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G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Abidelfatah M Nasser, Neta-Lee Benisti, Naomi Ofer, Sivan Hovers, Yeshayahu Nitzan
Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Maureen N Kinyua, Ileana Wald, Fabricio Camacho-Céspedes, Ricardo Izurieta, Charles N Haas, Sarina J Ergas
Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Adane Derso, Endalkachew Nibret, Abaineh Munshea
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women...
September 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Juri Kim, Soon-Jung Park
Giardia lamblia is a protozoan that causes diarrheal diseases in humans. Cytoskeletal structures of Giardia trophozoites must be finely reorganized during cell division. To identify Giardia proteins which interact with microtubules (MTs), Giardia lysates were incubated with in vitro-polymerized MTs and then precipitated by ultracentifugation. A hypothetical protein (GL50803_8405) was identified in the precipitated fraction with polymerized MTs and was named GlMBP1 (G. lamblia microtubule-binding protein 1)...
August 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Nahuel Zamponi, Constanza Feliziani, María C Touz
Zumthor et al. recently reported a novel function for clathrin coatomer in Giardia lamblia endocytosis. On the basis of old and new data, we propose an updated model of the participation of clathrin function in this parasite.
September 12, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Tahereh Mikaeili Galeh, Abdolhassan Kazemi, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Behzad Baradaran, Adel Spotin, Seddigheh Sarafraz, Majid Karamat
OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequencies (F) of ferredoxin and nitroreductase mutations on Iranian clinical isolates of Giardia lamblia in order to predict whether the nitazoxanide can be prescribed as suitable drug for symptomatic to metronidazole-resistant giardiasis. METHODS: Forty Giardia lamblia isolates as of 38 symptomatic and two metronidazole-resistant patients were collected from Iran. DNAs were extracted and amplified by targeting ferredoxin and GlNR genes...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Supriya M Paranjpe, Avani Koticha, Preeti R Mehta
Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by low antibody levels and recurrent infections. This makes an individual more prone to recurrent respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In cases where there is persistent positive finding of intestinal parasites in stool, a high index of suspicion should be raised to rule out immunodeficiency state. Early diagnosis of such cases will help in reducing the morbidity and better management of the patient. A case of CVID in 18-year-old male with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection and chronic diarrhoea due to Giardia lamblia is reported herewith...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Rasool Jafari, Forough Sharifi, Bahram Bagherpour, Marzieh Safari
Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
R Pijnacker, L Mughini-Gras, M Heusinkveld, J Roelfsema, W van Pelt, T Kortbeek
Giardia lamblia is a major cause of diarrhoea in children, especially those attending day-care centres (DCCs). Only Giardia assemblages A and B infect humans. Given the lack of assemblage-specific epidemiological data, we aimed to identify risk factors for infection by assemblages A and B in DCC attendees. During 2010-2013, 5,015 faecal samples from ≤4-year-old children attending 40 DCCs participating in laboratory surveillance in the Netherlands were tested for Giardia using RT-PCR. Giardia-positive samples were typed for identification of assemblages A and B...
September 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jana Krtková, Elizabeth B Thomas, Germain C M Alas, Elisabeth M Schraner, Habib R Behjatnia, Adrian B Hehl, Alexander R Paredez
UNLABELLED: Encystation of the common intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia involves the production, trafficking, and secretion of cyst wall material (CWM). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for the regulation of these sequential processes remains elusive. Here, we examined the role of GlRac, Giardia's sole Rho family GTPase, in the regulation of endomembrane organization and cyst wall protein (CWP) trafficking. Localization studies indicated that GlRac is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus-like encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs)...
2016: MBio
Clarissa Perez Faria, Graziela Maria Zanini, Gisele Silva Dias, Sidnei da Silva, Maria do Céu Sousa
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of giardiasis, the genetic characterization of Giardia lamblia has been poorly documented in Brazil and molecular epidemiology research has only been conducted in the last few years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different G. lamblia assemblages and detect mixed infections among patients with giardiasis. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cross-section survey was conducted among patients attending the FIOCRUZ in Rio de Janeiro...
