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Transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922993/an-exploratory-tms-study-on-prefrontal-lateralization-in-valence-categorization-of-facial-expressions
#1
Chiara Ferrari, Lucile Gamond, Marcello Gallucci, Tomaso Vecchi, Zaira Cattaneo
Converging neuroimaging and patient data suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in emotional processing. However, it is still not clear whether the DLPFC in the left and right hemisphere is differentially involved in emotion recognition depending on the emotion considered. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to shed light on the possible causal role of the left and right DLPFC in encoding valence of positive and negative emotional facial expressions. Participants were required to indicate whether a series of faces displayed a positive or negative expression, while TMS was delivered over the right DLPFC, the left DLPFC, and a control site (vertex)...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921724/-discrete-peaks-of-excitability-and-map-overlap-reveal-task-specific-organization-of-primary-motor-cortex-for-control-of-human-forearm-muscles
#2
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Michael J G Bergin, Cyril Schneider, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul W Hodges
The primary motor cortex (M1) presents a somatotopic organization of body parts, but with overlap between muscle/movement representations. This distinct but overlapping M1 organization is believed to be important for individuated control and movement coordination, respectively. Discrete peaks of greater excitability observed within M1 might underpin organization of cortical motor control. This study aimed to examine interactions between M1 representations of synergist and antagonist forearm muscles, compare regions of greater excitability during different functional tasks, and compare characteristics of M1 representation recorded using surface and fine-wire (fw ) electrodes...
September 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917695/the-impact-of-gabaergic-drugs-on-tms-induced-brain-oscillations-in-human-motor-cortex
#3
Isabella Premoli, Til O Bergmann, Matteo Fecchio, Mario Rosanova, Andrea Biondi, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann
Brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as measured with electroencephalography (EEG) have so far been assessed either by TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs), mostly reflecting phase-locked neuronal activity, or time-frequency-representations (TFRs), reflecting oscillatory power arising from a mixture of both evoked (i.e., phase-locked) and induced (i.e., non-phase-locked) responses. Single-pulse TMS of the human primary motor cortex induces a specific pattern of oscillatory changes, characterized by an early (30-200 ms after TMS) synchronization in the α- and β-bands over the stimulated sensorimotor cortex and adjacent lateral frontal cortex, followed by a late (200-400 ms) α- and β-desynchronization over the stimulated and contralateral sensorimotor cortex...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912081/towards-understanding-rtms-mechanism-of-action-stimulation-of-the-dlpfc-causes-network-specific-increase-in-functional-connectivity
#4
Martin Tik, André Hoffmann, Ronald Sladky, Livia Tomova, Allan Hummer, Lucia Navarro de Lara, Henryk Bukowski, Jürgen Pripfl, Bharat Biswal, Claus Lamm, Christian Windischberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful non-invasive technique for the modulation of brain activity. While the precise mechanism of action is still unknown, TMS is applied in cognitive neuroscience to establish causal relationships between stimulation and subsequent changes in cerebral function and behavioral outcome. In addition, TMS is an FDA-approved therapeutic agent in psychiatric disorders, especially major depression. Successful repetitive TMS in such disorders is usually applied over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and treatment response mechanism was therefore supposed to be based on modulations in functional networks, particularly the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuit...
