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Large bowel

M Moschetta, R Virelli, F Laricchia, V Alberotanza, M Telegrafo, G Angelelli, A A Stabile Ianora
Lipomas of the digestive tract are rare benign tumours which, in most cases, are totally asymptomatic. Because of their localization within the intestinal wall, endoscopy may be completely negative so contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is very important for detecting and typing these lesions. The case of a 49-year-old man with abdominal pain is presented. Colonoscopy and biopsy of a polypoid lesion on the right colonic flexure concluded for tubulovillous adenoma. The subsequent CT showed a polylobate lesion of 5 cm in diameter with predominant fat density causing luminal sub-stenosis...
January 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Satoru Kondo, Toshimitsu Araki, Yoshiki Okita, Akira Yamamoto, Yasuhiko Hamada, Masaki Katsurahara, Noriyuki Horiki, Misaki Nakamura, Takahiro Shimoyama, Takayuki Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki Takei, Masato Kusunoki
Orally administered Qing-dai, called indigo naturalis in Latin, is reportedly useful for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We herein describe two patients with ulcerative colitis who developed colitis with wall thickening and edematous changes during oral administration of the powdered form of Qing-dai. In Case 1, a 35-year-old man developed colitis similar to ischemic colitis with bloody stool that recurred each time he ingested Qing-dai. He had no signs of recurrence upon withdrawal of Qing-dai. In Case 2, a 43-year-old woman underwent ileocecal resection for treatment of an intussusception 2 months after beginning oral administration of Qing-dai...
March 16, 2018: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Mariya E Skube, Quinn Mallery, Elizabeth Lusczek, Joel Elterman, Mary A Spott, Greg J Beilman
Introduction: Although there are multiple studies regarding the management and outcomes of colonic injuries incurred in combat, the literature is limited with regard to small bowel injuries. This study seeks to provide the largest reported review of the characteristics of combat-associated small bowel injuries. Materials and Methods: The Department of Defense Trauma Registry was queried for U.S. Armed Forces members who sustained hollow viscus injuries in the years 2007-2012 during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn...
March 13, 2018: Military Medicine
Adelaide Tawiah, Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Hayley Gorman, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is a large glycoprotein produced by goblet cells that forms the protective mucus blanket overlying the intestinal epithelium as the first line of innate host defense. High MUC2 production in inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis depletes goblet cells and the mucus layer by an unknown mechanism. Here, we analyzed the effect of high MUC2 biosynthesis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in goblet cells using a high MUC2-producing human goblet cell line (HT29-H) and a HT29-H clone (HT29-L) silenced for MUC2 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
S Mashlab, P Large, W Laing, O Ng, M D'Auria, D Thurston, S Thomson, A G Acheson, D J Humes, A Banerjea
Introduction Anaemia is associated with cancer. In 2014 a new form was introduced in our department requesting a haemoglobin (Hb) result on every two-week wait referral for suspected colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to review the impact of this intervention. In particular, the significance of any evidence of anaemia (without additional indices) was investigated. Methods A review was conducted of 1,500 consecutive suspected CRC referrals recorded prospectively over a 10-month period. Data on demographics, referral Hb, referral criteria and outcomes were analysed...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Hiroshi Tamura, Tatsuo Kanda, Tadasu Chida, Hitoshi Kameyama, Ukihide Tateishi, Toshifumi Wakai, Makoto Naito
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a rare disease characterized by multiple gas-filled cysts in the intestinal wall and is associated with various comorbidities. We report herein a case of intractable paralytic ileus caused by primary PCI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man visited out hospital complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting. He had been hospitalized twice for intestinal obstruction in the past 2 months. Based on his history of appendectomy, mechanical bowel obstruction caused by adhesion was diagnosed, and the patient underwent surgery...
March 14, 2018: Surgical Case Reports
Lisette Binkhorst, Annemieke Sobels, Rogier Stuyt, Elsbeth M Westerman, Rachel L West
OBJECTIVE: Currently, a biosimilar of Remicade is available (CT-P13). Switching patients from Remicade to a biosimilar is still under debate, especially for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In a retrospective study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of switching patients with IBD from Remicade to a biosimilar infliximab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: At two large general hospitals in The Netherlands, adult patients with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis being treated with Remicade were asked to switch to the biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13)...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Iris Mair, Stephanie E J Zandee, Iqbal S Toor, Louise Saul, Rhoanne C McPherson, Melanie D Leech, Danielle J Smyth, Richard A O'Connor, Neil C Henderson, Stephen M Anderton
Several inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease have been associated with dysfunctional and/or reduced numbers of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). While numerous mechanisms of action have been discovered by which Treg can exert their function, disease-specific Treg requirements remain largely unknown. We found that the integrin αv, which can pair with several β subunits including β8, is highly upregulated in Treg at sites of inflammation. Using mice that lacked αv expression or β8 expression specifically in Treg, we demonstrate that there was no deficit in Treg accumulation in the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and no difference in the resolution of disease compared to control mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fatemeh Zaribaf, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Parvane Saneei, Awat Feizi, Hamed Daghaghzadeh, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Peyman Adibi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The associations between empirically derived dietary habits and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have not been investigated. This study aimed to assess the relationship between empirically derived dietary habits and IBS in a large population of Iranian adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, dietary habits of 4763 adults were assessed in three domains, "meal pattern", "eating rate" and "intra-meal fluid intake"...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Johann Hammer
OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is challenging due to the lack of reliable biological markers to support the diagnosis. We assessed the relevance of a previously validated simple test for chemical hypersensitivity in the setting of a gastrointestinal outpatient department. METHODS: A total of 224 outpatients who were referred for evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of alarm symptoms swallowed a capsule containing 0.75 mg capsaicin...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-Song Bian, Dongdong Sun, Lingyi Kong, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Chronic stress is known to promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unresolved. Here, we found chronic stress to sensitize mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis; to increase the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory ly6Chi macrophages in colonic lamina propria; and to present with decreased thymus and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) coefficients. Circulating total white blood cells were significantly increased after stress, and the proportion of MLN-associated immune cells were largely changed...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Weiwei Lin, Hongtao Xu, Guman Duan, Jinjin Xie, Yisheng Chen, Baohua Jiao, Haitao Lan
Purpose Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is the clinical manifestation of an abnormal stretch on the spinal cord, caused by several pathological conditions. Tethered cord release is the gold standard treatment for TCS. However, direct untethering carries potential risks of spinal cord injury, post-operative retethering, and CSF-related complications. Spine-shortening osteotomy (SSO) has recently been performed as an alternative technique to avoid these risks. We aimed to systematically review the literature on indications and outcome of SSO in TCS patients...