2016: PloS One
Abdulsalam M Al-Mekhlafi, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Samira M Al-Eryani, Reyadh Saif-Ali, Mohammed A K Mahdy
Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
Lilian Nyindodo-Ogari, Steven D Schwartzbach, Omar Skalli, Carlos E Estraño
Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maria Fantinatti, Alexandre R Bello, Octavio Fernandes, Alda M Da-Cruz
Giardia lamblia is a pathogen transmitted by water and food that causes infection worldwide. Giardia genotypes are classified into 8 assemblages (A-H). Assemblages A and B are detected in humans, but they are potentially zoonotic because they infect other mammalian hosts. Giardia in samples from 44 children was genotyped. Conserved fragments of the genes encoding β-giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase were sequenced and their alignment were carried out with sequences deposited in GenBank. As expected for Rio de Janeiro, the majority of samples were related to assemblage A...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
V E Kazmirchuk, V V Tsaryk, D V Maltsev, V V Dyseeva, T V Voytyuk, E I Sidorenko, I I Solon'ko, A V Pyankova
Based on many years of experience in 2009, we developed the original concept of a mixed approach to the treatment of infectious diseases in patients. During 2.5 years(from 2013 to June 2015) to have applied for consultative-diagnostic help of 3965 patients who had not verified the primary diagnosis. The basic principle of verification of the pathology of the removal of various causes immunosuppression. Based on our extensive, research and observation was often found in patients ascaridosis (55%) and giardiasis (65%), as a possible cause of immunosuppression...
October 2015: Likars'ka Sprava
David Leitsch, Joachim Müller, Norbert Müller
The antioxidative enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) has been suggested to be a drug target in several pathogens, including the protist parasite Giardia lamblia. TrxR is also believed to catalyse the reduction of nitro drugs, e.g. metronidazole and furazolidone, a reaction required to render these compounds toxic to G. lamblia and other microaerophiles/anaerobes. It was the objective of this study to assess the potential of TrxR as a drug target in G. lamblia and to find direct evidence for the role of this enzyme in the activation of metronidazole and other nitro drugs...
July 22, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
R Pijnacker, L Mughini-Gras, H Vennema, R Enserink, C C VAN DEN Wijngaard, T Kortbeek, W VAN Pelt
Insights into transmission dynamics of enteropathogens in children attending daycare are limited. Here we aimed at identifying daycare centre (DCC) characteristics associated with time-clustered occurrence of enteropathogens in DCC-attending children. For this purpose, we used the KIzSS network, which comprises 43 DCCs that participated in infectious disease surveillance in The Netherlands during February 2010-February 2013. Space-time scan statistics were used to identify clusters of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp...
September 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Marco Bonani, Rahja M Pereira, Benjamin Misselwitz, Thomas Fehr, Rudolf P Wüthrich, Daniel Franzen
BACKGROUND: Chronic norovirus infection is an emerging challenge in the immunocompromised host, in whom it may be asymptomatic or present as chronic diarrhea. The mechanisms of diarrhea in chronic norovirus infection are not well understood, but in analogy to Gardia lamblia and rotavirus infections, secondary lactose maldigestion (LM) might be implicated. METHODS: Adult renal transplant recipients (RTRs) who had symptomatic chronic norovirus infection with diarrhea were asked to participate in this prospective parallel cohort study...
August 1, 2016: Transplantation
Vishal Sharma, Arvind Ahuja
An 18-year-old woman presented with recurrent episodes of diarrhea associated with epigastric discomfort and bloating. Examination of the stool revealed trophozoites of the species Giardia lamblia. She underwent gastroduodenoscopy, which revealed numerous nodules in the duodenum (Panel A). Multiple..
July 21, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
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