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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221362/disrupted-iron-regulation-in-the-brain-and-periphery-in-cocaine-addiction
#1
K D Ersche, J Acosta-Cabronero, P S Jones, H Ziauddeen, R P L van Swelm, C M M Laarakkers, R Raha-Chowdhury, G B Williams
Stimulant drugs acutely increase dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, and chronic use leads to neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic dopamine system and morphological changes in basal ganglia structures. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying these changes but preclinical evidence suggests that iron, a coenzyme in dopamine synthesis and storage, may be a candidate mediator. Iron is present in high concentrations in the basal ganglia and stimulant drugs may interfere with iron homeostasis. We hypothesised that morphological brain changes in cocaine addiction relate to abnormal iron regulation in the brain and periphery...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219337/chronic-nicotine-differentially-affects-murine-transcriptome-profiling-in-isolated-cortical-interneurons-and-pyramidal-neurons
#2
Jie Yang, Ai-Yi Liu, Bo Tang, Dong Luo, Yu-Jie Lai, Bing-Lin Zhu, Xue-Feng Wang, Zhen Yan, Guo-Jun Chen
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is known to differentially regulate cortical interneuron and pyramidal neuron activities in the neocortex, while the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well studied. In this study, RNA-sequencing was performed in acutely isolated cortical somatostatin (Sst)- positive interneurons and pyramidal neurons (Thy1) from mice treated with systemic nicotine for 14 days. We assessed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by nicotine in Sst- or Thy1- neurons, respectively, and then compared DEGs between Sst- and Thy1- neurons in the absence and presence of nicotine...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216642/high-fat-meal-systemic-inflammation-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#3
A Morandi, E Fornari, F Opri, M Corradi, M Tommasi, R Bonadonna, C Maffeis
We aimed to assess in obese youths the relationships between interleukin 6 (IL-6), fat-meal induced endotoxemia and glucose homeostasis. Twenty obese children/adolescents (9-17 years old, 11 boys) underwent a standard OGTT and, 7-14 days later, a 5-hour fat meal test (fat=69% of energy, SFA/MUFA/PUFA=31.5%/35%/33.5%), with serial measures of IL-6 and two markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and translocation, LPS-binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14). IL-6 correlated not only with basal (HOMA-IR) but also with post-prandial (Matsuda-index) insulin sensitivity (r=0...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216063/the-nad-precursor-nicotinic-acid-improves-genomic-integrity-in-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-after-x-irradiation
#4
Kathrin Weidele, Sascha Beneke, Alexander Bürkle
NAD(+) is an essential cofactor for enzymes catalyzing redox-reactions as well as an electron carrier in energy metabolism. Aside from this, NAD(+) consuming enzymes like poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and sirtuins are important regulators involved in chromatin-restructuring processes during repair and epigenetics/transcriptional adaption. In order to replenish cellular NAD(+) levels after cleavage, synthesis starts from precursors such as nicotinamide, nicotinamide riboside or nicotinic acid to match the need for this essential molecule...
February 13, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216025/pi3k-akt-mtor-inhibitors-in-breast-cancers-from-tumor-cell-signaling-to-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Dey Nandini, De Pradip, Leyland-Jones Brian
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common women cancer and second most common cause of cancer death in women. A woman living in the Unites States has 12.3% lifetime risk of being diagnosed with BC. From the genomics point of view, the most common three subtypes of BC encountered in clinics are HR+, HER2+, and TNBC or basal-like BC. Estrogen receptor (ER) status or HER2 amplification or chemotherapy is not sufficient to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease progression and resistance (de novo or acquire)...
February 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215236/hyperdopaminergism-in-lenticulostriate-stroke-related-restless-legs-syndrome-an-imaging-study
#6
Elisabeth Ruppert, Marc Bataillard, Izzie Jacques Namer, Laurent Tatu, Aurélien Hacquard, Laurence Hugueny, Jeffrey Hubbard, Ulker Kilic-Huck, Valérie Wolff, Patrice Bourgin
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) involves a dopaminergic dysregulation that remains poorly understood, with controversial data from the literature. Stroke-related RLS is a rare condition that involves primarily the basal ganglia, the paramedian pons, and the thalamus. Given these elements, we studied dopaminergic metabolism in patients with RLS secondary to lenticulostriate infarction using structural and nuclear imaging in the striatum ipsilateral to the infarction area, as compared to the contralateral side...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214558/small-heterodimer-partner-shp-contributes-to-insulin-resistance-in-cardiomyocytes
#7
Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Dipanjan Chanda, Yvonne Oligschlaeger, Marie Miglianico, Will A Coumans, Emma Barroso, Marta Tajes, Joost Jfp Luiken, Jan Fc Glatz, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera, Dietbert Neumann
Small heterodimer partner (SHP) is an atypical nuclear receptor expressed in heart that has been shown to inhibit the hypertrophic response. Here, we assessed the role of SHP in cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) displayed glucose intolerance accompanied by increased cardiac mRNA levels of Shp. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, SHP overexpression inhibited both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and impaired the insulin signalling pathway (evidenced by reduced AKT and AS160 phosphorylation), similar to insulin resistant cells generated by high palmitate/high insulin treatment (HP/HI; 500μM/100nM)...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213827/resistance-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-toxicity-and-associated-bioenergetic-consequences-in-a-population-of-fundulus-heteroclitus
#8
C D Lindberg, N Jayasundara, J S Kozal, T C Leuthner, R T Di Giulio
Several locations in the Elizabeth River, VA, USA are highly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to the release of creosote mixtures from wood treatment facilities. Interestingly, some populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) inhabiting the Elizabeth River (ER) are resistant to PAH-induced teratogenesis. However, evolutionary resistance to PAHs due to chronic PAH exposure is associated with reduced fitness and increased susceptibility to other environmental stressors in at least one PAH-resistant ER killifish population...
