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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900419/measurement-of-giardia-lamblia-adhesion-force-using-an-integrated-microfluidic-assay
#1
Ling Lu, Guo-Xia Zheng, Yu-Suo Yang, Cheng-Yu Feng, Fang-Fang Liu, Yun-Hua Wang
The mechanisms how Giardias attach to the intestinal epithelium remain unclear. None of the methods currently being used to measure the attachment force could provide a continuous nutrition supply and a micro-aerobic atmosphere to the Giardia. Besides, they are all labor-intensive. In the present research, a microfluidic method based on electric circuit analogy was developed. The input fluid flowed through the inlet channel with different lengths and was distributed in four assay chambers. Shear force gradients were generated in chambers, too...
November 30, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892847/international-adoption-from-ethiopia-an-overview-of-the-health-status-at-arrival-in-belgium
#2
Lydia Van Kesteren, Marek Wojciechowski
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a densely populated country with a fast growing economy. Still socioeconomic and health issues render many children parentless. One thousand and twenty eight Ethiopian children have been adopted in Belgium from September 2005 to September 2015. Little has been published about their health status at arrival. METHODS: Three hundred and fifteen children adopted from Ethiopia were clinically evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2014...
November 28, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891182/case-control-study-of-diarrheal-disease-etiology-in-individuals-over-5%C3%A2-years-in-southwest-china
#3
Shun-Xian Zhang, Chun-Li Yang, Wen-Peng Gu, Lin Ai, Emmanuel Serrano, Pin Yang, Xia Zhou, Shi-Zhu Li, Shan Lv, Zhi-Sheng Dang, Jun-Hu Chen, Wei Hu, Li-Guang Tian, Jia-Xu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5 years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China. METHODS: 271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5 years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA; Norovirus, NoV; Sapovirus, SaV; Astrovirus, As; and Adenovirus, Ad), seven bacteria (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC; non-typhoidal Salmonella, NTS; Shigella spp...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884121/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-intestinal-protozoan-infections-a-population-based-study-in-rural-areas-of-boyer-ahmad-district-southwestern-iran
#4
Bahador Sarkari, Ghasem Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian, Mohammad Fararouei, Abdolali Moshfe
BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are still a significant health problem in rural areas in developing countries including Iran. There is no recent population-based data about the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in most rural areas of Iran. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infection in inhabitants of rural areas of Boyer-Ahmad district, Southwestern Iran. METHODS: A total of 1025 stool samples were collected from the inhabitant of 50 randomly selected villages in Boyer-Ahmad Township...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876915/effect-of-olive-leaf-satureja-khuzestanica-and-allium-sativum-extracts-on-giardia-lamblia-cysts-compared-with-metronidazole-in-vitro
#5
Sh Fallahi, A Rostami, B Delfan, Y Pournia, M Rashidipour
Giardia lamblia is one of the common causes of worldwide diarrhea in children. Appropriate medicinal treatment for giardiasis is available but there are some evidences of drug resistance, insufficient efficacy, and unpleasant side effects. In order to reach a more natural drug with suitable efficacy and the lowest side effects, the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts of olive leaf, Satureja khuzestanica, and Allium sativum on G. lamblia cysts were evaluated in vitro, as well as antigiardial effect of the extracts was compared with metronidazole as the drug of choice...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867026/artemisinin-and-its-derivatives-in-treating-protozoan-infections-beyond-malaria
#6
REVIEW
Cecilia Shi Ni Loo, Nelson Siu Kei Lam, Deying Yu, Xin-Zhuan Su, Fangli Lu
Many parasitic protozoan diseases continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems, which are also common among poor populations. Currently available drugs for treatment present drawbacks, urging the need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are some of the most important classes of antimalarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. However, besides the outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess activities against other parasitic protozoa...