March 12, 2018: Neurological Research
Xiuzhen Yang, Yuebin Zhang, Jingjing Ye
We report a rare case of sonographic (US) diagnosis of four water beads causing small-bowel obstruction in an 18-month-old boy. The boy presented with a 3-day history of repeated bouts of abdominal pain and vomiting, which became bilious on the last day. Abdominal US examination showed four rounded anechoic masses in the small bowel. Urgent exploratory laparotomy revealed that the obstruction was caused by three large water beads with a diameter of 2.8 cm and fragments of a fourth one. Foreign bodies should be considered in cases of small-bowel obstruction; US can be very helpful in the diagnosis of water beads in the bowel...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Katsunori Matsueda, Tatsuya Toyokawa, Masahiro Sakata, Isao Fujita, Jouichiro Horii
This case report refers to a 31-year-old patient with an 11-year history of Crohn's disease. The patient presented with an edematous elevated lesion in the splenic flexure. Two histological analyses revealed no signs of obvious dysplasia, and the patient subsequently began infliximab treatment. Nine months later, a worsening of the stricture of the edematous elevated lesion was observed in the splenic flexure, and transverse colonic resection was performed. A histological investigation of the lesion in the splenic flexure revealed advanced adenocarcinoma...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
H Roman, M Ballester, J Loriau, M Canis, P A Bolze, J Niro, S Ploteau, C Rubod, C Yazbeck, P Collinet, B Rabischong, B Merlot, X Fritel
The article presents French guidelines for surgical management of endometriosis. Surgical treatment is recommended for mild to moderate endometriosis, as it decreases pelvic painful complaints and increases the likelihood of postoperative conception in infertile patients (A). Surgery may be proposed in symptomatic patients with ovarian endometriomas which diameter exceeds 20mm. Cystectomy allows for better postoperative pregnancy rates when compared to ablation using bipolar current, as well as for lower recurrences rates when compared to ablation using bipolar current or CO2 laser...
March 8, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Chenyang Wang, Qiurong Li, Jieshou Li
The gut microbiota is mainly composed of a diverse population of commensal bacterial species and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, immune modulation and metabolism. The influence of the gut microbiota on solid organ transplantation has recently been recognized. In fact, several studies indicated that acute and chronic allograft rejection in small bowel transplantation (SBT) is closely associated with the alterations in microbial patterns in the gut. In this review, we focused on the recent findings regarding alterations in the microbiota following SBTand the potential roles of these alterations in the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection...
March 9, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Rita Vale Rodrigues, Isabel Claro, Pedro Lage, Isadora Rosa, Sara Ferreira, João Pereira da Silva, António Dias Pereira
PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome (LS) is associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to assess the cumulative risk for the development of colorectal adenomas or carcinomas in a LS CRC surveillance program and to audit the quality of the endoscopic procedures. METHODS: We evaluated 147 asymptomatic LS mutation carriers, without previous CRC, in a surveillance program with colonoscopy every 12-18 months, between 2005 and 2016. Data was obtained by retrospective review of colonoscopy reports and hospital clinical files...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Miriam Steinberg, Joseph P Gaut, Stanley Paul Hmiel, Aadil Kakajiwala
Monoclonal gammopathies are a rare diagnosis in pediatric patients. A 19-year-old female patient with past medical history of hypogammaglobulinemia and natural killer cell deficiency and stage III follicular lymphoma, in remission, presented with a right-sided pneumonia, noted to have acute kidney injury and proteinuria. Complement C3 and C4 levels were normal. Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Mohamed E Salem, Alberto Puccini, Axel Grothey, Derek Raghavan, Richard M Goldberg, Joanne Xiu, W Michael Korn, Benjamin A Weinberg, Jimmy J Hwang, Anthony F Shields, John L Marshall, Philip A Philip, Heinz-Josef Lenz
The efficacy of immunotherapy varies widely among different gastrointestinal cancers. Response to immune checkpoint inhibitors is shown to correlate with tumor mutation load (TML), mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) status, and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Herein, we quantify TML, dMMR, and PD-L1 expression and determine their interrelationship in gastrointestinal cancers. Here, a total of 4125 tumors from 14 different gastrointestinal cancer sites were studied using validated assays. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on genomic DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens using the NextSeq platform...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Amihood Singer, Idit Maya, Arie Koifman, Nadra Nasser Samra, Hagit N Baris, Tzipora Falik-Zaccai, Shay Ben Shachar, Lena Sagi-Dain
INTRODUCTION: Fetal echogenic bowel is a frequent sonographic finding, demonstrated in about 1% of pregnancies. The advised evaluation of fetal echogenic bowel includes maternal serology, genetic testing for cystic fibrosis, detailed sonographic anatomic survey, and invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal aberrations. The objective of our study was to evaluate the risk for clinically significant chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) findings in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel...
March 6, 2018: Early Human Development
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