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malaria disease severity scores

Monika Samant, Nidhi Chadha, Anjani K Tiwari, Yasha Hasija
Malaria, a life-threatening blood disease, has been a major concern in the field of healthcare. One of the severe forms of malaria is caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum which is initiated through protein interactions of pathogen with the host proteins. It is essential to analyse the protein-protein interactions among the host and pathogen for better understanding of the process and characterizing specific molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen persistence and survival. In this study, a complete protein-protein interaction network of human host and Plasmodium falciparum has been generated by integration of the experimental data and computationally predicting interactions using the interolog method...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Richard Idro, Angelina Kakooza-Mwesige, Benjamin Asea, Keron Ssebyala, Paul Bangirana, Robert O Opoka, Samson K Lubowa, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Chandy C John, Joyce Nalugya
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) and severe malarial anaemia (SMA) are associated with neuro-developmental impairment in African children, but long-term mental health disorders in these children are not well defined. METHODS: A cohort of children previously exposed to CM (n = 173) or SMA (n = 99) had neurologic assessments performed and screening for behaviour difficulties using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) a median of 21 months after the disease episode...
2016: Malaria Journal
Phyo Pyae Nyein, Ne Myo Aung, Tint Tint Kyi, Zaw Win Htet, Nicholas M Anstey, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
Background.  African children with severe falciparum malaria commonly have concomitant Gram-negative bacteremia, but co-infection has been thought to be relatively rare in adult malaria. Methods.  Adults with a diagnosis of falciparum malaria hospitalized at 4 tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar had blood cultures collected at admission. The frequency of concomitant bacteremia and the clinical characteristics of the patients, with and without bacteremia, were explored. Results.  Of 67 adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria, 9 (13% [95% confidence interval, 5...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
James R M Hargreaves, Catherine Goodman, Calum Davey, Barbara A Willey, Bilal Iqbal Avan, Joanna Rm Armstrong Schellenberg
Evaluation of strategies to ensure evidence-based, low-cost interventions reach those in need is critical. One approach is to measure the strength, or intensity, with which packages of interventions are delivered, in order to explore the association between implementation strength and public health gains. A recent systematic review suggested methodological guidance was needed. We described the approaches used in three examples of measures of implementation strength in evaluation. These addressed important public health topics with a substantial disease burden in low-and middle-income countries; they involved large-scale implementation; and featured evaluation designs without comparison areas...
September 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Nasim Lowlaavar, Charles P Larson, Elias Kumbakumba, Guohai Zhou, J Mark Ansermino, Joel Singer, Niranjan Kissoon, Hubert Wong, Andrew Ndamira, Jerome Kabakyenga, Julius Kiwanuka, Matthew O Wiens
BACKGROUND: Pediatric hospital mortality from infectious diseases in resource constrained countries remains unacceptably high. Improved methods of risk-stratification can assist in referral decision making and resource allocation. The purpose of this study was to create prediction models for in-hospital mortality among children admitted with suspected infectious diseases. METHODS: This two-site prospective observational study enrolled children between 6 months and 5 years admitted with a proven or suspected infection...
2016: PloS One
Saskia van der Kam, Nuria Salse-Ubach, Stephanie Roll, Todd Swarthout, Sayaka Gayton-Toyoshima, Nma Mohammed Jiya, Akiko Matsumoto, Leslie Shanks
BACKGROUND: Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period...
February 2016: PLoS Medicine
Bal Kishan Gupta, Anjli Gupta, Hardev Ram Nehra, Heera Ram Balotia, Shyam Lal Meena, Surendra Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Severe malaria remains a major cause of death and morbidity among adults in the Asiatic tropics. This study was planned to evaluate clinical profile and prognostic indicators of severe malaria in adults so as to improve insight into this highly prevalent disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted on 60 confirmed cases of malaria. Cases were divided into two groups: (a) study group: suffering from severe malaria and (b) control group: no severe manifestations...
