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Transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326293/physiological-effects-of-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery-in-cervical-dystonia
#1
Aparna Wagle Shukla, Jill L Ostrem, David E Vaillancourt, Robert Chen, Kelly D Foote, Michael S Okun
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) surgery is clinically effective for treatment of cervical dystonia; however, the underlying physiology has not been examined. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the effects of STN DBS on sensorimotor integration, sensorimotor plasticity and motor cortex excitability, which are identified as the key pathophysiological features underlying dystonia. METHODS: TMS paradigms of short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and long latency afferent inhibition (LAI) were used to examine the sensorimotor integration...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#2
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
December 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325145/anxiety-dependent-modulation-of-motor-responses-to-pain-expectancy
#3
Carlotta Fossataro, Giulia Bucchioni, Federico D'Agata, Valentina Bruno, Rosalba Morese, Pierre Krystkowiak, Francesca Garbarini
The relationship between pain expectancy and motor system plays a crucial role in the human defensive system. Here, we took advantage of the inhibitory modulation of the motor pathway to the muscle of the hand receiving painful stimuli, by recording motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). We employed a classical conditioning paradigm in which neutral (visual and auditory) stimuli were conditioned by pairing either painful or not-painful stimuli (electric shocks) in separated groups...
January 8, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322201/characterization-of-corticospinal-activation-of-finger-motor-neurons-during-precision-and-power-grip-in-humans
#4
Christian Svane, Christian Riis Forman, Jens Bo Nielsen, Svend Sparre Geertsen
Direct and indirect corticospinal pathways to finger muscles may play a different role in control of the upper extremity. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and coherence analysis to characterize the corticospinal drive to the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) when active during a precision and power grip task. In experiment 1, single motor units were recorded during precision grip and power grip in 20 adults (25.2 ± 7.1 years). Post-stimulus time histograms (PSTH) were obtained following TMS...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317325/motor-cortex-compensates-for-lack-of-sensory-and-motor-experience-during-auditory-speech-perception
#5
Judith Schmitz, Eleonora Bartoli, Laura Maffongelli, Luciano Fadiga, Nuria Sebastian-Galles, Alessandro D'Ausilio
Listening to speech has been shown to activate motor regions, as measured by corticobulbar excitability. In this experiment, we explored if motor regions are also recruited during listening to non-native speech, for which we lack both sensory and motor experience. By administering Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) over the left motor cortex we recorded corticobulbar excitability of the lip muscles when Italian participants listened to native-like and non-native German vowels. Results showed that lip corticobulbar excitability increased for a combination of lip use during articulation and non-nativeness of the vowels...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317185/cortical-inhibition-assessed-using-paired-pulse-tms-eeg-is-increased-in-older-adults
#6
George M Opie, Simranjit K Sidhu, Nigel C Rogasch, Michael C Ridding, John G Semmler
BACKGROUND: Alterations in inhibitory processes mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors may contribute to age-related functional impairments. However, investigation of these circuits using conventional paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at long interstimulus intervals (∼100-200ms) have produced conflicting results in older adults, possibly due to the indirect nature of the TMS motor evoked potential (MEP). OBJECTIVE: To utilise electroencephalography and TMS coregistration (TMS-EEG) to more directly assess age-related changes in GABAB-mediated long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI)...
December 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309536/the-neural-specificity-of-movement-preparation-during-actual-and-imagined-movements
#7
Florent Lebon, Célia Ruffino, Ian Greenhouse, Ludovica Labruna, Richard B Ivry, Charalambos Papaxanthis
Current theories consider motor imagery, the mental representation of action, to have considerable functional overlap with the processes involved in actual movement preparation and execution. To test the neural specificity of motor imagery, we conducted a series of 3 experiments using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We compared changes in corticospinal excitability as people prepared and implemented actual or imagined movements, using a delayed response task in which a cue indicated the forthcoming response...
January 4, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307324/evaluation-of-cognition-and-cortical-excitability-in-huntington-s-disease
#8
Nitish Kamble, M Netravathi, B C Nagaraju, Abhishek Lenka, Keshav Kumar, V Sowmya, Sanjeev Jain, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in neurophysiological techniques have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD). Studies of the motor cortical excitability and central motor pathways have shown variable results. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to evaluate the cortical excitability changes in HD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and correlate the changes with cognitive impairment. METHODS: The study included 32 HD patients and 30 age- and gender-matched controls...
