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Carotid Atherosclerotic unstable plaque

Fatih Yılmaz, Erkan Köklü, Filiz Kizilirmak Yilmaz, Elif Sarıönder Gencer, Ahmet Şükrü Alparslan, Özlem Yıldırımtürk
BACKGROUND: Platelets play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In atherosclerotic plaques, the risk of plaque rupture is more crucial than the severity of stenosis they cause. Non-calcified carotid artery plaques are more unstable than calcified plaques, and they are associated with a higher risk of rupture, thromboembolism and consequently, stroke. AIM: Purpose of the present study is to compare calcified and non-calcified plaques that cause intermediate carotid artery stenosis with respect to mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW)...
October 7, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
Alice Morais Castro, Diana Carmona Fernandes, Ana M Rodrigues, Luis Mendes Pedro, Maria José Santos, Helena Canhão, João Eurico Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: An excess in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality has been recognized in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients when compared to the general population. Given the paucity of prospective data, our aim was to estimate the incidence of CV events and the contribution of traditional CVD risk factors and RA-related parameters to future events. METHODS: Incident fatal and non-fatal CV events (hospitalizations due to unstable angina, myocardial infarction, coronary artery revascularization procedures, stroke, or CV death) were assessed in a prospective cohort of RA women followed since 2007 and without CV events at cohort entry...
April 3, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Lei Zhao, Zhanyi Zhai, Wei Hou
OBJECTIVES: To detect the correlation between high-sensitivity-CRP, carotid plaque, neurological function and intima-media thickness, and help physicians in the diagnosis of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction. METHODS: A total of 96 patients with the first onset of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction were included in the study from July 2013 to May 2015. The test of high-sensitivity-CRP, examination of carotid color ultrasonography and neurological function evaluation were carried out for all the participants...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Jaroslav Pelisek, Heiko Wendorff, Carina Wendorff, Andreas Kuehnl, Hans-Henning Eckstein
Little is known about changes in carotid plaque morphology during aging and the possible impact on cardiovascular events. Only few studies addressed so far age-related modifications within atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, in this work we endeavored to summarize the current knowledge about changing of plaque composition in elderly. The data from hitherto existing studies confirm that atherosclerotic plaques undergo distinct alternations with advanced age. However, the results are often ambiguous and the changes do not seem to be as disastrous as expected...
September 5, 2016: Annals of Medicine
Karolina Skagen, Mona Skjelland, Mahtab Zamani, David Russell
Cardiovascular disease is estimated to be the leading cause of death, globally causing 14 million deaths each year. Stroke remains a massive public health problem and there is an increasing need for better strategies for the prevention and treatment of this disease. At least 20% of ischemic strokes are thromboembolic in nature, caused by a thromboembolism from an atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation or the internal carotid artery. Current clinical guidelines for both primary and secondary prevention of stroke in patients with carotid stenosis caused by atherosclerotic plaques remain reliant on general patient characteristics (traditional risk factors for stroke) and static measures of the degree of artery stenosis...
August 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
Denuja Karunakaran, Michele Geoffrion, Lihui Wei, Wei Gan, Laura Richards, Prakriti Shangari, Ella M DeKemp, Rachelle A Beanlands, Ljubica Perisic, Lars Maegdefessel, Ulf Hedin, Subash Sad, Liang Guo, Frank D Kolodgie, Renu Virmani, Terrence Ruddy, Katey J Rayner
Atherosclerosis results from maladaptive inflammation driven primarily by macrophages, whose recruitment and proliferation drive plaque progression. In advanced plaques, macrophage death contributes centrally to the formation of plaque necrosis, which underlies the instability that promotes plaque rupture and myocardial infarction. Hence, targeting macrophage cell death pathways may offer promise for the stabilization of vulnerable plaques. Necroptosis is a recently discovered pathway of programmed cell necrosis regulated by RIP3 and MLKL kinases that, in contrast to apoptosis, induces a proinflammatory state...
July 2016: Science Advances
M K Salem, H Z Butt, E Choke, D Moore, K West, T G Robinson, R D Sayers, A R Naylor, M J Bown
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the expression of genes associated with carotid plaque instability and their protein products at a local and systemic level. METHODS: Carotid plaques from 24 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were classified as stable or unstable using clinical, histological, ultrasound, and transcranial Doppler criteria, and compared using whole genome microarray chips. Initial results of differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in an independent group of 96 patients undergoing CEA...