February 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213130/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-impairs-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-lipid-accumulation-in-hepatocytes
#9
Kerstin Rufinatscha, Bernhard Radlinger, Jochen Dobner, Sabrina Folie, Claudia Bon, Elisabeth Profanter, Claudia Ress, Karin Salzmann, Gabriele Staudacher, Herbert Tilg, Susanne Kaser
Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 [DPP-4) has evolved into an important target in diabetes therapy due to its role in incretin hormone metabolism. In contrast to its systemic effects, cellular functions of membranous DPP-4 are less clear. Here we studied the role of DPP-4 in hepatic energy metabolism. In order to distinguish systemic from cellular effects we established a cell culture model of DPP-4 knockdown in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. DPP-4 suppression was associated with increased basal glycogen content due to enhanced insulin signaling as shown by increased phosphorylation of insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211546/differential-effects-of-hormones-on-cellular-metabolism-in-keratoconus-in-vitro
#10
Tina B McKay, Jesper Hjortdal, Henrik Sejersen, Dimitrios Karamichos
Keratoconus (KC) is a corneal thinning disease with an onset commonly immediately post-puberty and stabilization by 40 to 50 years of age. The role of hormones in regulating corneal tissue structure in homeostatic and pathological conditions is unknown. Our group recently linked altered hormone levels to KC. Our current study sought to investigate and delineate the effects of exogenous hormones, such as androgen, luteotropin, and estrogen, on corneal stroma bioenergetics. We utilized our established 3D in vitro model to characterize the effects of DHEA, prolactin, 17β-estradiol on insulin-growth factor-1 and -2 (IGF-1, -2) signaling and metabolic function in primary corneal fibroblasts from healthy controls (HCFs) and KC patients (HKCs)...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209717/autophagy-metabolism-and-cancer
#11
Jessie Yanxiang Guo, Eileen White
Macroautophagy (autophagy hereafter) is a process that collects cytoplasmic components, particularly mitochondria, and degrades them in lysosomes. In mammalian systems, basal autophagy levels are normally low but are profoundly stimulated by starvation and essential for survival. Cancer cells up-regulate autophagy and can be more autophagy-dependent than most normal tissues. Genetic deficiency in essential autophagy genes in tumors in many autochthonous mouse models for cancer reduces tumor growth. In K-ras(G12D)-driven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other models, autophagy sustains metabolism and survival...
February 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207812/of-the-milk-sugars-galactose-but-not-prebiotic-galacto-oligosaccharide-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Priska Stahel, Julie J Kim, Changting Xiao, John P Cant
BACKGROUND: Consumption of dairy products reduces risk of type 2 diabetes. Milk proteins and fats exhibit anti-diabetic properties but milk sugars have been studied little in this context. Galactose from milk lactose is readily converted to glycogen in the liver but its effects on insulin sensitivity have not been assessed. Prebiotic oligosaccharides from milk alter gut microbiota and can thereby influence host metabolism. Our objective was to assess the effect on insulin sensitivity of dietary galactose compared to glucose and fructose, and fermentable galacto-oligosaccharides compared to non-fermentable methylcellulose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202360/lycopene-resveratrol-vitamin-c-and-feso4-increase-damage-produced-by-pro-oxidant-carcinogen-4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-in-drosophila-melanogaster-xenobiotic-metabolism-implications
#13
I E Dueñas-García, M E Heres-Pulido, M R Arellano-Llamas, J De la Cruz-Núñez, V Cisneros-Carrillo, C S Palacios-López, L Acosta-Anaya, L F Santos-Cruz, L Castañeda-Partida, A Durán-Díaz
4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) is a pro-oxidant carcinogen bioactivated by xenobiotic metabolism (XM). We investigated if antioxidants lycopene [0.45, 0.9, 1.8 μM], resveratrol [11, 43, 172 μM], and vitamin C [5.6 mM] added or not with FeSO4 [0.06 mM], modulate the genotoxicity of 4-NQO [2 mM] with the Drosophila wing spot test standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses, with inducible and high levels of cytochromes P450, respectively. The genotoxicity of 4-NQO was higher when dissolved in an ethanol - acetone mixture...
