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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049598/cortical-and-sensory-causes-of-individual-differences-in-selective-attention-ability-among-listeners-with-normal-hearing-thresholds
#1
Barbara Shinn-Cunningham
Purpose: This review provides clinicians with an overview of recent findings relevant to understanding why listeners with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs) sometimes suffer from communication difficulties in noisy settings. Method: The results from neuroscience and psychoacoustics are reviewed. Results: In noisy settings, listeners focus their attention by engaging cortical brain networks to suppress unimportant sounds; they then can analyze and understand an important sound, such as speech, amidst competing sounds...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048214/validation-of-a-full-immersion-simulation-platform-for-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-using-3d-printing-technology
#2
Ahmed Ghazi, Timothy Campbell, Rachel Melnyk, Changyong Feng, Alex Andrusco, Jonathan Stone, Erdal Erturk
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The restriction of resident hours with an increasing focus on patient safety and a reduced caseload has impacted surgical training. A complex and complication prone procedure such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with a steep learning curve may create an unsafe environment for hands-on resident training. In this study, we validate a high fidelity, inanimate PCNL model within a full immersion simulation environment. METHODS: Anatomically correct models of the human pelvicalyceal system (PCS), kidney, and relevant adjacent structures were created using poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels and 3D-printed injection molds...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046453/murine-hepatitis-virus-nsp14-exoribonuclease-activity-is-required-for-resistance-to-innate-immunity
#3
James Brett Case, Yize Li, Ruth Elliott, Xiaotao Lu, Kevin W Graepel, Nicole R Sexton, Everett Clinton Smith, Susan R Weiss, Mark R Denison
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-sense RNA viruses that infect numerous mammalian and avian species and are capable of causing severe and lethal disease in humans. CoVs encode several innate immune antagonists that counteract the host innate immune response to facilitate efficient viral replication. CoV non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) encodes 3' -to-5' exoribonuclease activity (ExoN), which performs a proofreading function and is required for high-fidelity replication. Outside of the order Nidovirales, arenaviruses are the only RNA viruses that encode an ExoN, which functions to degrade dsRNA replication intermediates...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043083/a-framework-for-continuous-target-tracking-during-mr-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-thermal-ablations-in-the-abdomen
#4
Cornel Zachiu, Baudouin Denis de Senneville, Ivan D Dmitriev, Chrit T W Moonen, Mario Ries
BACKGROUND: During lengthy magnetic resonance-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRg-HIFU) thermal ablations in abdominal organs, the therapeutic work-flow is frequently hampered by various types of physiological motion occurring at different time-scales. If left un-addressed this can lead to an incomplete therapy and/or to tissue damage of organs-at-risk. While previous studies focus on correction schemes for displacements occurring at a particular time-scale within the work-flow of an MRg-HIFU therapy, in the current work we propose a motion correction strategy encompassing the entire work-flow...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#5
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023760/listening-to-teachers-views-on-delivery-of-a-classroom-based-sensory-intervention-for-students-with-autism
#6
Caroline Mills, Christine Chapparo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Occupational therapists consider the impact of autism spectrum disorder on occupational performance at school. Occupational therapists work with teachers to support student participation. Atypical sensory processing is common in children with autism. Therefore, collaborating with teachers to enable students with autism to appropriately process sensory information within classrooms may be necessary. This qualitative pilot study aimed to capture teachers' perceptions of using a Sensory Activity Schedule, a sensory based intervention, in the classroom...
October 12, 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022148/utilizing-education-and-perspective-taking-to-remediate-the-stigma-of-taking-antidepressants
#7
Larry R Martinez, Shi Xu, Michelle Hebl
The incidence of depression has been increasing. One of the best interventions for depression is taking antidepressant medications. However, the stigma of taking antidepressants has been shown to be a barrier not only to seeking an antidepressant regimen but also adhering to it. This may have negative consequences for people who suffer from depression. Thus, in two studies, we investigate the incidence of felt stigma of taking antidepressants among clinically depressed individuals who take antidepressants and the effectiveness of two possible interventions to reduce this stigma among others...
