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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923091/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-risk-factors-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-some-school-children-in-a-suburb-in-accra-ghana
#1
Akua Obeng Forson, Isaac Arthur, Michael Olu-Taiwo, Kathrine Korkor Glover, Prince Jonathan Pappoe-Ashong, Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and establish some risk factors associated with the acquisition of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in school children in Accra, Ghana. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 15%. Giardia lamblia (10%) and Schistosoma mansoni (1.7%) were the common parasites found. Out of the 15% students postive for intestinal parasites, 13.6% had single parasites and 1.3% had double parasitic infections...
September 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915270/the-single-cyclic-nucleotide-specific-phosphodiesterase-of-the-intestinal-parasite-giardia-lamblia-represents-a-potential-drug-target
#2
Stefan Kunz, Vreni Balmer, Geert Jan Sterk, Michael P Pollastri, Rob Leurs, Norbert Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Cornelia Spycher
BACKGROUND: Giardiasis is an intestinal infection correlated with poverty and poor drinking water quality, and treatment options are limited. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Giardia infections afflict nearly 33% of people in developing countries, and 2% of the adult population in the developed world. This study describes the single cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) of G. lamblia and assesses PDE inhibitors as a new generation of anti-giardial drugs...
September 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913339/ulcerative-gastritis-and-esophagitis-in-two-children-with-sarcina-ventriculi-infection
#3
Tim G J de Meij, Michiel P van Wijk, Aart Mookhoek, Andries E Budding
Sarcina ventriculi is a Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic coccus, with a characteristic morphology. Only 22 cases of human infections by this microorganism, including 7 in children, have been reported in literature so far. Affected subjects usually present with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and delayed gastric emptying. However, life-threatening complications, like emphysematous gastritis and gastric perforation have also been described. Gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction have been considered as a potential etiologic factor...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910741/drug-susceptibility-testing-in-microaerophilic-parasites-cysteine-strongly-affects-the-effectivities-of-metronidazole-and-auranofin-a-novel-and-promising-antimicrobial
#4
David Leitsch
The microaerophilic parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Giardia lamblia annually cause hundreds of millions of human infections which are treated with antiparasitic drugs. Metronidazole is the most often prescribed drug but also other drugs are in use, and novel drugs with improved characteristics are constantly being developed. One of these novel drugs is auranofin, originally an antirheumatic which has been relabelled for the treatment of parasitic infections. Drug effectivity is arguably the most important criterion for its applicability and is commonly assessed in susceptibility assays using in vitro cultures of a given pathogen...
September 5, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843417/evaluation-of-primitive-ground-water-supplies-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-major-waterborne-zoonosis-in-egyptian-children-living-in-rural-areas
#5
Hassan A Elfadaly, Nawal A Hassanain, Mohey A Hassanain, Ashraf M Barakat, Raafat M Shaapan
BACKGROUND: Endemic waterborne zoonosis frequently occurs in both developed and less developed countries. Thus, bio-surveillance of waterborne zoonosis is a "necessity" for the implementation of effective preventive public health measures in Egyptian rural areas. The primitive individual water supplies created by the rural agriculture population, primarily from ground water, usually maximize the customers' exposure to impurity pathogens via diffused humans and animal excreta or wastages...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830665/the-intersection-of-immune-responses-microbiota-and-pathogenesis-in-giardiasis
#6
REVIEW
Marc Y Fink, Steven M Singer
Giardia lamblia is one of the most common infectious protozoans in the world. Giardia rarely causes severe life-threatening diarrhea, and may even have a slight protective effect in this regard, but it is a major contributor to malnutrition and growth faltering in children in the developing world. Giardia infection also appears to be a significant risk factor for postinfectious irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndromes. In this review we highlight recent work focused on the impact of giardiasis and the mechanisms that contribute to the various outcomes of this infection, including changes in the composition of the microbiota, activation of immune responses, and immunopathology...
August 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793307/larrea-tridentata-a-novel-source-for-anti-parasitic-agents-active-against-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-and-naegleria-fowleri
#7
Bharat Bashyal, Linfeng Li, Trpta Bains, Anjan Debnath, Daniel V LaBarbera
Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771146/a-method-for-incorporating-a-time-dose-response-model-into-a-giardia-lamblia-outbreak
#8
Bidya Prasad, Michael O Ryan, Charles N Haas
Experimental time-to-infection data is a useful, but often underutilized, material for examining the mechanics of in vivo pathogen growth. In this paper, the authors attempt to incorporate a time-dose-response (TDR) equation into a model which predicts the number of ill persons per day in a Giardia lamblia epidemic using data collected from a Pittsfield, Massachusetts outbreak. To this end, dose-response and TDR models were generated for Giardia exposure to beaver and human volunteers, and a maximum likelihood estimation approach was used to ensure that the models provided acceptable fits...