2015: Infectious Diseases
Ne Myo Aung, Myat Kaung, Tint Tint Kyi, Myat Phone Kyaw, Myo Min, Zaw Win Htet, Nicholas M Anstey, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
BACKGROUND: A conservative approach to fluid resuscitation improves survival in children with severe malaria; however, this strategy has not been formally evaluated in adults with the disease. METHODS: Adults hospitalised with malaria at two tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar received intravenous fluid replacement with isotonic saline, administered at a maintenance rate using a simple weight-based algorithm. Clinical and biochemical indices were followed sequentially...
2015: PloS One
Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Orelien S Mtopi Bopda, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi, Teh Rene Ning, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji
BACKGROUND: The contradictory results on the interaction between nutritional status and malaria warrants further investigation in various epidemiological settings, to assert the antagonistic or synergistic relationship. This study examines the prevalence, severity and predictors of malnutrition and its influence on malaria parasitaemia and anaemia severity in children in the Mount Cameroon area. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 454 children ≤ 14 years was carried out from February to May 2013 in Muea community...
2015: BMC Public Health
Siyu Xiao, Jinfeng Liu, Shiguang Huang, Fangli Lu
Malaria has been one of the most devastating tropical parasite infectious diseases popular around the world. Severe malaria is characterized by multiple organ dysfunctions, especially liver damage. However, the mechanisms of malarial liver injury remain to be better clarified. In this study, Kunming mice inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10(6) Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbANKA)-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) were investigated at days 5, 10, 15, and 20 post-infection (p.i.) to elucidate the profiles of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) and its ligand galecin-9 (Gal-9) in the development of liver injury...
February 2016: Parasitology Research
Samuel Rommelaere, Virginie Millet, Pascal Rihet, Scott Atwell, Emmanuèle Helfer, Lionel Chasson, Carole Beaumont, Giovanna Chimini, Maria do Rosário Sambo, Annie Viallat, Carlos Penha-Gonçalves, Franck Galland, Philippe Naquet
Tissue pantetheinase, encoded by the VNN1 gene, regulates response to stress, and previous studies have shown that VNN genes contribute to the susceptibility to malaria. Herein, we evaluated the role of pantetheinase on erythrocyte homeostasis and on the development of malaria in patients and in a new mouse model of pantetheinase insufficiency. Patients with cerebral malaria have significantly reduced levels of serum pantetheinase activity (PA). In mouse, we show that a reduction in serum PA predisposes to severe malaria, including cerebral malaria and severe anemia...
November 2015: American Journal of Pathology
N M Dia, I Diallo, N M Manga, S A Diop, L Fortes-Deguenonvo, N A Lakhe, D Ka, M Seydi, B M Diop, P S Sow
The evaluation of patients by a scale of gravity allows a better categorization of patients admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Our study had for objective to estimate interest of Ambulatory Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (ASAPS) applied to patients admitted in ICU of infectious diseases department of FANN hospital. It was about a descriptive and analytical retrospective study, made from the data found in patients' files admitted into the USI infectious diseases department of FANN hospital in Dakar, from January 1(st), 2009 till December 31st, 2009...
August 2015: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Md Anayet Hasan, Md Habibul Hasan Mazumder, Afrin Sultana Chowdhury, Amit Datta, Md Arif Khan
BACKGROUND: Malaria has been a major life threatening mosquito borne disease from long since. Unavailability of any effective vaccine and recent emergence of multi drug resistant strains of malaria pathogen Plasmodium falciparum continues to cause persistent deaths in the tropical and sub-tropical region. As a result, demands for new targets for more effective anti-malarial drugs are escalating. Transketolase is an enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway; a novel pathway which is involved in energy generation and nucleic acid synthesis...
2015: Source Code for Biology and Medicine
Hongbin Xu, Yonghui Feng, Guang Chen, Xiaotong Zhu, Wei Pang, Yunting Du, Qinghui Wang, Zanmei Qi, Yaming Cao
L-Arginine (L-Arg), the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthase, has been used to treat malaria to reverse endothelial dysfunction in adults. However, the safety and efficacy of L-Arg remains unknown in malaria patients under the age of five, who are at the greatest risk of developing cerebral malaria (CM), a severe malaria complication. Here, we tested effects of L-Arg treatment on the outcomes of CM using a mouse model. Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) was induced in female C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and L-Arg was administrated either prophylactically or after parasite infection...