January 8, 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307007/neurophysiology-and-neurochemistry-of-corticobasal-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Aditya A Murgai, Mandar S Jog
Corticobasal syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, which presents with a progressive, asymmetrical, akinetic rigid syndrome and early cortical signs. However, clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological heterogeneity makes the understanding of this syndrome challenging. Corticobasal syndrome can have various pathological substrates including corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-temporal degeneration with TDP inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305917/motor-imagery-of-voluntary-muscle-relaxation-of-the-foot-induces-a-temporal-reduction-of-corticospinal-excitability-in-the-hand
#10
Kouki Kato, Kazuyuki Kanosue
The object of this study was to clarify how the motor imagery of foot muscle relaxation influences corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hand. Twelve participants volitionally relaxed their right foot from a dorsiflexed position (actual relaxation), or imaged the same movement (imagery relaxation) in response to an auditory cue. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex at different time intervals after an auditory cue. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the right extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis (FCR)...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305911/tms-uncovers-details-about-sub-regional-language-specific-processing-networks-in-early-bilinguals
#11
Sini Hämäläinen, Niko Mäkelä, Viljami Sairanen, Minna Lehtonen, Teija Kujala, Alina Leminen
Despite numerous functional neuroimaging and intraoperative electrical cortical mapping studies aimed at investigating the cortical organisation of native (L1) and second (L2) language processing, the neural underpinnings of bilingualism remain elusive. We investigated whether the neural network engaged in speech production over the bilateral posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is the same (i.e., shared) or different (i.e., language-specific) for the two languages of bilingual speakers. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied over the left and right posterior inferior gyrus (pIFG), while early simultaneous bilinguals performed a picture naming task with their native languages...
January 3, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304044/directing-visual-attention-during-action-observation-modulates-corticospinal-excitability
#12
David J Wright, Greg Wood, Zoe C Franklin, Ben Marshall, Martin Riach, Paul S Holmes
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research has shown that corticospinal excitability is facilitated during the observation of human movement. However, the relationship between corticospinal excitability and participants' visual attention during action observation is rarely considered. Nineteen participants took part in four conditions: (i) a static hand condition, involving observation of a right hand holding a ball between the thumb and index finger; (ii) a free observation condition, involving observation of the ball being pinched between thumb and index finger; and (iii and iv) finger-focused and ball-focused conditions, involving observation of the same ball pinch action with instructions to focus visual attention on either the index finger or the ball...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298217/sex-differences-in-mechanisms-of-recovery-after-isometric-and-dynamic-fatiguing-tasks
#13
Jonathon Senefeld, Hugo M Pereira, Nicholas Elliott, Tejin Yoon, Sandra K Hunter
PURPOSE: Determine whether supraspinal mechanisms contribute to the sex difference in fatigability during and recovery from a dynamic and isometric fatiguing task with the knee extensors. METHODS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical stimulation were used to determine voluntary activation and contractile properties of the knee extensors in 14 men and 17 women (20.8±1.9 years) after a: 1) 60-s sustained, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and 2) dynamic fatiguing task involving 120 maximal voluntary concentric contractions with a 20% MVIC load...
January 3, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289841/interhemispheric-motor-interactions-in-hemiparetic-children-with-perinatal-stroke-clinical-correlates-and-effects-of-neuromodulation-therapy
#14
Derek Eng, Ephrem Zewdie, Patrick Ciechanski, Omar Damji, Adam Kirton
OBJECTIVE: Brain stimulation and constraint therapy may enhance function after perinatal stroke but mechanisms are unknown. We characterized interhemispheric interactions (IHI) in hemiparetic children and explored their relationship to motor function and neuromodulation. METHODS: Forty-five hemiparetic perinatal stroke subjects aged 6-19 years completed a clinical trial of repetitive-transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and constraint therapy. Paired-pulse TMS measured IHI in cases and normal controls...
