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Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance, or the effect of immune reconstitution by anti-retroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections are children is lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children prior to and during their first year of ART. METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for non-opportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Entroctytoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
May 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Young Yil Bahk, Pyo Yun Cho, Sung Kyu Ahn, Sangjung Park, Won Hwa Jheong, Yun-Kyu Park, Ho-Joon Shin, Sang-Seob Lee, Okjae Rhee, Tong-Soo Kim
Waterborne parasitic protozoa, particularly Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp., are common causes of diarrhea and gastroenteritis worldwide. The most frequently identified source of infestation is water, and exposure involves either drinking water or recreation in swimming pools or natural bodies of water. In practice, studies on Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in surface water are challenging owing to the low concentrations of these microorganisms because of dilution. In this study, a 3-year monitoring of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia , and Naegleria fowleri was conducted from August 2014 to June 2016 at 5 surface water sites including 2 lakes, 1 river, and 2 water intake plants...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Joachim Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Norbert Müller
For over 50 years, metronidazole and other nitro compounds such as nitazoxanide have been used as a therapy of choice against giardiasis and more and more frequently, resistance formation has been observed. Model systems allowing studies on biochemical aspects of resistance formation to nitro drugs are, however, scarce since resistant strains are often unstable in culture. In order to fill this gap, we have generated a stable metronidazole- and nitazoxanide-resistant Giardia lamblia WBC6 clone, the strain C4...
April 28, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Wei Huang, Limei Yang, Gang Yang, Feng Li
A microfluidic laser scattering system for rapid and label-free detection of single waterborne parasites in microfluidic flows was designed, fabricated and demonstrated. The key novelty of the system lies in the integration of functional modules involving pre-concentration, on-chip laser scattering detection, and pattern recognition. The silicon-based pre-concentration chip can concentrate 10 ml reagent water sample spiked with protozoa (oo)cysts into a volume of 200 μl in ~30 minutes. The concentrated sample is further channeled into the on-chip laser scattering detection module at a flow rate of 10 μl/min, which can collect the multi-angle scattering pattern of single flowing microparticles...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Eman M H Méabed, Alaa I B Abou-Sreea, Mohamed H H Roby
Searching for new effective and safe treatment of Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) parasite is mandatory. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of an aqueous extract prepared from the leaves of Cymbagogon citratus (CcAE) against G. lamblia and to reveal the phenolic and antioxidant properties of CcAE. METHODS: CcAE (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 500 μg/ml) was in vitro incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites in comparison with metronidazole (MTZ 10 and 25 μg/ml). Growth inhibition was evaluated after 3, 24, and 48 h of drug exposure...
April 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Queli Lisiane Castro Pereira, Cristiane de Castro Pernet Hara, Rubian Trindade Silva Fernandes, Danny Laura Gomes Fagundes, Aline do Carmo França-Botelho, Maria Aparecida Gomes, Eduardo Luzía França, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França
Children are more susceptible to Giardia lamblia infection. Cells and hormones contained in human colostrum have an immunoprotective action against giardiasis, but the effects of advanced maternal age on these components are poorly understood. This study analyzed the colostrum of older women to determine melatonin and cortisol levels besides the participation of these hormones on the functional activity of phagocytes against G. lamblia. Colostrum samples were collected from younger (18 to 35 years old) and older (over 36 years old) lactating women...
April 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Marisol Garzón, Luís Pereira-da-Silva, Jorge Seixas, Ana Luísa Papoila, Marta Alves
The associations between enteric pathogenic parasites and growth in infants in São Tomé were explored using a refined anthropometric approach to recognize early growth faltering. A birth cohort study was conducted with follow-up to 24 months of age. Microscopic examination for protozoa and soil-transmitted helminths was performed. Anthropometric assessments included: z-scores for weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), weight (WAVZ) and length velocities (LAVZ), length-for-age difference (LAD), and wasting and stunting risk (≤-1 SD)...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
I Migriauli, V Meunargia, I Chkhaidze, G Sabakhtarishvili, K Gujabidze, G Khokrishvili, J Janashia, G Kamkamidze
Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus, is the most common identifiable etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infections among hospitalized children has been increasing across the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate occurrence of Clostridium difficile and some other gastrointestinal pathogens among hospitalized pediatric patients in Georgia, as far as currently statistical data on the topic is very limited in the country. One of the objectives of the study was to test and pilot the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction diagnostic systems for rapid and simultaneous identification of number of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics as these are one of the primary public health priorities in Georgia and worldwide...