September 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910407/the-spectral-features-of-eeg-responses-to-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-depend-on-the-amplitude-of-the-motor-evoked-potentials
#5
Matteo Fecchio, Andrea Pigorini, Angela Comanducci, Simone Sarasso, Silvia Casarotto, Isabella Premoli, Chiara-Camilla Derchi, Alice Mazza, Simone Russo, Federico Resta, Fabio Ferrarelli, Maurizio Mariotti, Ulf Ziemann, Marcello Massimini, Mario Rosanova
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can excite both cortico-cortical and cortico-spinal axons resulting in TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), respectively. Despite this remarkable difference with other cortical areas, the influence of motor output and its amplitude on TEPs is largely unknown. Here we studied TEPs resulting from M1 stimulation and assessed whether their waveform and spectral features depend on the MEP amplitude. To this aim, we performed two separate experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910370/intra-and-inter-session-reliability-of-rapid-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-stimulus-response-curves-of-tibialis-anterior-muscle-in-healthy-older-adults
#6
Elisabetta Peri, Emilia Ambrosini, Vera Maria Colombo, Mark van de Ruit, Michael J Grey, Marco Monticone, Giorgio Ferriero, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Simona Ferrante
OBJECTIVE: The clinical use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a technique to assess corticospinal excitability is limited by the time for data acquisition and the measurement variability. This study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Stimulus-Response (SR) curves acquired with a recently proposed rapid protocol on tibialis anterior muscle of healthy older adults. METHODS: Twenty-four neurologically-intact adults (age:55-75 years) were recruited for this test-retest study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906341/the-neurophysiology-of-paediatric-movement-disorders
#7
Verity M McClelland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To demonstrate how neurophysiological tools have advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of paediatric movement disorders, and of neuroplasticity in the developing brain. RECENT FINDINGS: Delineation of corticospinal tract connectivity using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is being investigated as a potential biomarker for response to therapy. TMS measures of cortical excitability and neuroplasticity are also being used to investigate the effects of therapy, demonstrating neuroplastic changes that relate to functional improvements...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904571/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-as-an-additional-diagnostic-tool-in-children-with-acute-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#8
Voitenkov Vladislav Voitenkov, Klimkin Andrey, Skripchenko Natalia, Aksenova Anastasia
CONTEXT: The diagnosis of polyneuropathy may be challenging at the early stages of the disease. Despite electromyography (EMG) efficacy in the establishment of polyneuropathy diagnosis, in some cases, results are dubious and neurophysiologists may implement additional techniques to ensure that conduction is affected. AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate motor-evoked potential (MEP) characteristics in children with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900413/impaired-cerebellum-to-primary-motor-cortex-associative-plasticity-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#9
Ming-Kuei Lu, Jui-Cheng Chen, Chun-Ming Chen, Jeng-Ren Duann, Ulf Ziemann, Chon-Haw Tsai
BACKGROUND: Functional perturbation of the cerebellum (CB)-motor cortex (M1) interactions may underlie pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3). Recently, M1 motor excitability can be bidirectionally modulated in young subjects by corticocortical paired associative stimulation (PAS) on CB and contralateral M1 with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), probably through the cerebello-dentato-thalamo-cortical (CDTC) circuit...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899743/ctbs-disruption-of-the-supplementary-motor-area-perturbs-cortical-sequence-representation-but-not-behavioural-performance
#10
Oleg Solopchuk, Andrea Alamia, Laurence Dricot, Julie Duque, Alexandre Zénon
Neuroimaging studies have repeatedly emphasized the role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in motor sequence learning, but interferential approaches have led to inconsistent findings. Here, we aimed to test the role of the SMA in motor skill learning by combining interferential and neuroimaging techniques. Sixteen subjects were trained on simple finger movement sequences for 4 days. Afterwards, they underwent two neuroimaging sessions, in which they executed both trained and novel sequences. Prior to entering the scanner, the subjects received inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the SMA or a control site...
September 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899520/cholinergic-neurotransmission-and-olfactory-function-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-a-tms-study
#11
Viviana Versace, Patrick B Langthaler, Luca Sebastianelli, Stefan Golaszewski, Alexander B Kunz, Francesco Brigo, Leopold Saltuari, Raffaele Nardone
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Odor identification and discrimination are reduced in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the pathophysiology of the olfactory dysfunction in OSAS is still poorly understood. Experimental evidence suggests that olfactory impairment could be related to central cholinergic dysfunction. Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) is a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol that gives the opportunity to test an inhibitory cholinergic circuit in the human cerebral motor cortex...
September 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893926/limited-contribution-of-primary-motor-cortex-in-eye-hand-coordination-a-tms-study
#12
James Mathew, Alexandre Eusebio, Frederic Danion
The ability to track a moving target with the eye is substantially improved when the target is self-moved as compared to when it is moved by an external agent. To account for this observation it has been postulated that the oculomotor system has access to hand efference copy thereby allowing to predict the motion of the visual target. Along this scheme, we tested the effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1) when human participants (50% females) are asked to track with their eyes a visual target whose horizontal motion is driven by their grip force...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887545/human-to-human-closed-loop-control-based-on-brain-to-brain-interface-and-muscle-to-muscle-interface
#13
M Ebrahim M Mashat, Guangye Li, Dingguo Zhang
Novel communication techniques have always been fascinating for humankind. This pilot study presents an approach to human interaction by combining direct brain-to-brain interface (BBI) and muscle-to-muscle interface (MMI) in a closed-loop pattern. In this system, artificial paths (data flows) functionally connect natural paths (nerves). The intention from one subject (sender) is recognized using electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interface (BCI), which is sent out to trigger transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the other subject (receiver) and induce hand motion; meanwhile TMS results in a significant change on the motor evoked potentials (MEP) recorded by electromyography (EMG) of the receiver's arm, which triggers functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the sender's arm and generates hand motion...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886760/network-mechanisms-of-clinical-response-to%C3%A2-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#14
Noah S Philip, Jennifer Barredo, Mascha van 't Wout-Frank, Audrey R Tyrka, Lawrence H Price, Linda L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy can modulate pathological neural network functional connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD). Posttraumatic stress disorder is often comorbid with MDD, and symptoms of both disorders can be alleviated with TMS therapy. This is the first study to evaluate TMS-associated changes in connectivity in patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and MDD. METHODS: Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging was acquired before and after TMS therapy in 33 adult outpatients in a prospective open trial...