November 17, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864857/protein-sumoylation-is-involved-in-cell-cycle-progression-and-cell-morphology-in-giardia-lamblia
#7
Bruno M Di Genova, Richard C da Silva, Júlia P C da Cunha, Pablo R Gargantini, Renato A Mortara, Renata R Tonelli
The unicellular protozoa Giardia lamblia is a food- and waterborne parasite that causes giardiasis. This illness is manifested as acute and self-limited diarrhea and can evolve to long-term complications. Successful establishment of infection by Giardia trophozoites requires adhesion to host cells and colonization of the small intestine, where parasites multiply by mitotic division. The tight binding of trophozoites to host cells occurs by means of the ventral adhesive disc, a spiral array of microtubules and associated proteins such as giardins...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861635/multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay-targeting-eight-parasites-customized-to-the-korean-population-potential-use-for-detection-in-diarrheal-stool-samples-from-gastroenteritis-patients
#8
Eun Jeong Won, Soo Hyun Kim, Seung Jung Kee, Jong Hee Shin, Soon Pal Suh, Jong Yil Chai, Dong Wook Ryang, Myung Geun Shin
Intestinal parasitic diseases occur worldwide and can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis; however, their diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in low-endemism countries. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of eight intestinal parasites and prospectively evaluated it for patients with gastroenteritis. The assay targeted Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Gymnophalloides seoi...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859890/phosphorylation-of-serine-148-in-giardia-lamblia-end-binding-1-protein-is-important-for-cell-division
#9
Juri Kim, Hye Yeon Lee, Kyu-Ho Lee, Soon-Jung Park
Giardia lamblia is a unicellular organism, showing a polarity with two nuclei and cytoskeletal structures. Accurate positioning of these organelles is essential for division of G. lamblia, which is poorly understood. G. lamblia end-binding 1 (GlEB1) protein and G. lamblia aurora kinase (GlAK) have been shown to modulate microtubule (MT) distribution during cytokinesis. A direct association between GlEB1 and GlAK was demonstrated. Like GlEB1, GlAK was also found at nuclear envelopes and median bodies of G. lamblia...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853120/multiplex-touchdown-pcr-to-simultaneously-detect-cryptosporidium-parvum-giardia-lamblia-and-cyclospora-cayetanensis-the-major-causes-of-traveler-s-diarrhea
#10
Ji-Hun Shin, Sang-Eun Lee, Tong Soo Kim, Da-Won Ma, Jong-Yil Chai, Eun-Hee Shin
This study aimed to develop a multiplex-touchdown PCR method to simultaneously detect 3 species of protozoan parasites, i.e., Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Cyclospora cayetanensis, the major causes of traveler's diarrhea and are resistant to standard antimicrobial treatments. The target genes included the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein for C. parvum, Glutamate dehydrogenase for G. lamblia, and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) for C. cayetanensis. The sizes of the amplified fragments were 555, 188, and 400 bps, respectively...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852150/frequency-diagnostic-performance-of-coproantigen-detection-and-genotyping-of-the-giardia-among-patients-referred-to-a-multi-level-teaching-hospital-in-northern-india
#11
Ujjala Ghoshal, Ratnakar Shukla, Priyannk Pant, Uday C Ghoshal
Giardiasis, a common gastrointestinal parasitic infection in tropics, is diagnosed on stool microscopy (gold standard); however, its sensitivity is low due to intermittent fecal shedding. Coproantigen detection (ELISA) is useful but requires further evaluation. We aimed to study: (a) detection of Giardia by stool microscopy and/or coproantigen, (b) diagnostic performance of fecal antigen detection and microscopy, and c) genotypic characterization of G. lamblia using PCR specific for triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene...
November 17, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837222/diarrhea-risks-by-exposure-to-livestock-waste-in-vietnam-using-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment
#12
Thu Le-Thi, Phuc Pham-Duc, Christian Zurbrügg, Toan Luu-Quoc, Huong Nguyen-Mai, Tu Vu-Van, Hung Nguyen-Viet
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to assess the diarrhea risks caused by various pathogens among those exposed to biogas wastewater through different activities. METHODS: Application of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of biogas wastewater was conducted in Hanam Province, Vietnam. A total of 451 representatives from households that use biogas were interviewed about their practices of handling biogas plant and reuse of biogas effluent for irrigation...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834438/drinking-water-system-treatment-and-contamination-in-shatila-refugee-camp-in-beirut-lebanon
#13
S Khoury, T Graczyk, G Burnham, M Jurdi, L Goldman
Drinking water at Shatila Palestinian Refugee Camp in Beirut, Lebanon is of poor quality and unpredictably intermittent quantity. We aimed to characterize drinking water sources and contamination at Shatila and determine how drinking water can be managed to reduce community health burdens. We interviewed the Popular Committee, well owners, water vendors, water shopkeepers and preschool administrators about drinking water sources, treatment methods and the population served. Water samples from the sources and intermediaries were analysed for thermotolerant faecal coliforms (FCs), Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, using immunofluorescent antibody detection for G...
