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Tomohiko Urano, Masataka Shiraki, Tatsuhiko Kuroda, Shiro Tanaka, Fumihiko Urano, Kazuhiro Uenishi, Satoshi Inoue
Decline of body weight with aging is a major risk factor for frailty, osteoporosis and fracture, suggesting that treatment for osteoporosis may affect body composition. Recently, we have shown that 5-year treatment with raloxifene prevented age-related weight loss, suggesting some other drugs for osteoporosis may also prevent a decrease in body weight with aging. The present study aimed to identify the relationship between bisphosphonate treatment and body composition markers. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and bone remodeling markers in 551 Japanese postmenopausal women with bisphosphonate treatment, which included risedronate or alendronate treatment (BP-treatment group; N = 193) and without treatment by any osteoporosis drug (no-treatment group; N = 358) for 4-7 years (mean observation periods; 5...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Yuan He, Zhihong Yan, Yu Du, Yafeng Ma, Songdong Shen
The 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate synthase (HDS) gene and the 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) gene are two important genes in the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In this study, we reported the isolation and characterization of full-length HDS (MF101802) and HDR (MF159558) from Pyropia haitanensis. Characteristics of 3-D structures of the PhHDS and PhHDR proteins were analysed respectively. The results showed that the full-length cDNA of PhHDS, which is 1801 bp long, contained a 1455 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative 484 amino acid residue protein with a predicted molecular mass of 51...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luisa Vigevani, André Gohr, Thomas Webb, Manuel Irimia, Juan Valcárcel
Several splicing-modulating compounds, including Sudemycins and Spliceostatin A, display anti-tumor properties. Combining transcriptome, bioinformatic and mutagenesis analyses, we delineate sequence determinants of the differential sensitivity of 3' splice sites to these drugs. Sequences 5' from the branch point (BP) region strongly influence drug sensitivity, with additional functional BPs reducing, and BP-like sequences allowing, drug responses. Drug-induced retained introns are typically shorter, displaying higher GC content and weaker polypyrimidine-tracts and BPs...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
Hiromi Rakugi, Kohei Shimizu, Yuya Nishiyama, Yuhei Sano, Yuusuke Umeda
PURPOSE: Patients with essential hypertension who are receiving treatment with an angiotensin II receptor blocker and a calcium channel blocker often develop inadequate blood pressure (BP) control and require the addition of a diuretic. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a triple combination therapy with 20 mg azilsartan (AZL), 5 mg amlodipine (AML) and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The phase III, open-label, multicenter study (NCT02277691) comprised a 4-week run-in period and 52-week treatment period...
December 13, 2017: Blood Pressure
Barbara Banelli, Alessandra Forlani, Giorgio Allemanni, Anna Morabito, Maria Pia Pistillo, Massimo Romani
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor and, even with the current multimodal therapy, is an invariably lethal cancer with a life expectancy that depends on the tumor subtype but, even in the most favorable cases, rarely exceeds 2 years. Epigenetic factors play an important role in gliomagenesis, are strong predictors of outcome, and are important determinants for the resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. The latest addition to the epigenetic machinery is the noncoding RNA (ncRNA), that is, RNA molecules that are not translated into a protein and that exert their function by base pairing with other nucleic acids in a reversible and nonmutational mode...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
Florian Walder, Klaus Schlaeppi, Raphaël Wittwer, Alain Y Held, Susanne Vogelgsang, Marcel G A van der Heijden
Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium, is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pau Martin-Malpartida, Marta Batet, Zuzanna Kaczmarska, Regina Freier, Tiago Gomes, Eric Aragón, Yilong Zou, Qiong Wang, Qiaoran Xi, Lidia Ruiz, Angela Vea, José A Márquez, Joan Massagué, Maria J Macias
Smad transcription factors activated by TGF-β or by BMP receptors form trimeric complexes with Smad4 to target specific genes for cell fate regulation. The CAGAC motif has been considered as the main binding element for Smad2/3/4, whereas Smad1/5/8 have been thought to preferentially bind GC-rich elements. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in embryonic stem cells showed extensive binding of Smad2/3/4 to GC-rich cis-regulatory elements. Here, we present the structural basis for specific binding of Smad3 and Smad4 to GC-rich motifs in the goosecoid promoter, a nodal-regulated differentiation gene...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Showkat Ahmad Lone, Abdul Malik, Jasdeep Chatrath Padaria
Vegetative insecticidal proteins represent the second generation of insecticidal trans-genes that will complement the delta endotoxins in future. A new vip3A gene was cloned from the promising native isolate, Bacillus thuringiensis JK37 obtained from the soils of maize field. The entire coding sequence of the gene (2370 bp) was amplified and cloned into pET28a(+) expression vector. The nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that deduced amino acid sequence had a variation of several amino acid residues compared to those of known Vip3A proteins and this gene was designated as vip3Aa61 by the B...