August 8, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879576/effects-of-acute-resistance-training-modality-on-corticospinal-excitability-intra-cortical-and-neuromuscular-responses
#15
Christopher Latella, Wei-Peng Teo, Dale Harris, Brendan Major, Dan VanderWesthuizen, Ashlee M Hendy
OBJECTIVE: Although neural adaptations from strength training are known to occur, the acute responses associated with heavy-strength (HST) and hypertrophy training (HYT) remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to compare the acute behaviour of corticospinal responses following a single session of HST vs HYT over a 72-h period. METHODS: Fourteen participants completed a random counterbalanced, crossover study that consisted of a single HST session [5 sets × 3 repetition maximum (RM)], a HYT session (3 sets × 12 RM) of the leg extensors and a control session (CON)...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871222/reproducibility-of-single-pulse-paired-pulse-and-intermittent-theta-burst-tms-measures-in-healthy-aging-type-2-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Peter J Fried, Ali Jannati, Paula Davila-Pérez, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to assess neurophysiology and the mechanisms of cortical brain plasticity in humans in vivo. As the use of these measures in specific populations (e.g., Alzheimer's disease; AD) increases, it is critical to understand their reproducibility (i.e., test-retest reliability) in the populations of interest. Objective: Reproducibility of TMS measures was evaluated in older adults, including healthy, AD, and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups. Methods: Participants received two identical neurophysiological assessments within a year including motor thresholds, baseline motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF), and MEP changes following intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867202/a-neural-basis-for-contagious-yawning
#17
Beverley J Brown, Soyoung Kim, Hannah Saunders, Clarissa Bachmann, Jessica Thompson, Danielle Ropar, Stephen R Jackson, Georgina M Jackson
Contagious yawning, in which yawning is triggered involuntarily when we observe another person yawn, is a common form of echophenomena-the automatic imitation of another's words (echolalia) or actions (echopraxia) [1]. The neural basis for echophenomena is unknown; however, it has been proposed that it is linked to disinhibition of the human mirror-neuron system [1-4] and hyper-excitability of cortical motor areas [1]. We investigated the neural basis for contagious yawning using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866300/action-observation-effects-reflect-the-modular-organization-of-the-human-motor-system
#18
Pauline M Hilt, Eleonora Bartoli, Elisabetta Ferrari, Marco Jacono, Luciano Fadiga, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Action observation, similarly to action execution, facilitates the observer's motor system and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been instrumental in exploring the nature of these motor activities. However, contradictory findings question some of the fundamental assumptions regarding the neural computations run by the Action Observation Network (AON). To better understand this issue, we delivered TMS over the observers' motor cortex at two timings of two reaching-grasping actions (precision vs power grip) and we recorded Motor-Evoked Potentials (4 hand/arm muscles; MEPs)...
August 10, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855865/differing-time-of-onset-of-concurrent-tms-fmri-during-associative-memory-encoding-a-measure-of-dynamic-connectivity
#19
Colin Hawco, Jorge L Armony, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Marcelo T Berlim, M Mallar Chakravarty, G Bruce Pike, Martin Lepage
There has been a distinct shift in neuroimaging from localization of function into a more network based approach focused on connectivity. While fMRI has proven very fruitful for this, the hemodynamic signal is inherently slow which limits the temporal resolution of fMRI-only connectivity measures. The brain, however, works on a time scale of milliseconds. This study utilized concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI in a novel way to obtain measures of dynamic connectivity by measuring changes in fMRI signal amplitude in regions distal to the site of stimulation following differing TMS onset times...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852114/no-effects-of-transcranial-dlpfc-stimulation-on-implicit-task-sequence-learning-and-consolidation
#20
Branislav Savic, Dario Cazzoli, René Müri, Beat Meier
Neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can modulate performance in cognitive tasks. In a recent study, however, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the DLPFC did not affect implicit task sequence learning and consolidation in a paradigm that involved bimanual responses. Because bimanual performance increases the coupling between homologous cortical areas of the hemispheres and left and right DLPFC were stimulated separately the null findings may have been due to the bimanual setup...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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