February 2018: Georgian Medical News
Christian J Versloot, Suzanna Attia, Céline Bourdon, Susan E Richardson, Isabel Potani, Robert H J Bandsma, Wieger Voskuijl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) often suffer from diarrhea, which is associated with increased mortality. The contribution of intestinal bacteria, parasites and viruses to morbidity such as diarrhea in SAM remains poorly understood. To evaluate their association with clinical outcomes, we detected stool pathogens in children with SAM at hospital admission and after clinical stabilization prior to discharge. METHODS: 15 intestinal pathogens, fecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined at admission and after clinical stabilization in children aged 8-59 months (n = 47) hospitalized in Malawi for complicated SAM...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Yan-Ling Yin, Hui-Jun Zhang, Ya-Jie Yuan, Huan Tang, Dan Chen, Sha Jing, Hao-Xian Wu, Sha-Sha Wang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is an important zoonotic parasite that parasitizes the gastro-intestines of humans and animals, with diarrhea as the most common clinical symptom. The goat has been indicated as one of the most important reservoirs of G. duodenalis for humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1311 faecal specimens were examined, and the overall prevalence was 7...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Eleuza Rodrigues Machado, Núbia Oliveira Matos, Sinione Morais Rezende, Daniela Carlos, Thauana Cristina Silva, Leônia Rodrigues, Maria Jarlene Rodrigues Almeida, Maria Regina Fernandes de Oliveira, Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Host-parasite interactions in diabetic patients might influence diabetes complications and intestinal parasitosis. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of enteroparasites in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2. A descriptive study was designed to estimate frequencies of parasites and to compare them in individuals with diabetes types 1 and 2 from two Health Centers and one hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. Patients were allocated to the study by convenience. Three fecal samples of 156 diabetic individuals (120 type 1 and 36 type 2) were analyzed using two parasitological methods...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Dibyendu Raj, Punam Chowdhury, Rituparna Sarkar, Yumiko Saito-Nakano, Keinosuke Okamoto, Shanta Dutta, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Sandipan Ganguly
Giardia lamblia , an anaerobic, amitochondriate protozoan parasite causes parasitic infection giardiasis in children and young adults. It produces pyruvate, a major metabolic product for its fermentative metabolism. The current study was undertaken to explore the effects of pyruvate as a physiological antioxidant during oxidative stress in Giardia by cysteine-ascorbate deprivation and further investigation upon the hypothesis that oxidative stress due to metabolism was the reason behind the cytotoxicity. We have estimated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation due to cysteine-ascorbate deprivation in Giardia ...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
N I Bi-Xian, S Ming-Xue, X U Xiang-Zhen, W Xiao-Ting, D Yang, J Xiao-Lin
Objective To know the contamination status of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium in drinking water of Jiangsu Province, so as to provide the evidence for producing hygiene and safety drinking water. Methods A total of 28 water plants of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province were selected, and the source water (10 L), chlorinated water (100 L) and tap water (100 L) were collected separately in each site. The water samples were then treated by filtration, washing, centrifuging concentration, immune magnetic separation, and immunofluorescent assay, to detect the numbers of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts...
May 17, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Zhang Le-Sheng, Wang Yan-Juan, Cao Jian-Ping
Giardia lamblia is an important intestinal protozoan which can cause diarrhea in humans. The detection of Giardia infection is performed through the detection methods of pathogen, immunoassay and molecular biology. Currently, the immunodiagnostic methods have good application and development prospect because of high sensitivity and specificity, simple and convenient, and time saving. In this article, we review the main progress and application of immunodiagnostic methods for Giardia infection.
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Abdurahaman Seid, Zemenu Tamir, Brhanu Kasanew, Moges Senbetay
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal parasites and H. pylori are well-known for their high prevalence worldwide. Thus, the objective of this study waste assess risk factors and co-infection of intestinal parasites and H. pylori among adult patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 consecutive adult patients from December 10, 2015 to February 30,2016. Stool and venous blood were collected for analysis of Intestinal parasites and H...
February 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Theo A Schuurs, Rob Koelewijn, Eric A T Brienen, Titia Kortbeek, Theo G Mank, Bert Mulder, Foekje F Stelma, Lisette van Lieshout, Jaap J van Hellemond
BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR methods are increasingly used in routine patient care settings not only to determine the presence or absence of pathogens in patient materials, but also to obtain semiquantitative results to estimate the pathogen load. However, it is so far unknown how well these methods are harmonized among different laboratories. METHODS: Sets of stool samples were distributed three to four times per year to ca. 25-40 participating laboratories within the European Union as part of an external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) for the detection of gastrointestinal protozoa...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Carolina Gasparinho, Filipa S Ferreira, António Carlos Mayer, Maria Clara Mirante, Susana Vaz Nery, Ana Santos-Reis, Daniela Portugal-Calisto, Miguel Brito
Background: Giardia lamblia is a pathogenic intestinal protozoan with high prevalence in developing countries, especially among children. Molecular characterization has revealed the existence of eight assemblages, with A and B being more commonly described in human infections. Despite its importance, to our knowledge this is the first published molecular analysis of G. lamblia assemblages in Angola. Methods: The present study aimed to identify the assemblages of G...
November 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Akua Obeng Forson, Isaac Arthur, Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in school children are a public health problem in most developing countries. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2016 with school children living in overcrowded urban slums in Accra, Ghana. A simple random sample of 300 children aged 2-9 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire and stool tests to obtain information on epidemiological, sanitation habits, employment and education status of parents and children...
2018: PloS One
Shumin Xiao, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Sike Hu
Little is known about the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in China. A total of 52 samples were collected from recreational lakes in Tianjin during a high-occurrence season (June-October) for the waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, and the occurrence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were investigated. The results showed that 82.7% (43) and 98.1% (51) of samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cysts, respectively. The mean concentration of parasites was 3...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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