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Transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS

Chao-Ying Chen, Tonya L Rich, Jessica M Cassidy, Bernadette T Gillick
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used as an assessment or intervention to evaluate or influence brain activity in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) commonly caused by perinatal stroke. This communication report analyzed data from two clinical trials using TMS to assess corticospinal excitability in children and young adults with hemiparetic CP. The results of this communication revealed a higher probability of finding a motor evoked potential (MEP) on the non-lesioned hemisphere compared to the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0...
October 20, 2016: Brain Sciences
Alexander Soutschek, Christian C Ruff, Tina Strombach, Tobias Kalenscher, Philippe N Tobler
Neurobiological models of self-control predominantly focus on the role of prefrontal brain mechanisms involved in emotion regulation and impulse control. We provide evidence for an entirely different neural mechanism that promotes self-control by overcoming bias for the present self, a mechanism previously thought to be mainly important for interpersonal decision-making. In two separate studies, we show that disruptive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the temporo-parietal junction-a brain region involved in overcoming one's self-centered perspective-increases the discounting of delayed and prosocial rewards...
October 2016: Science Advances
Sravya Atluri, Matthew Frehlich, Ye Mei, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Nigel C Rogasch, Willy Wong, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Faranak Farzan
Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its widespread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEP)s. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Visual fixation (VF) of a target is a possible, although atypical, feature of the Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS). Whether VF may indicate residual awareness in these patients is debatable, since it may simply subtend a series of reflex processes. Objective tools should therefore be used to identify aware VF, which depends on the integrity of visuomotor networks encompassing frontal-parietal-occipital areas. The aim of our study was to detect residual visuomotor network functionality potentially sustaining aware VF...
October 20, 2016: Brain Research
Nigel C Rogasch, Caley Sullivan, Richard H Thomson, Nathan S Rose, Neil W Bailey, Paul B Fitzgerald, Faranak Farzan, Julio C Hernandez-Pavon
The concurrent use of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is growing in popularity as a method for assessing various cortical properties such as excitability, oscillations and connectivity. However, this combination of methods is technically challenging, resulting in artifacts both during recording and following typical EEG analysis methods, which can distort the underlying neural signal. In this article, we review the causes of artifacts in EEG recordings resulting from TMS, as well as artifacts introduced during analysis (e...
October 19, 2016: NeuroImage
Elias Paolo Casula, Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Viviana Ponzo, Domenica Veniero, Antonella Peppe, Livia Brusa, Paolo Stanzione, Carlo Caltagirone, Alessandro Stefani, Giacomo Koch
BACKGROUND: The effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS-STN) and L-dopa (LD) on cortical activity in Parkinson's disease (PD) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: By combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) we explored the effects of STN-DBS, either alone or in combination with L-Dopa (LD), on TMS-evoked cortical activity in a sample of implanted PD patients. METHODS: PD patients were tested in three clinical conditions: i) LD therapy with STN-DBS turned on (ON/ON condition); ii) without LD therapy with STN-DBS turned on (OFF/ON condition); iii) without LD therapy with STN-DBS turned off (OFF/OFF condition)...
October 17, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Påvel G Lindberg, Maxime Térémetz, Sylvain Charron, Oussama Kebir, Agathe Saby, Narjes Bendjemaa, Stéphanie Lion, Benoît Crépon, Raphaël Gaillard, Catherine Oppenheim, Marie-Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Inhibition is considered a key mechanism in schizophrenia. Short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) in the motor cortex is reduced in schizophrenia and is considered to reflect locally deficient γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic modulation. However, it remains unclear how SICI is modulated during motor inhibition and how it relates to neural processing in other cortical areas. Here we studied motor inhibition Stop signal task (SST) in stabilized patients with schizophrenia (N = 28), healthy siblings (N = 21) and healthy controls (n = 31) matched in general cognitive status and educational level...
