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Laboratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226748/epigenetic-biomarkers-current-strategies-and-future-challenges-for-their-use-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#1
José Luis García-Giménez, Marta Seco-Cervera, Trygve O Tollefsbol, Carlos Romá-Mateo, Lorena Peiró-Chova, Pablo Lapunzina, Federico V Pallardó
Epigenetic modifications and regulators represent potential molecular elements which control relevant physiological and pathological features, thereby contributing to the natural history of human disease. These epigenetic modulators can be employed as disease biomarkers, since they show several advantages and provide information about gene function, thus explaining differences among patient endophenotypes. In addition, epigenetic biomarkers can incorporate information regarding the effects of the environment and lifestyle on health and disease, and monitor the effect of applied therapies...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226724/standardization-of-clinical-enzyme-analysis-using-frozen-human-serum-pools-with-values-assigned-by-the-international-federation-of-clinical-chemistry-and-laboratory-medicine-reference-measurement-procedures
#2
Qing Tong, Baorong Chen, Rui Zhang, Chang Zuo
Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures...
December 9, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224512/analytical-validation-of-cardiac-troponin-i-assays-in-horses
#3
Tanya M Rossi, Peter A Kavsak, M Grant Maxie, David L Pearl, W Glen Pyle, Peter W Physick-Sheard
Human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assays have been used in equine medicine, often without prior analytical validation for equine use. In the absence of appropriate validation, the clinical significance of assay results is uncertain and can lead to misdiagnosis. We followed the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines and investigated linearity, precision, limit of quantification (LoQ), and comparative recovery for 6 commercial cTnI assays developed for use in human medicine. Clinically acceptable linearity was observed in assays A-D, whereas assay E did not detect equine cTnI in any sample...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223766/developing-a-value-proposition-for-high-sensitive-troponin-testing
#4
Andrew St John, Louise Cullen, Paul Jülicher, Christopher P Price
Laboratories are looking for ways that they can identify and deliver value through their service rather than just provide high quality test results. One way to demonstrate value has been described in the form of a value proposition where the application of a laboratory test is described explicitly in terms of the process of care and the patient outcomes. We have applied this concept to the use of high sensitive troponin assays for the assessment of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. From a previously described framework we use a checklist to describe the various steps in the complete intervention or clinical pathway, demonstrating how the test should be used, highlighting key evidence in the literature that supports the intervention and list some of the measures which can be used to assess how well the intervention is being adopted and implemented...
December 6, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222581/fractures-in-children-with-newly-diagnosed-hepatoblastoma
#5
Alexander J Towbin, Fernanda D C Braojos Braga, Bin Zhang, James I Geller, Greg M Tiao, Daniel J Podberesky
BACKGROUND: Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary hepatic malignancy in children. We have recently noticed an increased incidence of unsuspected fractures in children with newly diagnosed hepatoblastoma. This association has been suggested in the past, but the incidence and pathophysiology remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To define the incidence and imaging features of fractures in children with newly diagnosed hepatoblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the oncology database and the radiology picture archiving and communication system of our large tertiary care children's hospital between January 2000 and August 2013 for all patients who presented to our institution with newly diagnosed hepatoblastoma...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222339/the-biological-variation-data-critical-appraisal-checklist-a-standard-for-evaluating-studies-on-biological-variation
#6
Aasne K Aarsand, Thomas R Raas, Pilar Fernandez-Calle, Carmen Ricos, Jorge Díaz-Garzón, Niels Jonker, Carmen Perich, Elisabet González-Lao, Anna Carobene, Joana Minchinela, Abdurrahman Coŝkun, Margarita Simón, Virtudes Álvarez, William A Bartlett, Pilar Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz Boned, Federica Braga, Zoraida Corte, Berna Aslan, Sverre Sandberg
BACKGROUND: Concern has been raised about the quality of available biological variation (BV) estimates and the effect of their application in clinical practice. A European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Task and Finish Group has addressed this issue. The aim of this report is to (a) describe the Biological Variation Data Critical Appraisal Checklist (BIVAC), which verifies whether publications have included all essential elements that may impact the veracity of associated BV estimates, (b) use the BIVAC to critically appraise existing BV publications on enzymes, lipids, kidney, and diabetes-related measurands, and (c) apply metaanalysis to deliver a global within-subject BV (CVI) estimate for alanine aminotransferase (ALT)...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216879/anti-diabetic-potential-of-sapium-ellipticum-hochst-pax-leaf-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#7
Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
BACKGOUND: Ethnobatanical survey associates Sapium ellipticum (SE) with antidiabetic usage among other medicinal functions in different parts of Africa. More importantly, previous studies on the plant extract in our laboratory showed that SE has significant effects on the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In view of these, the anti-diabetic potential of the plant leaf extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rat model (Wistar strain) was examined...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215915/perspectives-on-the-relevance-of-the-circadian-time-structure-to-workplace-threshold-limit-values-and-employee-biological-monitoring
#8
Michael H Smolensky, Alain E Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen
The circadian time structure (CTS) and its disruption by rotating and nightshift schedules relative to work performance, accident risk, and health/wellbeing have long been areas of occupational medicine research. Yet, there has been little exploration of the relevance of the CTS to setting short-term, time-weighted, and ceiling threshold limit values (TLVs); conducting employee biological monitoring (BM); and establishing normative reference biological exposure indices (BEIs). Numerous publications during the past six decades document the CTS substantially affects the disposition - absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination - and effects of medications...