December 9, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Milesh Nagar, Rosebist Pk, Raj Chandran, Sharmad Ms, Rajmohan Bp, Anil Peethambaran, Sreejith Md, Sourabh Jain, Saurabh Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Dural substitutes are used in decompressive craniectomy (DC) in order to prevent adhesions during subsequent cranioplasty. Current literature attributes them to the reduced blood loss and reduction in operative time of cranioplasty. The use of double layer substitute has rarely been documented. We decided to study the use of double layer G-patch as a dural substitute in DC and evaluate its outcome during subsequent cranioplasty with special focus on flap elevation time and blood loss during cranioplasty...
December 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Filip Koneski, Danica Popovic-Monevska, Icko Gjorgoski, Jovanka Krajoska, Mirjana Popovska, Ilijana Muratovska, Boris Velickovski, Gordana Petrushevska, Vladimir Popovski
BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is a complication of the bisphosphonate (BP) treatment and its pathopysiology is still not fully understood. The existing preventive and treatment options require updates and more attention. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) so far demonstrated an increased activity and viability of the cells previously treated with zoledronic acid (ZA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of GGOH on the development of BRONJ...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Qiuli Wang, Yanan Pu, Danni Yang, Xin Yin, Zhaorong He, Yunqiang Yang, Yongping Yang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a key factor in abiotic stresses; excess ROS is harmful to plants. Glutathione reductase (GR) plays an important role in scavenging ROS in plants. Here, a GR gene, named SpGR, was cloned from Stipa purpurea and characterized. The full-length open reading frame was 1497 bp, encoding 498 amino acids. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that SpGR was localized to both the plasma membrane and nucleus. The expression of SpGR was induced by cold, salt, and drought stresses...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cheng Cui, Huijun Lu, Qi Hui, Shiying Lu, Yan Liu, Waqas Ahmad, Yang Wang, Pan Hu, Xilin Liu, Yan Cai, Lingjiu Liu, Xiang Zhang, Ke Zhao, Yansong Li, Honglin Ren, Ningyi Jin, Zengshan Liu
Benzylpenicilloic acid (BPNLA) is a major cleavage product of benzylpenicillin G (BP) generated after heating treatment. It is found in animal derived products from the unstable residual penicillin. Previous studies have only reported the allergic reaction caused by BPNLA, but not described its toxicity. In this study, the toxicity of BPNLA was evaluated to report the potential public health risk posed by animal derived products using in vivo and in vitro models, including the acute toxicity assays, cytotoxicity assays, apoptosis assays and cell cycle progression assay...
December 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yahli Lorch, Roger D Kornberg
The nucleosome serves as a general gene repressor, preventing all initiation of transcription except that which is brought about by specific positive regulatory mechanisms. The positive mechanisms begin with chromatin-remodeling by complexes that slide, disrupt, or otherwise alter the structure and organization of nucleosomes. RSC in yeast and its counterpart PBAF in human cells are the major remodeling complexes for transcription. RSC creates a nucleosome-free region in front of a gene, flanked by strongly positioned +1 and -1 nucleosomes, with the transcription start site typically 10-15 bp inside the border of the +1 nucleosome...
January 2017: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
Waleed S Mohammed, Elvira E Ziganshina, Elena I Shagimardanova, Natalia E Gogoleva, Ayrat M Ziganshin
OBJECTIVES: Paenibacillus species, belonging to the family Paenibacillaceae, are able to survive for long periods under adverse environmental conditions. Several Paenibacillus species produce antimicrobial compounds and are capable of biodegradation of various contaminants; therefore, more investigations at the genomic level are necessary to improve our understanding of their ecology, genetics, as well as potential biotechnological applications. DATA DESCRIPTION: In the present study, we describe the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp...