September 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Nathan D Nuzum, Ashlee M Hendy, Aaron P Russell, Wei-Peng Teo
Individual responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are varied and therefore potentially limit its application. There is evidence that this variability is related to the contributions of Indirect waves (I-waves) recruited in the cortex. The latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) can be measured through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), allowing an individual's responsiveness to tDCS to be determined. However, this single-pulse method requires several different orientations of the TMS coil, potentially affecting its reliability...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Matthew Sykes, Natalie A Matheson, Philip W Brownjohn, Alexander D Tang, Jennifer Rodger, Jonathan B H Shemmell, John N J Reynolds
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Aline Iannone, Antonio Pedro de Mello Cruz, Joaquim Pereira Brasil-Neto, Raphael Boechat-Barros
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been investigated as a possible adjuvant treatment for many neuropsychiatric disorders, and has already been approved for the treatment of drug-resistant depression in the United States and in Brazil, among other countries. Although its use in other neuropsychiatric disorders is still largely experimental, many physicians have been using it as an off-label add-on therapy for various disorders. More recently, another technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has also become available as a much cheaper and portable alternative to TMS, although its mechanisms of action are different from those of TMS...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Johanna Metsomaa, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J Ilmoniemi
OBJECTIVE: Blind source separation (BSS) can be used to decompose complex electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography data into simpler components based on statistical assumptions without using a physical model. Applications include brain-computer interfaces, artifact removal and identifying parallel neural processes. We wish to address the issue of applying BSS to event-related responses which is challenging because of non-stationary data. METHODS: We introduce a new BSS approach called momentary-uncorrelated component analysis (MUCA) which is tailored for event-related multi-trial data...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Sangeetha Madhavan, James W Stinear, Neeta Kanekar
Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT) has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1) in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Kyriaki Mikellidou, André D Gouws, Hannah Clawson, Peter Thompson, Antony B Morland, Bruce D Keefe
We use the simple, but prominent Helmholtz's squares illusion in which a vertically striped square appears wider than a horizontally striped square of identical physical dimensions to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) BOLD responses in V1 underpin illusions of size. We report that these simple stimuli which differ in only one parameter, orientation, to which V1 neurons are highly selective elicited activity in V1 that followed their physical, not perceived size. To further probe the role of V1 in the illusion and investigate plausible extrastriate visual areas responsible for eliciting the Helmholtz squares illusion, we performed a follow-up transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment in which we compared perceptual judgments about the aspect ratio of perceptually identical Helmholtz squares when no TMS was applied against selective stimulation of V1, LO1, or LO2...
September 2016: I-Perception
Mads Jochumsen, Imran K Niazi, Nada Signal, Rasmus W Nedergaard, Kelly Holt, Heidi Haavik, Denise Taylor
Learning new motor skills has been correlated with increased cortical excitability. In this study, different location of electrical stimulation (ES), nerve, or muscle, was paired with voluntary movement to investigate if ES paired with voluntary movement (a) would increase the excitability of cortical projections to tibialis anterior and (b) if stimulation location mattered. Cortical excitability changes were quantified using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at varying intensities during four conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Raz Leib, Firas Mawase, Amir Karniel, Opher Donchin, John Rothwell, Ilana Nisky, Marco Davare
: How motion and sensory inputs are combined to assess an object's stiffness is still unknown. Here, we provide evidence for the existence of a stiffness estimator in the human posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We showed previously that delaying force feedback with respect to motion when interacting with an object caused participants to underestimate its stiffness. We found that applying theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the PPC, but not the dorsal premotor cortex, enhances this effect without affecting movement control...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Nico Sollmann, Moritz F Goblirsch-Kolb, Sebastian Ille, Vicki M Butenschoen, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Bernhard Meyer, Florian Ringel, Sandro M Krieg
BACKGROUND: For the navigation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), various techniques are available. Yet, there are two basic principles underlying them all: electric-field-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (En-TMS) and line-navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (Ln-TMS). The current study was designed to compare both methods. METHODS: To explore whether there is a difference in clinical applicability, workflow, and mapping results of both techniques, we systematically compared motor mapping via En-TMS and Ln-TMS in 12 patients suffering from brain tumors...
October 8, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Anastasia Shulga, Aleksandra Zubareva, Pantelis Lioumis, Jyrki P Mäkelä
Background: In spinal paired associative stimulation (PAS), orthodromic and antidromic volleys elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) coincide at corticomotoneuronal synapses at the spinal cord. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between TMS and PNS determines whether PAS leads to motor-evoked potential (MEP) potentiation or depression. PAS applied as a long-term treatment for neurological patients might alter conduction of neural fibers over time. Moreover, measurements of motoneuron conductance for determination of ISIs may be challenging in these patients...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
T R J Nicholson, V Voon
Functional neurologic disorder (FND), also known as conversion disorder, is common and often associated with a poor prognosis. It has been relatively neglected by research and as such there is a conspicuous lack of evidence-based treatments. Physical and psychologic therapies are the main treatment modalities, over and above reassurance and sensitive explanation of the diagnosis. However there are two other historic treatments that have seen a recent resurgence of interest and use. The first is electric stimulation, which was initially pioneered with direct stimulation of nerves but now used indirectly (and therefore noninvasively) in the form of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Faranak Farzan, Marine Vernet, Mouhsin M D Shafi, Alexander Rotenberg, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
The concurrent combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is a powerful technology for characterizing and modulating brain networks across developmental, behavioral, and disease states. Given the global initiatives in mapping the human brain, recognition of the utility of this technique is growing across neuroscience disciplines. Importantly, TMS-EEG offers translational biomarkers that can be applied in health and disease, across the lifespan, and in humans and animals, bridging the gap between animal models and human studies...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Pierpaolo Busan, Giovanni Del Ben, Simona Bernardini, Giulia Natarelli, Marco Bencich, Fabrizio Monti, Paolo Manganotti, Piero Paolo Battaglini
Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials...
2016: PloS One
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