December 7, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215655/observed-frequency-and-challenges-of-variant-reclassification-in-a-hereditary-cancer-clinic
#9
Sarah Macklin, Nisha Durand, Paldeep Atwal, Stephanie Hines
PurposeEfforts have been made by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology to make variant classification more uniform, but many limitations remain. Reclassification of a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) is expected, but other more certain calls, like pathogenic or benign, can also be reclassified once additional information is gathered. Variant reclassification can create difficult circumstances for both patients and clinicians.MethodsRetrospective review of all variant reclassifications in genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes at one clinic between September 2013 and February 2017 was completed...
December 7, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214621/sandfly-fever-in-afghanistan-a-sometimes-overlooked-disease-of-military-importance-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
John W Downs, Daniel T Flood, Nicholas H Orr, Jason A Constantineau, James W Caviness
Sandfly fever, sometimes known as pappataci fever or Phlebotomus fever, is a vector transmitted viral illness with a history of affecting naïve military formations that travel through or fight in areas in which the infection is endemic. We present a series of 4 hospitalized cases of sandfly fever (2 presumptive, 2 laboratory confirmed) that were admitted to a Role 3 hospital in Afghanistan for evaluation and treatment following medical evacuation from a forward area for marked fevers and malaise. Laboratory evaluation of these cases was significant for leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, consistent with historical descriptions of sandfly fever...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214384/dispensability-of-annual-laboratory-follow-up-after-more-than-2%C3%A2-years-of-valproic-acid-use-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Rosanne W Meijboom, Koen P Grootens
BACKGROUND: The necessity of annual laboratory follow-up in patients treated with valproic acid (VPA) is controversial. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the need for annual laboratory follow-up of liver enzymes, electrolytes, and full blood count (FBC) in patients treated with VPA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic search in Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), MEDLINE, and EMBASE was undertaken in December 2016 to identify all published articles investigating or citing valproic acid, liver function disorders, electrolyte disorders, and FBC deviations...
December 6, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212546/electronic-laboratory-medicine-ordering-with-evidence-based-order-sets-in-primary-care-elmo-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#12
Nicolas Delvaux, An De Sutter, Stijn Van de Velde, Dirk Ramaekers, Steffen Fieuws, Bert Aertgeerts
BACKGROUND: Laboratory testing is an important clinical act with a valuable role in screening, diagnosis, management and monitoring of diseases or therapies. However, inappropriate laboratory test ordering is frequent, burdening health care spending and negatively influencing quality of care. Inappropriate tests may also result in false-positive results and potentially cause excessive downstream activities. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have shown promising results to influence the test-ordering behaviour of physicians and to improve appropriateness...
December 6, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212334/-hyperlipoprotienemias-and-not-only-atherosclerosis-fragments-from-history-and-present
#13
Richard Češka
The examples from the history, as well as the recent view, clearly demonstrate a great change in the perception of hyperlipoprotienemias and dyslipidemias (HLP and DLP) at the end of 20th and at the beginning of 21st century. Our aim is not a complex overview about HLP and DLP. We just want to describe the changing position and importance of these diseases in clinical medicine. We will touch cardiology, angiology, but also diabetology, hepatology and gastroenterology (pancreas). HLP and DLP, which started as a research topic in laboratory became clinically interesting as risk factors of atherosclerosis...