August 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761464/genetic-variation-of-giardia-lamblia-isolates-from-food-handlers-in-kashan-central-iran
#9
Hossein Hooshyar, Shahrbanou Ghafarinasab, Mohsen Arbabi, Mahdi Delavari, Sima Rasti
BACKGROUND: Based on genotyping study of human isolates of Giardia lamblia; humans are mainly infected by two assemblages A and B. The present study was carried out to determine the sub-assemblages of G. lamblia isolated from food handlers referred to Kashan health centers, central Iran, 2015. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 3653 stool samples collected from food-handlers that annually refer to health center for getting a health certification and examined microscopically for G...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750066/cross-modulation-of-pathogen-specific-pathways-enhances-malnutrition-during-enteric-co-infection-with-giardia-lamblia-and-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli
#10
Luther A Bartelt, David T Bolick, Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Glynis L Kolling, Gregory L Medlock, Edna I Zaenker, Jeffery Donowitz, Rose Viguna Thomas-Beckett, Allison Rogala, Ian M Carroll, Steven M Singer, Jason Papin, Jonathan R Swann, Richard L Guerrant
Diverse enteropathogen exposures associate with childhood malnutrition. To elucidate mechanistic pathways whereby enteric microbes interact during malnutrition, we used protein deficiency in mice to develop a new model of co-enteropathogen enteropathy. Focusing on common enteropathogens in malnourished children, Giardia lamblia and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), we provide new insights into intersecting pathogen-specific mechanisms that enhance malnutrition. We show for the first time that during protein malnutrition, the intestinal microbiota permits persistent Giardia colonization and simultaneously contributes to growth impairment...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734513/cryptosporidium-and-giardia-infections-in-children-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Blandina T Mmbaga, Eric R Houpt
Diarrheal disease remains the second leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause and its importance stands to increase as rotavirus vaccine becomes used around the world. Cryptosporidium is particularly problematic in children younger than 2 years old and in the immunocompromised. Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal protozoan that is associated with diarrhea and, perhaps, growth faltering in impoverished settings. This review establishes the current prevalence of these infections in global settings and reviews current diagnosis and management approaches...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730516/cryptosporidium-infection-in-children-with-cancer-undergoing-chemotherapy-how-important-is-the-prevention-of-opportunistic-parasitic-infections-in-patients-with-malignancies
#12
Reza Berahmat, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Azim Rezamand, Adel Spotin, Nayyereh Aminisani, Roghayeh Ghoyounchi, Solmaz Madadi
Cryptosporidiosis is a relatively uncommon disease in healthy individuals but could be potentially worrisome in immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to evaluate Cryptosporidium infection in children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. A case-control study was conducted in 132 children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy and 132 non-cancer controls. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining and polymerase chain reaction methods were used for the detection of Cryptosporidium parasite. All positive isolates were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis...
July 20, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719267/comparison-of-cytokine-responses-in-ecuadorian-children-infected-with-giardia-ascaris-or-both-parasites
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jill Weatherhead, Andrea Arévalo Cortés, Carlos Sandoval, Maritza Vaca, Martha Chico, Sophia Loor, Philip J Cooper, Rojelio Mejia
AbstractMore than 2 billion people are infected with parasites globally, and the majority have coinfections. Intestinal protozoa and helminths induce polarizing CD4(+) T-helper cell 1 (Th1) mediated cytokine responses within the host. Such immune polarization may inhibit the ability of the host to mount an adequate immune response for pathogen clearance to concurrent pathogens. The current study evaluated the plasma cytokine profile in Ascaris and Giardia coinfected children compared with Giardia- and Ascaris-only infected children...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716138/prevalence-of-enteric-infections-among-hospitalized-patients-in-two-referral-hospitals-in-ghana
#14
R Akuffo, G Armah, M Clemens, K C Kronmann, A H Jones, P Agbenohevi, K Sagoe, N Puplampu, N Talla Nzussouo, W Ampofo, K Koram, C Duplessis, E Dueger
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Africa and Ghana in particular, it is estimated to contribute directly to 19 and 25% of pediatric mortality among children under 5 years, respectively. METHODS: Surveillance for hospitalized acute diarrheal illness was initiated in November 2010 through October 2012 in a referral hospital in southern Ghana, and a teaching hospital in northern Ghana. Consenting hospitalized patients who met a standardized case definition for acute diarrheal illness provided demographic and epidemiologic data...
