and their interaction with the immune system...
June 7, 2018: Immunology Letters
Reinout W Wiers, Marilisa Boffo, Matt Field
OBJECTIVE: Recently, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) redefined clinical trials to include any study involving behavioral or biomedical interventions. In line with a general framework from experimental medicine, we argue that it is crucial to distinguish between experimental laboratory studies aimed at revealing psychological mechanisms underlying behavior and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in clinical samples aimed at testing the efficacy of an intervention. METHOD: As an illustration, we reviewed the current state of the evidence on the efficacy of cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions in alcohol use disorders...
May 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Tasneem F Hasan, Walter Duarte, Oluwaseun O Akinduro, Eric D Goldstein, Rebecca Hurst, Neil Haranhalli, David A Miller, Robert E Wharen, Rabih G Tawk, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical and neurosurgical emergency from ruptured brain aneurysm. Aneurysmal SAH is identified on brain computed tomography (CT) as increased density of basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces from acute blood products. Aneurysmal SAH-like pattern on CT appears as an optical illusion effect of hypodense brain parenchyma and/or hyperdense surrounding cerebral cisterns and blood vessels termed as "pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage" (pseudo-SAH)...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Robert Flatman
Harmonization initiatives in laboratory medicine seek to eliminate or reduce illogical variations in service to patients, clinicians and other healthcare professionals. Significant effort will be required to achieve consistent application of terminology, units and reporting across laboratory testing providers. Current variations in practice for nomenclature, reference intervals, flagging, units, standardization and traceability between analytical methods, and presentation of cumulative result data are inefficient and inconvenient, or worse yet, patient safety risks...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Cheng Loong Ngan, Azren Aida Asmawi
Inhalation therapy of lipid-based carriers has great potential in direct target towards the root of respiratory diseases, which make them superior over other drug deliveries. With the successful entry of lipid carriers into the target cells, drugs can be absorbed in a sustained release manner and yield extended medicinal effects. Nevertheless, translation of inhalation therapy from laboratory to clinic especially in drug delivery remains a key challenge to the formulators. An ideal drug vehicle should safeguard the drugs from any premature elimination, facilitate cellular uptake, and promote maximum drug absorption with negligible toxicity...
June 7, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
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