February 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201986/the-origin-of-chow-chows-in-the-light-of-the-east-asian-breeds
#14
Hechuan Yang, Guodong Wang, Meng Wang, Yaping Ma, Tingting Yin, Ruoxi Fan, Hong Wu, Li Zhong, David M Irwin, Weiwei Zhai, Yaping Zhang
BACKGROUND: East Asian dog breeds are one of the most ancient groups of dogs that radiated after the domestication of the dog and represent the most basal lineages of dog evolution. Among these, the Chow Chow is an ancient breed that embodies very distinct morphological and physiological features, such as sturdy build, dense coat, and blue/purple tongue. RESULTS: Using a Restricted site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing approach, we sequenced the genomes of nine Chow Chows from China...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199351/physiological-plasticity-related-to-zonation-affects-hsp70-expression-in-the-reef-building-coral-pocillopora-verrucosa
#15
Davide Poli, Elena Fabbri, Stefano Goffredo, Valentina Airi, Silvia Franzellitti
This study investigates for the first time the transcriptional regulation of a stress-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora verrucosa sampled at three locations and two depths (3 m and 12 m) in Bangka Island waters (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Percentage of coral cover indicated reduced habitat suitability with depth and at the Tanjung Husi (TA) site, which also displayed relatively higher seawater temperatures. Expression of the P. verrucosa hsp70 transcript evaluated under field conditions followed a depth-related profile, with relatively higher expression levels in 3-m collected nubbins compared to the 12-m ones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197128/drivers-of-bacterial-maintenance-and-minimal-energy-requirements
#16
Christopher P Kempes, Peter M van Bodegom, David Wolpert, Eric Libby, Jan Amend, Tori Hoehler
Microbes maintain themselves through a variety of processes. Several of these processes can be reduced or shut down entirely when resource availability declines. In pure culture conditions with ample substrate supply, a relationship between the maximum growth rate and the energy invested in maintenance has been reported widely. However, at the other end of the resources spectrum, bacteria are so extremely limited by energy that no growth occurs and metabolism is constrained to the most essential functions only...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196306/effects-of-isoflurane-anesthesia-and-intravenous-morphine-self-administration-on-regional-glucose-metabolism-18-f-fdg-pet-of-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#17
Thomas Y Park, Kevin S Nishida, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, Jessica Scott, Andrew R Hoy, Reed G Selwyn, Bernard J Dardzinski, Kwang H Choi
Although certain drugs of abuse are known to disrupt brain glucose metabolism (BGluM), the effects of opiates on BGluM are not well characterized. Moreover, preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies anesthetize animals during the scan, which limits clinical applications. We investigated the effects of 1) isoflurane anesthesia and 2) intravenous morphine self-administration (MSA) on BGluM in rats. Jugular vein cannulated adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered either saline (SSA) or morphine (0...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194805/fetal-adaptations-in-insulin-secretion-result-from-high-catecholamines-during-placental-insufficiency
#18
Sean W Limesand, Paul J Rozance
Placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) of the fetus affects approximately 8% of all pregnancies and is associated with short- and long-term disturbances in metabolism. In pregnant sheep, experimental models with a small, defective placenta that restricts delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus result in IUGR. Low blood oxygen concentrations increase fetal plasma catecholamine concentrations, which lower fetal insulin concentrations. All of these observations in sheep models with placental insufficiency are consistent with cases of human IUGR...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193912/the-effects-of-graded-levels-of-calorie-restriction-viii-impact-of-short-term-calorie-and-protein-restriction-on-basal-metabolic-rate-in-the-c57bl-6-mouse
#19
Sharon E Mitchell, ZhanHui Tang, Celine Kerbois, Camille Delville, Davina Derous, Cara L Green, Yingchun Wang, Jackie J D Han, Luonan Chen, Alex Douglas, David Lusseau, Daniel E L Promislow, John R Speakman
Under calorie restriction (CR) animals need to lower energy demands. Whether this involves a reduction in cellular metabolism is an issue of contention. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to graded CR for 3 months, measured BMR and dissected out 20 body compartments. From a separate age-matched group (n=57), we built 7 predictive models for BMR. Unadjusted BMR declined with severity of restriction. Comparison of measured and predicted BMR from the simple models suggested suppression occurred. The extent of 'suppression' was greater with increased CR severity...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190677/bornyl-diphosphate-synthase-from-lavandula-angustifolia-a-major-monoterpene-synthase-involved-in-essential-oil-quality
#20
Yolande Despinasse, Sébastien Fiorucci, Serge Antonczak, Sandrine Moja, Aurélie Bony, Florence Nicolè, Sylvie Baudino, Jean-Louis Magnard, Frédéric Jullien
Lavender essential oils (EOs) of higher quality are produced by a few Lavandula angustifolia cultivars and mainly used in the perfume industry. Undesirable compounds such as camphor and borneol are also synthesized by lavender leading to a depreciated EO. Here, we report the cloning of bornyl diphosphate synthase of lavender (LaBPPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of bornyl diphosphate (BPP) and then by-products such as borneol or camphor, from an EST library. Compared to the BPPS of Salvia officinalis, the functional characterization of LaBPPS showed several differences in amino acid sequence, and the distribution of catalyzed products...
February 9, 2017: Phytochemistry
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