October 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Q Q Deng, J Tang, C Chen, H Markus, Y N Huang, H Zhao, D Ratanakorn, K S L Wong, J H Fu
BACKGROUND: Microembolic signals (MESs) are direct markers of unstable large artery atherosclerotic plaques. In a previous study, we found that the number of MESs is associated with stroke recurrence and that clopidogrel plus aspirin more effectively reduce the number of MESs than does aspirin alone. Stroke recurrence is associated with not only the number of MESs but also the size of the MES, which can theoretically be estimated by monitoring the MES intensity via transcranial doppler (TCD)...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Teresa Auguet, Gemma Aragonès, Esther Guiu-Jurado, Alba Berlanga, Marta Curriu, Salomé Martinez, Ajla Alibalic, Carmen Aguilar, María-Luisa Camara, Esteban Hernández, Xavier Ruyra, Vicente Martín-Paredero, Cristóbal Richart
BACKGROUND: Novel pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory derivatives from adipose tissue, known as adipokines, act as metabolic factors. The aim of this study was to analyse the secreted expression of different adipo/cytokines in secretomes of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque versus non-atherosclerotic mammary artery. METHODS: We evaluated the secretion levels of adiponectin, visfatin, lipocalin-2, resistin, IL-6 and TNFR2 by ELISA in human secretomes from cultured unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaque (n = 18) and non-atherosclerotic mammary artery (n = 13)...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Carina Wendorff, Heiko Wendorff, Andreas Kuehnl, Pavlos Tsantilas, Michael Kallmayer, Hans-Henning Eckstein, Jaroslav Pelisek
BACKGROUND: It is still a controversial issue whether carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for asymptomatic carotid stenosis is superior to best medical treatment. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the impact of sex and age on carotid plaque instability in asymptomatic patients undergoing CEA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Atherosclerotic plaques from 465 asymptomatic patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis (2004 - 2013) at the Munich Vascular Biobank were analyzed...
September 2016: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Karina Gasbarrino, Christos Mantzoros, Jessica Gorgui, John P Veinot, Chi Lai, Stella S Daskalopoulou
OBJECTIVE: The rupture of unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaques is one of the main causes of cerebrovascular ischemic events. There is need for circulating markers that can predict plaque instability and risk of stroke. Proinflammatory chemerin, leptin, and resistin, along with anti-inflammatory adiponectin, are adipokines with direct influence on vascular function. We investigated the association of circulating adipokines with carotid plaque instability and cerebrovascular symptomatology...
August 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Mirza Jusufovic, Else Charlotte Sandset, Karolina Skagen, Mona Skjelland
Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the most common cause of disability worldwide. Up to 30% of ischaemic strokes are caused by carotid atherosclerosis, usually due to thromboemboli from an atherosclerotic plaque at the carotid bifurcation. High blood pressure is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, the development of unstable carotid plaques, and ischaemic strokes. Differentiation between asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis is critical to treatment management because of the difference in natural history...
2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
Marcin Majerczyk, Jarosław Wajda, Michał Holecki, Jerzy Chudek
Stroke is one of the most common causes of disability and lack of independence in activities of daily living in adults. One of the most important factors predisposing to stroke, besides hypertension and atrial fibrillation, is carotid atherosclerosis. Rupture of unstable plaque with formation of a platelet plug is the cause of about 20-25% of ischemic strokes. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an important regulator of bone remodeling under physiological and disease conditions, as well as the regulator of osteoclast differentiation...
2015: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Pavel Poredos, Ana Spirkoska, Luka Lezaic, Mojca Božič Mijovski, Mateja Kaja Jezovnik
AIM: Inflammation is highlighted in the pathogenesis and destabilization of atherosclerotic lesions. Noninvasive identification of inflammation of atherosclerotic lesions has been challenging. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a useful technique for detecting inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. However, it is time consuming, expensive, and accompanied by radiation. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between levels of circulating inflammatory markers and the degree of inflammation of atherosclerotic plaques shown by 18F-FDG uptake...
