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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913585/the-influence-of-placental-metabolism-on-fatty-acid-transfer-to-the-fetus
#1
Simone Perazzolo, Birgit Hirschmugl, Christian Wadsack, Gernot Desoye, Rohan M Lewis, Bram G Sengers
The factors determining Fatty acid transfer across the placenta are not fully understood. This study used a combined experimental and computational modelling approach to explore placental transfer of non-esterified fatty acids and identify rate-determining processes. The isolated perfused human placenta was used to study the uptake and transfer of [(13)C]-fatty acids and the release of endogenous fatty acids. Only 6.2 ± 0.8% of the maternal (13)C-fatty acids taken up by the placenta was delivered to the fetal circulation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910764/metabolic-regulation-of-natural-killer-cell-ifn-%C3%AE-production
#2
Annelise Y Mah, Megan A Cooper
Metabolism is critical for a host of cellular functions and provides a source of intracellular energy. It has been recognized recently that metabolism also regulates differentiation and effector functions of immune cells. Although initial work in this field has focused largely on T lymphocytes, recent studies have demonstrated metabolic control of innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we review what is known regarding the metabolic requirements for NK cell activation, focusing on NK cell production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910716/persistent-amenorrhea-and-decreased-dheas-to-cortisol-ratio-after-recovery-from-anorexia-nervosa
#3
Alessandra Andrisani, Chiara Sabbadin, Silvia Minardi, Angela Favaro, Gabriella Donà, Luciana Bordin, Guido Ambrosini, Decio Armanini
Persistent amenorrhea is a frequent condition affecting anorexic patients after stable weight recovery. It has been proposed that it could be due to alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis linked with persistent hormonal impairments, such as relative hypercortisolemia and hypoleptinemia, and psychological symptoms related to anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal pattern involved in the persistence of amenorrhea after recovery from AN. Eight weight-recovered anorexic patients with amenorrhea were investigated and matched with 10 healthy eumenorrhoic women, comparable for age and BMI...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909699/aav-mediated-sirt1-overexpression-in-skeletal-muscle-activates-oxidative-capacity-but-does-not-prevent-insulin-resistance
#4
Laia Vilà, Carles Roca, Ivet Elias, Alba Casellas, Ricardo Lage, Sylvie Franckhauser, Fatima Bosch
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by triglyceride accumulation and reduced lipid oxidation capacity in skeletal muscle. SIRT1 is a key protein in the regulation of lipid oxidation and its expression is reduced in the skeletal muscle of insulin resistant mice. In this tissue, Sirt1 up-regulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative metabolism and improves mitochondrial function mainly through PPARGC1 deacetylation. Here we examined whether Sirt1 overexpression mediated by adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 1 (AAV1) specifically in skeletal muscle can counteract the development of insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet in mice...
2016: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907040/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-cardiomyocytes-from-mice-with-the-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Monica Llano-Diez, Jon Sinclair, Takashi Yamada, Mei Zong, Jeremy Fauconnier, Shi-Jin Zhang, Abram Katz, Kent Jardemark, Håkan Westerblad, Daniel C Andersson, Johanna T Lanner
The metabolic syndrome is associated with prolonged stress and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and afflicted subjects are prone to develop cardiovascular disease. Under normal conditions, the cardiomyocyte response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation partly depends on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the interplay between beta-adrenergic signaling, ROS and cardiac contractility using freshly isolated cardiomyocytes and whole hearts from two mouse models with the metabolic syndrome (high-fat diet and ob/ob mice)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#7
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905546/transcriptome-analysis-confers-a-complex-disease-resistance-network-in-wild-rice-oryza-meyeriana-against-xanthomonas-oryzae-pv-oryzae
#8
Xiao-Jie Cheng, Bin He, Lin Chen, Su-Qin Xiao, Jian Fu, Yue Chen, Teng-Qiong Yu, Zai-Quan Cheng, Hong Feng
Rice bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of rice. It is well established that the wild rice Oryza meyeriana is immune to BB. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis was carried out by RNA sequencing of O. meyeriana leaves, inoculated with Xoo to understand the transcriptional responses and interaction between the host and pathogen. Totally, 57,313 unitranscripts were de novo assembled from 58.7 Gb clean reads and 14,143 unitranscripts were identified after Xoo inoculation...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904476/impairment-of-the-nerve-growth-factor-pathway-driving-amyloid-accumulation-in-cholinergic-neurons-the-incipit-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-story
#9
REVIEW
Viviana Triaca, Pietro Calissano
The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF) alterations in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN), is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900626/selection-of-chemically-defined-media-for-cho-cell-fed-batch-culture-processes
#10
Xiao Pan, Mathieu Streefland, Ciska Dalm, René H Wijffels, Dirk E Martens
Two CHO cell clones derived from the same parental CHO(BC®) cell line and producing the same monoclonal antibody (BC-G, a low producing clone; BC-P, a high producing clone) were tested in four basal media in all possible combinations with three feeds (=12 conditions) in fed-batch cultures. Higher amino acid feeding did not always lead to higher mAb production. The two clones showed differences in cell physiology, metabolism and optimal medium-feed combinations. During the phase transitions of all cultures, cell metabolism showed a shift represented by lower specific consumption and production rates, except for the specific glucose consumption rate in cultures fed by Actifeed A/B...