July 17, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696565/the-er-is-the-sorting-core-facility-in-the-golgi-lacking-protozoan-giardia-lamblia
#15
Nahuel Zamponi, Emiliano Zamponi, Gonzalo F Mayol, Adriana Lanfredi-Rangel, Staffan G Svärd, María C Touz
Our understanding of protein and lipid trafficking in eukaryotic cells has been challenged by the finding of different forms of compartmentalization and cargo processing in protozoan parasites. Here, we show that, in the absence of a Golgi compartment in Giardia, proteins destined for secretion are directly sorted and packaged at specialized ER regions enriched in COPII coatomer complexes and ceramide. We also demonstrated that ER-resident proteins are retained at the ER by the action of a KDEL receptor, which, in contrast to other eukaryotic KDEL receptors, showed no interorganellar dynamic but instead acts specifically at the limit of the ER membrane...
July 11, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696551/sorting-without-a-golgi-complex
#16
REVIEW
Maria C Touz, Nahuel Zamponi
The endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-target organelle route is one of the most studied events and has fascinated researchers for years. However, the conservative mechanism of protein sorting and delivery is now being challenged by the finding of unconventional pathways driving protein sorting and transport. Protozoa parasites are being rediscovered as good models for analyzing alternative targeting pathways, associated with their ability to adapt to diverse environments and hosts. Here, we have gathered all the available information about secretory protein trafficking in Giardia lamblia, with a focus on how this protozoan parasite is able to sort and direct proteins to different compartments in the absence of a Golgi complex...
July 11, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679631/myosin-independent-cytokinesis-in-giardia-utilizes-flagella-to-coordinate-force-generation-and-direct-membrane-trafficking
#17
William R Hardin, Renyu Li, Jason Xu, Andrew M Shelton, Germain C M Alas, Vladimir N Minin, Alexander R Paredez
Devoid of all known canonical actin-binding proteins, the prevalent parasite Giardia lamblia uses an alternative mechanism for cytokinesis. Unique aspects of this mechanism can potentially be leveraged for therapeutic development. Here, live-cell imaging methods were developed for Giardia to establish division kinetics and the core division machinery. Surprisingly, Giardia cytokinesis occurred with a median time that is ∼60 times faster than mammalian cells. In contrast to cells that use a contractile ring, actin was not concentrated in the furrow and was not directly required for furrow progression...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674353/acute-acalculous-cholecystitis-caused-by-giardia-lamblia
#18
Hiromichi Araki, Shuya Shimizu, Katsumi Hayashi, Tomonori Yamada, Atsunori Kusakabe, Hiroshi Kanie, Yusuke Mizuno, Issei Kojima, Akitoshi Saitou, Kazuhiro Nagao, Yuka Suzuki, Tadashi Toyohara, Takanori Suzuki, Erika Uchida, Konomu Uno, Takahiro Nakazawa
We report a case of a 70-year-old man with acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by Giardia lamblia. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed distention of the gallbladder due to a pericholecystic abscess without gallstones. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and drip infusion cholecystocholangiography-CT demonstrated a stricture of the hilar bile duct and cystic duct obstruction. We conducted transpapillary bile duct brush cytology and a biopsy of the hilar bile duct stricture; numerous active trophozoites of Giardia lamblia were observed without malignant findings...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669825/new-multilocus-genotypes-of-giardia-lamblia-human-isolates
#19
Clarissa Perez Faria, Graziela Maria Zanini, Gisele Silva Dias, Sidnei da Silva, Maria do Céu Sousa
Giardia lamblia is considered a species complex, whose members show little differences in their morphology, but have remarkable genetic variability. The aim of this study was to identify inter- and intra-assemblage genetic variation in G. lamblia among patients in Rio de Janeiro. The parasitological study was performed on faeces, and DNA was extracted from the samples which tested positive for G. lamblia. The genetic assemblages and subtypes were determined via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase gene loci...
June 29, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656177/giardia-colonizes-and-encysts-in-high-density-foci-in-the-murine-small-intestine
#20
N R Barash, C Nosala, J K Pham, S G McInally, S Gourguechon, B McCarthy-Sinclair, S C Dawson
Giardia lamblia is a highly prevalent yet understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Hosts ingest Giardia cysts from contaminated sources. In the gastrointestinal tract, cysts excyst to become motile trophozoites, colonizing and attaching to the gut epithelium. Trophozoites later differentiate into infectious cysts that are excreted and contaminate the environment. Due to the limited accessibility of the gut, the temporospatial dynamics of giardiasis in the host are largely inferred from laboratory culture and thus may not mirror Giardia physiology in the host...
May 2017: MSphere
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