November 2, 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812451/prevalence-of-enteropathogens-in-children-under-15%C3%A2-years-of-age-with-special-reference-to-parasites-in-kathmandu-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Sachita Dhital, Narayan Dutt Pant, Sanjeev Neupane, Saroj Khatiwada, Bijay Gaire, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Padma Shrestha
In developing countries like Nepal, gastrointestinal infections due to various parasites are common causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Present study was carried out from June 2013 to December 2013, among the children (<15 years of age) of Kathmandu Valley. Stool samples were collected from total 600 children (350 from four public schools and slum areas of Kathmandu valley and 250 from pediatric department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital). The main objectives of this study were to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in children below 15 years of age and their risk factors...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806042/identification-and-validation-of-small-gatekeeper-kinases-as-drug-targets-in-giardia-lamblia
#15
Kelly M Hennessey, Tess R Smith, Jennifer W Xu, Germain C M Alas, Kayode K Ojo, Ethan A Merritt, Alexander R Paredez
Giardiasis is widely acknowledged to be a neglected disease in need of new therapeutics to address toxicity and resistance issues associated with the limited available treatment options. We examined seven protein kinases in the Giardia lamblia genome that are predicted to share an unusual structural feature in their active site. This feature, an expanded active site pocket resulting from an atypically small gatekeeper residue, confers sensitivity to "bumped" kinase inhibitors (BKIs), a class of compounds that has previously shown good pharmacological properties and minimal toxicity...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800072/giardia-lamblia-infections-in-children-in-ghana
#16
Isaac Anim-Baidoo, Charles Akugbey Narh, Dora Oddei, Charles Addoquaye Brown, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Betty Bandoh, Eric Sampane-Donkor, George Armah, Andrew Anthony Adjei, David Nana Adjei, Patrick Ferdinand Ayeh-Kumi, Ben Adu Gyan
INTRODUCTION: Though giardiasis is an important public health problem in Ghana, several aspects of its epidemiology, particularly the molecular epidemiology has not been investigated adequately. This could be a major hindrance to effective surveillance and control of giardiasis in the country. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of Giardia lamblia infecting children at a paediatric hospital in Ghana. METHODS: A total of 485 patients including 365 diarrhoea and 120 non-diarrhoea children were enrolled into the study...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778108/seroprevalence-of-five-parasitic-pathogens-in-pregnant-women-in-ten-caribbean-countries
#17
Fengguang Guo, Martin S Forde, Stephen R Werre, Rosina C Krecek, Guan Zhu
To date, published epidemiological studies of parasitic infections in humans in the Caribbean region are very limited. Here, we report the seroprevalence of five parasitic pathogens, including Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Schistosoma mansoni, and Toxocara canis in 435 serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 from pregnant women in ten Caribbean islands. We tested the serum samples for IgG antibodies against the five parasites by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771437/specific-histone-modifications-play-critical-roles-in-the-control-of-encystation-and-antigenic-variation-in-the-early-branching-eukaryote-giardia-lamblia
#18
Pedro G Carranza, Pablo R Gargantini, César G Prucca, Alessandro Torri, Alicia Saura, Staffan Svärd, Hugo D Lujan
During evolution, parasitic microorganisms have faced the challenges of adapting to different environments to colonize a variety of hosts. Giardia lamblia, a common cause of intestinal disease, has developed fascinating strategies to adapt both outside and inside its host's intestine, such as trophozoite differentiation into cyst and the switching of its major surface antigens. How gene expression is regulated during these adaptive processes remains undefined. Giardia lacks some typical eukaryotic features, like canonical transcription factors, linker histone H1, and complex promoter regions; suggesting that post-transcriptional and translational control of gene expression is essential for parasite survival...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770538/rapid-identification-of-the-etiological-factors-causing-diarrheal-diseases
#19
G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768545/comparative-reduction-of-giardia-cysts-f-coliphages-sulphite-reducing-clostridia-and-fecal-coliforms-by-wastewater-treatment-processes
#20
Abidelfatah M Nasser, Neta-Lee Benisti, Naomi Ofer, Sivan Hovers, Yeshayahu Nitzan
Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
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