October 11, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016701/modifying-alcohol-consumption-to-reduce-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-feasibility-study-of-a-complex-community-based-intervention-for-men
#8
Linda Irvine, Iain K Crombie, Kathryn B Cunningham, Brian Williams, Falko F Sniehotta, John Norrie, Ambrose J Melson, Claire Jones, Peter Rice, Peter W Slane, Marcus Achison, Andrew McKenzie, Elena D Dimova, Sheila Allan
Objectives: Being obese and drinking more than 14 units of alcohol per week places men at very high risk of developing liver disease. This study assessed the feasibility of a trial to reduce alcohol consumption. It tested the recruitment strategy, engagement with the intervention, retention and study acceptability. Methods: Men aged 35-64 years who drank >21 units of alcohol per week and had a BMI > 30 were recruited by two methods: from GP patient registers and by community outreach...
September 18, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991096/evaluation-of-intervention-fidelity-in-a-multisite-clinical-trial-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Janet D Morrison, Heather Becker, Alexa K Stuifbergen
BACKGROUND: Careful consideration of intervention fidelity is critical to establishing the validity and reliability of research findings, yet such reports are often lacking in the research literature. It is imperative that intervention fidelity be methodically evaluated and reported to promote the translation of effective interventions into sound evidence-based practice. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to explore strategies used to promote intervention fidelity, incorporating examples from a multisite clinical trial, that illustrate the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change Consortium's 5 domains for recommended treatment practices: (1) study design, (2) facilitator training, (3) intervention delivery, (4) intervention receipt, and (5) intervention enactment...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990807/process-evaluation-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-adults-with-tinnitus-in-the-context-of-a-randomised-control-trial
#10
Eldré W Beukes, Vinaya Manchaiah, David M Baguley, Peter M Allen, Gerhard Andersson
OBJECTIVE: The research objective was to identify processes that could either facilitate or hinder clinical implementation of an Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention for tinnitus in the UK. This was done by exploring the research context, the intervention components and the factors that contributed to the outcomes obtained. DESIGN: This study investigated eight processes including the recruitment strategies, reach, research context, treatment dose delivered and received, implementation fidelity, barriers to implementation and effectiveness of the intervention...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988183/neurological-outcome-after-minimal-invasive-coronary-artery-surgery-nomics-protocol-for-an-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Kristof Nijs, Jeroen Vandenbrande, Fidel Vaqueriza, Jean-Paul Ory, Alaaddin Yilmaz, Pascal Starinieri, Jasperina Dubois, Luc Jamaer, Ingrid Arijs, Björn Stessel
INTRODUCTION: Adverse neurocognitive outcomes are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. The most common neurocognitive disorders after conventional cardiac surgery are postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), stroke and delirium. Minimal invasive cardiac procedures have recently been introduced into practice. Endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (Endo-CABG) is a minimal invasive cardiac procedure based on the conventional CABG procedure. Neurocognitive outcome after minimal invasive cardiac surgery, including Endo-CABG, has never been studied...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986928/a-systematic-review-of-characteristics-of-couple-based-intervention-studies-addressing-sexuality-following-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Jona Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Helga Jonsdottir, Marianne Klinke
AIM: To describe the characteristics of couple-based intervention studies that address sexuality following cancer. BACKGROUND: Sexuality-related problems are common among cancer survivors and their partners. DESIGN: Systematic literature review with a narrative summary of results. DATA SOURCES: Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL and PsychINFO. We included studies published from 1 January 12009 - 31 December 2016...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976815/dissemination-and-implementation-strategies-of-lower-extremity-preventive-training-programs-in-youth-a-clinical-review
#13
Lindsay J DiStefano, Barnett S Frank, Hayley J Root, Darin A Padua
CONTEXT: Neuromuscular preventive training programs effectively reduce injury and improve performance in youth athletes. However, program effectiveness is directly linked to program compliance, fidelity, and dosage. Preventive training programs are not widely adopted by youth sport coaches. One way to promote widespread dissemination and compliance is to identify implementation strategies that influence program adoption and maintenance. It is unknown how previously published programs have followed the elements of an implementation framework...
