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Transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775218/unilateral-movement-preparation-causes-task-specific-modulation-of-tms-responses-in-the-passive-opposite-limb
#1
Lilian Chye, Stephan Riek, Aymar de Rugy, Richard G Carson, Timothy J Carroll
Corticospinal excitability is modulated for muscles on both sides of the body during unilateral movement preparation. For the effector, there is a progressive increase in excitability, and a shift in direction of muscle twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) toward the impending movement. By contrast, the directional characteristics of excitability changes in the opposite (passive) limb have not been fully characterized. Here we assessed how preparation of voluntary forces towards four spatially distinct visual targets with the left wrist alters muscle twitches and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS of left motor cortex...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774621/increase-of-frontal-cerebral-blood-volume-during-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-depression-is-related-to-treatment-effectiveness-a-pilot-study-with-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#2
Toshikazu Shinba, Nobutoshi Kariya, Saori Matsuda, Hanae Matsuda, Yusuke Obara
AIM: Alterations of cerebral blood flow have been reported in studies of depression treated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, the relationship between these changes in activity during stimulation and the effectiveness of TMS is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in frontal cerebral blood volume measured as frontal hemoglobin concentration (fHbC) during TMS are correlated with clinical outcomes of treatment. METHODS: Fifteen drug-resistant patients with depression underwent a standard treatment regimen of TMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766458/cerebellar-stimulation-evoked-prefrontal-electrical-synchrony-is-modulated-by-gaba
#3
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Fow-Sen Choa, George F Wittenberg, Krista Wisner, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong
Cerebellar-prefrontal connectivity has been recognized as important for behaviors ranging from motor coordination to cognition. Many of these behaviors are known to involve excitatory or inhibitory modulations from the prefrontal cortex. We used cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) to probe cerebellar-evoked electrical activity in prefrontal cortical areas and used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures of prefrontal GABA and glutamate levels to determine if they are correlated with those potentials...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763711/efficacy-and-acceptability-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-adult-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-sham-controlled-trials
#4
REVIEW
Julian Mutz, Daniel R Edgcumbe, Andre R BrunoniMD, Cynthia H Y FuMD
We examined the efficacy and acceptability of non-invasive brain stimulation in adult unipolar and bipolar depression. Randomised sham-controlled trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and theta-burst stimulation (TBS), without co-initiation of another treatment, were included. We analysed effects on response, remission, all-cause discontinuation rates and continuous depression severity measures. Fifty-six studies met our criteria for inclusion (N  = 3,058, mean age = 44...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759942/tms-evoked-n100-reflects-local-gaba-and-glutamate-balance
#5
Xiaoming Du, Laura M Rowland, Ann Summerfelt, Andrea Wijtenburg, Joshua Chiappelli, Krista Wisner, Peter Kochunov, Fow-Sen Choa, L Elliot Hong
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that synchronized electrical activities in the brain are regulated by the primary inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. Identifying direct evidence that this same basic chemical-electrical neuroscience principle operates in the human brains is critical for translation of neuroscience to pathological research. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that the background neurochemical concentrations may affect the cortical excitability probed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758954/the-use-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-evaluate-cortical-excitability-of-lower-limb-musculature-challenges-and-opportunities
#6
Trisha M Kesar, James W Stinear, Steven L Wolf
Neuroplasticity is a fundamental yet relatively unexplored process that can impact rehabilitation of lower extremity (LE) movements. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has gained widespread application as a non-invasive brain stimulation technique for evaluating neuroplasticity of the corticospinal pathway. However, a majority of TMS studies have been performed on hand muscles, with a paucity of TMS investigations focused on LE muscles. This perspective review paper proposes that there are unique methodological challenges associated with using TMS to evaluate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles...
May 5, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753579/a-reappraisal-of-pain-paired-associative-stimulation-suggesting-motor-inhibition-at-spinal-level
#7
Martine Gavaret, Samar S Ayache, Veit Mylius, Alaa Mhalla, Moussa A Chalah, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur
OBJECTIVES: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) can modulate motor excitability and consists of delivering repeated pairs of peripheral sensory stimulation combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the contralateral motor cortex. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a PAS protocol using a painful stimulation. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers underwent pain-PAS protocol consisting of 90 pairs of nociceptive stimulus over the right hand followed by an image-guided navigated TMS of the contralateral motor cortex, delivered at 0...