2017: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210591/duplicate-type-and-screen-testing-waste-in-the-clinical-laboratory
#14
Margaret L Compton, Penny C Szklarski, Garrett S Booth
CONTEXT: - In the United States, approximately 65 billion dollars is spent per year on clinical laboratory testing, of which 20% to 30% of all testing is deemed inappropriate. There have been multiple studies in the field of transfusion medicine regarding evidence-based transfusion practices, but limited data exist regarding inappropriate pretransfusion testing and its financial and clinical implications. OBJECTIVE: - To assess duplicative testing practices in the transfusion medicine service...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209139/bayes-theorem-the-roc-diagram-and-reference-values-definition-and-use-in-clinical-diagnosis
#15
REVIEW
Anders Kallner
Medicine is diagnosis, treatment and care. To diagnose is to consider the probability of the cause of discomfort experienced by the patient. The physician may face many options and all decisions are liable to uncertainty to some extent. The rational action is to perform selected tests and thereby increase the pre-test probability to reach a superior post-test probability of a particular option. To draw the right conclusions from a test, certain background information about the performance of the test is necessary...
February 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208979/induction-of-antimicrobial-peptides-secretion-by-il-1%C3%AE-enhances-human%C3%A2-amniotic-membrane-for-regenerative-medicine
#16
Fatemeh A Tehrani, Khashayar Modaresifar, Sara Azizian, Hassan Niknejad
Due to antibacterial characteristic, amnion has been frequently used in different clinical situations. Developing an in vitro method to augment endogenous antibacterial ingredient of amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells is desirable for a higher efficacy of this promising biomaterial. In this study, epithelial or mesenchymal side dependent effect of amniotic membrane (AM) on antibacterial activity against some laboratory and clinical isolated strains was investigated by modified disk diffusion method and colony count assay...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208856/prevalence-of-gerd-in-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-patients-admitted-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-bangladesh
#17
M A Rouf, M Khan, J U Sharif, M R Karim, M M Rahman, H Ahmed, H Pandit, A U Khan, M A Rahman, R K Talukder, R Parveen, H Akhter
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined as symptoms or complications associated with regurgitation from the stomach and/or the duodenum to the esophagus. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) were known to have higher prevalence of GERD in the Western countries, but data on the impact of GERD on DM patients in our country are scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the presence of GERD in type II DM patients admitted at the Department of Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from April 2015 to September 2015...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207713/analysis-of-patient-s-satisfaction-with-phlebotomy-services-in-nabh-accredited-neuropsychiatric-hospital-an-effective-tool-for-improvement
#18
Anshu Gupta, Tanima Dwivedi, Sadhana, Raju Chaudhary
Introduction: Patient's satisfaction is the need of the hour and one of the most important quality indicators in the laboratory medicine. Aim: To assess the patient's satisfaction with phlebotomy services in a neuropsychiatric hospital by a structured questionnaire with grading scale. Also, identify the problems causing dissatisfactions and to undertake necessary Corrective and Preventative Action (CAPA). Materials and Methods: Total 1200 patients were randomly selected over a period of two months (June and July 2016)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206010/regulation-circulation-and-distribution-of-penicillin-in-portugal-1944-1954
#19
Victoria Bell, João Rui Pita, Ana Leonor Pereira
Portugal did not participate in World War II but was one of the first countries in the world to receive penicillin for civilian use. The Portuguese Red Cross began to import the antibiotic from the United States of America in 1944 and appointed a controlling committee to oversee its distribution, due to the small amount available. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through the normal channels. An important role in its regulation was played by the official department responsible for controlling pharmaceutical and chemical products in Portugal, the Comissão Reguladora dos Produtos Químicos e Farmacêuticos (Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products)...
2017: Dynamis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202959/antim%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-and-antral-follicle-counts-are-not-reduced-compared-with-community-controls-in-patients-with-rigorously-defined-unexplained-infertility
#20
Eleni A Greenwood, Marcelle I Cedars, Nanette Santoro, Esther Eisenberg, Chia-Ning Kao, Daniel J Haisenleder, Michael P Diamond, Heather G Huddleston
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that women with unexplained infertility demonstrate evidence of diminished ovarian reserve when compared with a population of community controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Multicenter university-based clinical practices. PATIENT(S): Study participants included 277 healthy, normo-ovulatory female partners with rigorously defined unexplained infertility randomly selected from a multicenter trial (Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation)...
December 2017: Fertility and Sterility
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