November 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280747/the-change-of-motor-cortical-excitability-between-eyes-open-and-closed-conditions
#15
Kai-Hsiang Chen, Ying-Zu Huang
The effect of the eyes closed and eyes open states on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor cortex response remains unclear. This study evaluated the difference in TMS-induced motor cortical responses between the eyes open and eyes closed states. Ten healthy right-handed participants participated in three experiments. The stimulation-response curve of motor-evoked potential, short-interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation, and cortical silent period were determined in both the eyes open and eyes closed states, in random order...
December 26, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277405/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-precuneus-enhances-memory-and-neural-activity-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Giacomo Koch, Sonia Bonnì, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Elias P Casula, Matteo Mancini, Romina Esposito, Viviana Ponzo, Silvia Picazio, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Laura Serra, Caterina Motta, Michele Maiella, Camillo Marra, Mara Cercignani, Alessandro Martorana, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali
Memory loss is one of the first symptoms of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which there are no effective therapies available. The precuneus (PC) has been recently emphasized as a key area for the memory impairment observed in early AD, likely due to disconnection mechanisms within large-scale networks such as the default mode network (DMN). Using a multimodal approach we investigated in a two-week, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the PC on cognition, as measured by the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite in 14 patients with early AD (7 females)...
December 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274342/the-modulatory-role-of-pre-sma-in-speed-accuracy-tradeoff-a-bi-directional-tms-study
#17
Dilara Berkay, Hale Yapıcı Eser, Alexander T Sack, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Fuat Balcı
Many perceptual decisions are inevitably subject to the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of choices (SAT). Sequential sampling models attribute this ubiquitous relation to random noise in the sensory evidence accumulation process, and assume that SAT is adaptively modulated by altering the decision thresholds at which the level of integrated evidence should reach for making a choice. Although, neuroimaging studies have shown a relationship between right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) activity and threshold setting, only a limited number of brain stimulation studies aimed at establishing the causal link, results of which were inconsistent...
December 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258808/incomplete-evidence-that-increasing-current-intensity-of-tdcs-boosts-outcomes
#18
Zeinab Esmaeilpour, Paola Marangolo, Benjamin M Hampstead, Sven Bestmann, Elisabeth Galletta, Helena Knotkova, Marom Bikson
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function by applying a fixed low-intensity direct current to scalp. OBJECTIVES: We critically discuss evidence for a monotonic response in effect size with increasing current intensity, with a specific focus on a question if increasing applied current enhance the efficacy of tDCS. METHODS: We analyzed tDCS intensity does-response from different perspectives including biophysical modeling, animal modeling, human neurophysiology, neuroimaging and behavioral/clinical measures...
December 13, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249805/clustered-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-the-prevention-of-depressive-relapse-recurrence-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Hua-Ning Wang, Xiao-Xia Wang, Rui-Guo Zhang, Ying Wang, Min Cai, Ya-Hong Zhang, Run-Zhu Sun, Li Guo, Yu-Ting Qiao, Jun-Chang Liu, Hong He, Zhong-Heng Wang, Yu-Chen Wan, Qing-Rong Tan, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may have the potential to prevent depressive relapse. This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rTMS as a mono- and combination therapy in the prevention of depressive relapse/recurrence. A total of 281 depressed patients who had achieved stable full or partial remission on a 6-month antidepressant (ADP) run-in treatment were randomly assigned to an rTMS (n = 91), ADP (n = 108), or combined (rTMS + ADP, n = 82) treatment group for 12 months...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247630/effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-rtms-on-attribution-of-movement-to-ambiguous-stimuli-and-eeg-mu-suppression
#20
Agata Ando', Jaime A Pineda, Luciano Giromini, Gregory Soghoyan, QunYang, Miranda Bohm, Daniel Maryanovsky, Alessandro Zennaro
Recent research suggests that attributing human movement to ambiguous and static Rorschach stimuli (M responses) is associated with EEG mu suppression, and that disrupting the left inferior gyrus (LIFG; a putative area implicated in mirroring activity) decreases the tendency to see human movement when exposed to the Rorschach ambiguous stimuli. The current study aimed to test whether disrupting the LIFG via repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) would decrease both the number of human movement attributions and EEG mu suppression...
December 13, 2017: Brain Research
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