May 9, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744797/the-role-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-processing-emotional-self-referential-information-a-combined-tms-fmri-study
#8
Nicola De Pisapia, Guido Barchiesi, Jorge Jovicich, Luigi Cattaneo
In this study we investigate the neural basis of emotional content in self-referential processing by using a combination of off-line repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) applied to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and whole-brain functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).We applied effective or ineffective (sham) 1-Hz rTMS to the mPFC of 14 healthy participants who immediately thereafter underwent fMRI while performing a personality attribution task to self or to others. rTMS produced an increase in the participants' reaction time (≈ 60 msec) when processing negative attributes...
May 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742032/modulation-of-motor-cortical-excitability-with-auditory-stimulation
#9
Olli Löfberg, Petro Julkunen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Ari Pääkkönen, Jari Karhu
Loud sounds have been demonstrated to increase motor cortex excitability when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is synchronized with auditory evoked N100 potential measured from electroencephalography (EEG). The N100 potential is generated by an afferent response to sound onset and feature analysis, and upon novel sound it is also related to the arousal reaction. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the ascending reticular activating system of the brainstem and to modulate neuronal activity throughout the central nervous system...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742025/abnormal-motor-cortical-adaptation-to-external-stimulus-in-unverricht-lundborg-disease-progressive-myoclonus-type-1-epm1
#10
Petro Julkunen, Olli Löfberg, Elisa Kallioniemi, Jelena Hyppönen, Reetta Kälviäinen, Esa Mervaala
Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1) is associated with progressive functional and anatomic changes in the thalamus and motor cortex. The neurophysiological mechanisms behind the impaired thalamocortical system were studied through short-term adaptation of the motor cortex to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) via repetition suppression (RS) phenomenon. RS is considered to be related to neural processing of external stimuli. We hypothesized that this neural processing is progressively impaired in EPM1 from adolescence to adulthood...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740290/goal-achievement-failure-drives-corticospinal-modulation-in-promotion-and-prevention-contexts
#11
Emanuele Lo Gerfo, Alberto Pisoni, Stefania Ottone, Ferruccio Ponzano, Luca Zarri, Alessandra Vergallito, Erica Varoli, Davide Fedeli, Leonor J Romero Lauro
When making decisions, people are typically differently sensitive to gains and losses according to the motivational context in which the choice is performed. As hypothesized by Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT), indeed, goals are supposed to change in relation to the set of possible outcomes. In particular, in a promotion context, the goal is achieving the maximal gain, whereas in a prevention context it turns into avoiding the greatest loss. We explored the neurophysiological counterpart of this phenomenon, by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and recording the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants taking part in an economic game, in which they observed actions conveying different goal attainment levels, framed in different motivational contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740105/distributed-representation-of-pelvic-floor-muscles-in-human-motor-cortex
#12
Moheb S Yani, Joyce H Wondolowski, Sandrah P Eckel, Kornelia Kulig, Beth E Fisher, James E Gordon, Jason J Kutch
Human motor cortex can activate pelvic floor muscles (PFM), but the motor cortical representation of the PFM is not well characterized. PFM representation is thought to be focused in the supplementary motor area (SMA). Here we examine the degree to which PFM representation is distributed between SMA and the primary motor cortex (M1), and how this representation is utilized to activate the PFM in different coordination patterns. We show that two types of coordination patterns involving PFM can be voluntarily accessed: one activates PFM independently of synergists and a second activates PFM prior to and in proportion with synergists (in this study, the gluteus maximus muscle - GMM)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738612/evidence-for-a-subcortical-contribution-to-intracortical-facilitation
#13
Patrick Wiegel, Niclas Niemann, John C Rothwell, Christian Leukel
Intracortical facilitation (ICF) describes the facilitation of an EMG response (motor evoked potential) to a suprathreshold pulse (S2) of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by a preceding subthreshold pulse (S1) given 10 to 15 ms earlier. ICF is widely assumed to originate from intracortical mechanisms. In the present study, we used spinal H-reflexes to test whether subcortical mechanisms can also contribute to the facilitation. Measurements were performed in the upper limb muscle flexor carpi radialis (FCR) in 17 healthy volunteers, and in the lower limb muscle soleus (SOL) in 16 healthy volunteers...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732943/do-changes-in-spinal-reflex-excitability-elicited-by-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-differ-based-on-the-site-of-cerebellar-stimulation
#14
Akiyoshi Matsugi
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to investigate whether spinal reflex excitability is influenced by the site of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (C-TMS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age: 24.6 ± 6.6 years [11 men]) participated. Participants lay on a bed in the prone position, with both ankle joints fixed to prevent unwanted movement. Right tibial nerve stimulation was provided to elicit the H-reflex in the right soleus muscle...