December 12, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Bin Xu, Wei-Xing Xu, Di Lu, Hong-Feng Sheng, Xin-Wei Xu, Wei-Guo Ding
BACKGROUND: One complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is patella baja (PB). Patellar tendon shortening and joint line elevation are two main causes of PB. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of PB before and after TKA by measuring the patellar height and provide evidence for choosing a suitable index. METHODS: In total, 256 consecutive patients who underwent primary TKA were included in this study. Radiographic measurements were performed; the Insall-Salvati (IS) index, modified IS (MIS) index, Blackburne-Peel (BP) index, and Caton-Deschamps (CD) index were computed; and the incidence of PB was calculated before and after the operation...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Nikos Kouvas, Costas Tsioufis, Nikolaos Vogiatzakis, Elias Sanidas, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Konstantinos Kintis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Zoi Kakosaiou, Panagiotis Tsioufis, Mairi Kouremeti, Niki Katsiki, Dimitrios Tousoulis
There is robust evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies showing that elevated heart rate (HR) constitutes a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with hypertension, underlining the significance of HR measurement in them. Autonomous nervous system dysfunction and atherosclerosis are important features in the pathogenesis of the untoward events. However, the relationship between HR and blood pressure (BP) is complex and differs depending on the type of BP measurement which is considered...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
Fu-Kuei Chang, Jentaie Shiea, Hsin-Jen Tsai
The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of urinary triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and bisphenol A (BPA) in 52 children and 71 adolescents. The effects of age and sex on the levels of urinary TCS, BP-3, and BPA were explored, respectively. Results demonstrated the overall detection rates of urinary TCS, BP-3, and BPA were 18.7%, 8.1%, and 49.6%, respectively. The females had higher TCS concentrations than males (p = 0.051). The detection rate of urinary BP-3 in females (12.3%) was higher than that in males (0%) (p = 0...
December 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shu-Lin Uei, Yu-Ming Kuo, Chung-Hung Tsai, Yu-Lun Kuo
Telecare is defined as care practiced at a distance. It is an effective strategy for improving the self-health care management of home-patients with chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the intent to use of telehealth patients. The correlation between the self-care behaviors, the intent to use of telehealth, and the effects on physiological indicators of patients with chronic disease at home were studied. A cross-sectional study design employing purposive sampling was selected. The structured questionnaire 'Telecare Usage Intention Scale and Self-Care Behavior Scale' were used, 'HbA1c, glucose levels and monthly blood pressure measurements' were analyzed in this thirteen month study...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sebastião D Silva, Zaira P Jara, Roseli Peres, Larissa S Lima, Cristóforo Scavone, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz, Dulce E Casarini, Lisete C Michelini
Exercise training reduces renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation, decreases plasma and tissue oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertension. However, the temporal nature of these phenomena in response to exercise is unknown. We sought to determine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched WKY controls the weekly effects of training on blood pressure (BP), plasma and left ventricle (LV) Ang II and Ang-(1-7) content (HPLC), LV oxidative stress (DHE staining), gene and protein expression (qPCR and WB) of pro-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes and their consequence on hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling...
2017: PloS One
Charles W Nager, Cara L Grimes, Tracy L Nolen, Clifford Y Wai, Linda Brubaker, Peter C Jeppson, Tracey S Wilson, Anthony G Visco, Matthew D Barber, Gary Sutkin, Peggy Norton, Charles R Rardin, Lily Arya, Dennis Wallace, Susan F Meikle
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare anterior and overall prolapse prevalence at 1 year in surgical participants with or without concomitant anterior repair (AR) at the time of sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF) or uterosacral ligament suspension (ULS). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of two surgical trials; concomitant AR was performed at surgeon's discretion. Anterior anatomic success was defined as pelvic organ prolapse quantification of prolapse point Ba ≤0 and overall success was defined as pelvic organ prolapse quantification points Ba, Bp, and C ≤0 at 12 months...
December 11, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
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