2015: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Faith I Onditi, Onkoba W Nyamongo, Charles O Omwandho, Naomi W Maina, Fredrick Maloba, Idle O Farah, Christopher L King, Julie M Moore, Hastings S Ozwara
BACKGROUND: Placental malaria (PM) causes adverse pregnancy outcomes in the mother and her foetus. It is difficult to study PM directly in humans due to ethical challenges. This study set out to bridge this gap by determining the outcome of PM in non-immune baboons in order to develop a non-human primate model for the disease. METHODS: Ten pregnant baboons were acquired late in their third trimester (day 150) and randomly grouped as seven infected and three non-infected...
2015: Malaria Journal
Holger Werner Unger, Maria Ome-Kaius, Stephan Karl, Dupain Singirok, Peter Siba, Jane Walker, Regina Alice Wangnapi, Ivo Mueller, Stephen John Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased infant mortality rates and ill-health in adulthood. Evaluation of fetal growth requires ultrasound. As a result, ultrasound-assisted evaluations of causes of FGR in malaria-endemic developing countries are rare. We aimed to determine factors associated with indicators of abnormal fetal growth in rural lowland Papua New Guinea (PNG). METHODS: Weights and growth of 671 ultrasound-dated singleton pregnancies (<25 gestational weeks) were prospectively monitored using estimated fetal weights and birthweights...
2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Andrea L Conroy, Michael Hawkes, Kyla Hayford, Sophie Namasopo, Robert O Opoka, Chandy C John, W Conrad Liles, Kevin C Kain
INTRODUCTION: The development of simple clinical tools to identify children at risk of death would enable rapid and rational implementation of lifesaving measures to reduce childhood mortality globally. METHODS: We evaluated the ability of three clinical scoring systems to predict in-hospital mortality in a prospective observational study of Ugandan children with fever. We computed the Lambaréné Organ Dysfunction Score (LODS), Signs of Inflammation in Children that Kill (SICK), and the Pediatric Early Death Index for Africa (PEDIA)...
2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Tracy L Bergemann, Paul Bangirana, Michael J Boivin, John E Connett, Bruno J Giordani, Chandy C John
INTRODUCTION: Assessment of the effects of disease on neurocognitive outcomes in children over time presents several challenges. These challenges are particularly pronounced when conducting studies in low-income countries, where standardization and validation is required for tests developed originally in high-income countries. We present a statistical methodology to assess multiple neurocognitive outcomes over time. We address the standardization and adjustment for age in neurocognitive testing, present a statistical methodology for development of a global neurocognitive score, and assess changes in individual and global neurocognitive scores over time in a cohort of children with cerebral malaria...
December 19, 2012: Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics
Alessandra Alves, Andréa Martins, Samantha Adolphsson, Bruno Bockorny, Guilherme Carleti, Gustavo Cabral, Antônio Carlos P Souza, Arthur Vianna
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Malaria is still considered a major global health problem. The severity form of the disease is caused, mainly by P. falciparum and may occur together with cerebral, kidney, pulmonary, hematologic, circulatory and hepatic complications. This report is about a patient with a case of severe imported malaria. CASE REPORT: A 30-years-old man, mulatto, Philippine, sailor, coming from a ship arriving from Nigeria, with a history of abdominal pain on the right hypochondrium, jaundice, fever, decreased in the consciousness...
June 2007: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Audrey Brisebarre, Brice Kumulungui, Serge Sawadogo, Alexandre Atkinson, Séverine Garnier, Francis Fumoux, Pascal Rihet
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide studies have mapped several loci controlling Plasmodium falciparum mild malaria and parasitaemia, only two of them being significant at the genome level. The objective of the present study was to identify malaria resistance loci in individuals living in Burkina Faso. METHODS: A genome scan that involved 314 individuals belonging to 63 families was performed. Markers located within chromosomes 6p21.3 and 17p12 were genotyped in 247 additional individuals belonging to 55 families...
2014: Malaria Journal
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