May 6, 2018: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730789/the-impact-of-stimulation-intensity-and-coil-type-on-reliability-and-tolerability-of-cerebellar-brain-inhibition-cbi-via-dual-coil-tms
#15
Lara Fernandez, Brendan P Major, Wei-Peng Teo, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) describes the inhibitory tone the cerebellum exerts on the primary motor cortex (M1). CBI can be indexed via a dual-coil transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol, whereby a conditioning stimulus (CS) is delivered to the cerebellum in advance of a test stimulus (TS) to M1. The CS is typically delivered at intensities over 60% maximum stimulus output (MSO) via a double-cone coil. This is reportedly uncomfortable for participants, reducing the reliability and validity of outcomes...
May 5, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729959/the-effect-of-motor-context-on-semantic-processing-a-tms-study
#16
Doriana De Marco, Elisa De Stefani, Diego Bernini, Maurizio Gentilucci
BACKGROUND: strong embodiment theories claimed that action language representation is grounded in the sensorimotor system, which would be crucially to semantic understanding. However, there is a large disagreement in literature about the neural mechanisms involved in abstract (symbolic) language comprehension. OBJECTIVE: in the present study, we investigated the role of motor context in the semantic processing of abstract language. We hypothesized that motor cortex excitability during abstract word semantic processing could be modulated by previous presentation of a stimuli which associated a congruent motor content (i...
May 3, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729894/the-cortical-excitability-profile-of-patients-with-the-g209a-snca-mutation-versus-patients-with-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#17
Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Sotirios Papayiannopoulos, Kyriaki Sotirakoglou, Haralambos Karakasis, Zoe Katsarou, Dimitrios A Kazis, Vasileios Papaliagkas, Stylianos Gatzonis, Alexandros Papadimitriou, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou, Sevasti Bostanjopoulou
Mutations in the α-synuclein gene are a rare cause of Parkinson's disease. We investigated, by single-pulse TMS, the cortical excitability profile of nine α-synuclein patients in comparison with 24 idiopathic PD patients, subdivided into "akinetic" (n=17) and "tremor-dominant" (n=7) subgroups. The comparative assessment of rest motor threshold, active MEP and Silent Period Input/Output curves indicated that the cortical excitability of α-Synuclein patients is similar to patients with the "akinetic" form of PD...
May 2, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729595/decrease-of-motor-cortex-excitability-following-exposure-to-a-20-hz-magnetic-field-as-generated-by-a-rotating-permanent-magnet
#18
Eugen Gallasch, Dietmar Rafolt, Magdalena Postruznik, Shane Fresnoza, Monica Christova
OBJECTIVES: Rotation of a static magnet over the motor cortex (MC) generates a transcranial alternating magnetic field (tAMF), and a linked alternating electrical field. The aim of this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study is to investigate whether such fields are able to influence MC excitability, and whether there are parallels to tACS induced effects. METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers received 20 Hz tAMF stimulation over the MC, over the vertex, and 20 Hz tACS over the MC, each with a duration of 15 min...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729588/the-effects-of-a-single-dose-of-fluoxetine-on-practice-dependent-plasticity
#19
Michelle N McDonnell, Carl Zipser, Ghazaleh Darmani, Ulf Ziemann, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a single dose of fluoxetine increases corticomotoneuronal excitability, motor performance and practice-dependent plasticity. METHODS: Twelve healthy adults completed this placebo-controlled, pseudo-randomized, double-blind crossover study. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotoneuronal excitability, and two uni-axial accelerometers measured kinetics of fastest possible ballistic voluntary thumb movements and TMS-evoked thumb movements...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727709/dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-bridges-bilateral-primary-somatosensory-cortices-during-cross-modal-working-memory
#20
Di Zhao, Yixuan Ku
Neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been suggested to integrate information from distinct sensory areas. However, how the DLPFC interacts with the bilateral primary somatosensory cortices (SIs) in tactile-visual cross-modal working memory has not yet been established. In the present study, we applied single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sp-TMS) over the contralateral DLPFC and bilateral SIs of human participants at various time points, while they performed a tactile-visual delayed matching-to-sample task with a 2-second delay...
May 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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