October 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976437/knee-arthroscopy-simulation-a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effectiveness-of-the-imperial-knee-arthroscopy-cognitive-task-analysis-ikacta-tool
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rahul Bhattacharyya, Donald J Davidson, Kapil Sugand, Matthew J Bartlett, Rajarshi Bhattacharya, Chinmay M Gupte
BACKGROUND: Virtual-reality and cadaveric simulations are expensive and not readily accessible. Innovative and accessible training adjuncts are required to help to meet training needs. Cognitive task analysis has been used extensively to train pilots and in other surgical specialties. However, the use of cognitive task analyses within orthopaedics is in its infancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel cognitive task analysis tool to train novice surgeons in diagnostic knee arthroscopy in high-fidelity, phantom-limb simulation...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972652/shared-decision-making-for-people-with-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Kayleigh M Kew, Poonam Malik, Krishnan Aniruddhan, Rebecca Normansell
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the airways and is common in both adults and children. It is characterised by symptoms including wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough. People with asthma may be helped to manage their condition through shared decision-making (SDM). SDM involves at least two participants (the medical practitioner and the patient) and mutual sharing of information, including the patient's values and preferences, to build consensus about favoured treatment that culminates in an agreed action...
October 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969669/assessment-of-fidelity-in-individual-level-behaviour-change-interventions-promoting-physical-activity-among-adults-a-systematic-review
#16
Jeffrey D Lambert, Colin J Greaves, Paul Farrand, Rosina Cross, Anne M Haase, Adrian H Taylor
BACKGROUND: Behaviour change interventions that promote physical activity have major implications for health and well-being. Measuring intervention fidelity is crucial in determining the extent to which an intervention is delivered as intended, therefore increasing scientific confidence about effectiveness. However, we lack a clear overview of how well intervention fidelity is typically assessed in physical activity trials. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify peer - reviewed physical activity promotion trials that explicitly measured intervention fidelity...
October 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966182/effectiveness-of-standardized-patient-simulations-in-teaching-clinical-communication-skills-to-dental-students
#17
Carly T McKenzie, Ken R Tilashalski, Dawn Taylor Peterson, Marjorie Lee White
The aim of this study was to investigate dental students' long-term retention of clinical communication skills learned in a second-year standardized patient simulation at one U.S. dental school. Retention was measured by students' performance with an actual patient during their fourth year. The high-fidelity simulation exercise focused on clinical communication skills took place during the spring term of the students' second year. The effect of the simulation was measured by comparing the fourth-year clinical performance of two groups: those who had participated in the simulation (intervention group; Class of 2016) and those who had not (no intervention/control group; Class of 2015)...
October 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960739/outcomes-of-the-victorian-safewards-trial-in-13-wards-impact-on-seclusion-rates-and-fidelity-measurement
#18
Justine Fletcher, Mathew Spittal, Lisa Brophy, Holly Tibble, Stuart Kinner, Steve Elsom, Bridget Hamilton
Restrictive practices are used in response to conflict and aggression in psychiatric inpatient settings. Reducing such practices is the focus internationally of policy and legislative change, many initiatives, and a growing body of research. Safewards is a model and a set of 10 interventions designed to reduce conflict and containment in inpatient services. In the current study, we aimed to assess the impact of implementing Safewards on seclusion in Victorian inpatient mental health services in Australia. The study used a before-and-after design, with a comparison group matched for service type...
October 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951059/feasibility-of-a-grocery-store-tour-for-parents-and-their-adolescents-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#19
Cassandra J Nikolaus, Matthew M Graziose, Sharon M Nickols-Richardson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a grocery store tour for parents and their adolescents being led by adults or adolescent peers. DESIGN: Randomized controlled pilot study with surveys at baseline and post-program, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. SETTING: Midwestern midsized grocery stores. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one parents and their 71 11- to 14-year-old adolescents. INTERVENTION: Nutrition education during 1 90-minute grocery store tour...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950785/fidelity-to-a-motivational-interviewing-intervention-for-those-with-post-stroke-aphasia-a-small-scale-feasibility-study
#20
Emma-Joy Holland, Caroline L Watkins, Elizabeth Boaden, Catherine E Lightbody
OBJECTIVE: Depression after stroke is common, and talk-based psychological therapies can be a useful intervention. While a third of stroke survivors will experience communication difficulties impeding participation in talk-based therapies, little guidance exists to guide delivery for those with aphasia. We need to understand how to adapt talk-based therapies in the presence of aphasia. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of motivational interviewing (MI) in people with post-stroke aphasia...
September 27, 2017: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
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