May 26, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
P A Vorkas, J Shalhoub, M R Lewis, K Spagou, E J Want, J K Nicholson, A H Davies, E Holmes
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. That three-quarters of stroke patients will never have previously manifested cerebrovascular symptoms demonstrates the unmet clinical need for new biomarkers able to stratify patient risk and elucidation of the biological dysregulations. In this study, the utility of comprehensive metabolic phenotyping is assessed to provide candidate biomarkers that relate to stroke risk in stenosing carotid plaque tissue samples. METHOD: Carotid plaque tissue samples were obtained from patients with cerebrovascular symptoms of carotid origin (n = 5), and from asymptomatic patients (n = 5)...
July 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Chang Pan, Jun-Hui Xing, Cheng Zhang, Ying-Mei Zhang, Lue-Tao Zhang, Shu-Jian Wei, Ming-Xiang Zhang, Xu-Ping Wang, Qiu-Huan Yuan, Li Xue, Jia-Li Wang, Zhao-Qiang Cui, Yun Zhang, Feng Xu, Yu-Guo Chen
Previous studies demonstrated that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 polymorphism, which eliminates ALDH2 activity down to 1%-6%, is a susceptibility gene for coronary disease. Here we investigated the underlying mechanisms based on our prior clinical and experimental studies. Male apoE-/- mice were transfected with GFP, ALDH2-overexpression and ALDH2-RNAi lentivirus respectively (n=20 each) after constrictive collars were placed around the right common carotid arteries. Consequently, ALDH2 gene silencing led to an increased en face plaque area, more unstable plaque with heavier accumulation of lipids, more macrophages, less smooth muscle cells and collagen, which were associated with aggravated inflammation...
May 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Doina Butcovan, Veronica Mocanu, Dana Baran, Diana Ciurescu, Grigore Tinica
The types of lesion instability responsible for the majority of acute coronary events frequently include plaque disruption and plaque erosion with superimposed thrombosis. The term 'vulnerable plaque is used to describe atherosclerotic (ATS) plaques that are particularly prone to rupture and susceptible to thrombus formation, such as the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). The aim of the present study was to assess the morphological and histological differences between plaques that are unstable and those that are vulnerable to instability...
May 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
F Jashari, P Ibrahimi, G Bajraktari, C Grönlund, P Wester, M Y Henein
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many reports have shown an association between hypoechoic (echolucent) carotid atherosclerotic plaques and unstable features. In this meta-analysis our aim was to determine the role of carotid plaque echogenicity in predicting future cerebrovascular (CV) symptoms. METHODS: Electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Center Register) up to September 2015 were systematically searched. Studies with ultrasound-based characterization of carotid artery plaque echogenicity and its association with focal neurological symptoms of vascular origin were eligible for analysis...
July 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Daniel Rob, David Ručka, Miroslav Chochola, Debora Karetová, Jan Hrubý, Eliška Kusová, Jean Claude Lubanda
Atherosclerosis is a diffuse disease which may lead to the development of unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Its rupture can result in acute ischemic event. The atherosclerotic plaques with a mobile component are typical presentations of such instability and patients with these plaques are at high risk of acute ischemic events. In the current literature, substantial data regarding the mobile atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries and thoracic aorta is published. However there are almost no data concerning the mobile plaques in the peripheral arteries of the lower limbs...
January 2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Gemma Aragonès, Teresa Auguet, Esther Guiu-Jurado, Alba Berlanga, Marta Curriu, Salomé Martinez, Ajla Alibalic, Carmen Aguilar, Esteban Hernández, María-Luisa Camara, Núria Canela, Pol Herrero, Xavier Ruyra, Vicente Martín-Paredero, Cristóbal Richart
Because of the clinical significance of carotid atherosclerosis, the search for novel biomarkers has become a priority. The aim of the present study was to compare the protein secretion profile of the carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP, n = 12) and nonatherosclerotic mammary artery (MA, n = 10) secretomes. We used a nontargeted proteomic approach that incorporated tandem immunoaffinity depletion, iTRAQ labeling, and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. In total, 162 proteins were quantified, of which 25 showed statistically significant differences in secretome levels between carotid atherosclerotic plaque and nondiseased mammary artery...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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