November 29, 2016: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899482/transient-receptor-potential-canonical-3-trpc3-channels-are-required-for-hypothalamic-glucose-detection-and-energy-homeostasis
#11
Chloé Chrétien, Claire Fenech, Fabienne Liénard, Sylvie Grall, Charlène Chevalier, Sylvie Chaudy, Xavier Brenachot, Raymond Berges, Katie Louche, Romana Stark, Emmanuelle Nédélec, Amélie Laderrière, Zane B Andrews, Alexandre Benani, Veit Flockerzi, Jean Gascuel, Jana Hartmann, Cédric Moro, Lutz Birnbaumer, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pénicaud, Xavier Fioramonti
The medio-basal hypothalamus (MBH) contains neurons capable of directly detecting metabolic signals such as glucose to control energy homeostasis. Among them, glucose-excited (GE) neurons increase their electrical activity when glucose rises. In view of previous work, we hypothesized that Transient Receptor Potential Canonical type-3 (TRPC3) channels are involved in hypothalamic glucose detection and the control of energy homeostasis.To investigate the role of TRPC3, we used constitutive and conditional TRPC3-deficient mice models...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898069/clozapine-modifies-the-differentiation-program-of-human-adipocytes-inducing-browning
#12
E Kristóf, Q-M Doan-Xuan, A K Sárvári, Á Klusóczki, P Fischer-Posovszky, M Wabitsch, Z Bacso, P Bai, Z Balajthy, L Fésüs
Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896318/insulin-elevates-leptin-secretion-and-mrna-levels-via-cyclic-amp-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-deprived-of-glucose
#13
Tomomi Tsubai, Yukihiro Noda, Kazuma Ito, Makoto Nakao, Yusuke Seino, Yutaka Oiso, Yoji Hamada
AIMS: Leptin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes, yet the regulatory mechanisms of this hormone have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the roles of insulin and glucose in leptin secretion and mRNA production using inhibitors of insulin signal transduction in adipocytes cultured under glucose-free or normal conditions. METHODS: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin in combination with inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), as well as epinephrine and a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog under glucose-free or normal conditions...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893781/salicylic-acid-is-involved-in-the-basal-resistance-of-tomato-plants-to-citrus-exocortis-viroid-and-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus
#14
M Pilar López-Gresa, Purificación Lisón, Lynne Yenush, Vicente Conejero, Ismael Rodrigo, José María Bellés
Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#15
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890829/antenatal-exposure-to-antidepressants-is-associated-with-altered-brain-development-in-very-preterm-born-neonates
#16
Samantha K Podrebarac, Emma G Duerden, Vann Chau, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, Tim F Oberlander, Steven P Miller
BACKGROUND: Antenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) is associated with an enhanced risk of preterm birth. Very preterm-born neonates (<32-week gestation) antenatally-exposed to SSRIs may show altered brain development. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether antenatal-SSRI exposure was associated with adverse neonatal brain microstructural and metabolic development using diffusion tensor and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. DESIGN/METHODS: Of 177 neonates enrolled, 14 (8%) were antenatally exposed to SSRIs...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890613/activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-does-not-contribute-to-macrophage-abca1-expression-and-abca1-mediated-cholesterol-efflux-to-apoai
#17
Meixiu Jiang, Xiaoju Li
Activation of macrophage ABCA1/G1 expression and cholesterol efflux is believed one of the mechanisms by which PPARγ inhibits atherosclerosis. PPARγ can also activate CD36 expression, a receptor for oxLDL, which may supply LXR ligands to activate LXR-ABCA1/G1 pathways. However, the controversial effects of PPARγ on ABCA1 expression have been reported. In this study, we used peritoneal macrophages isolated from wild type and CD36 deficient (CD36(-/-)) mice to clarify if PPARγ ligands can influence ABCA1 expression by CD36 function...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889125/analysis-of-pasture-supplementation-strategies-by-means-of-a-mechanistic-model-of-ruminal-digestion-and-metabolism-in-the-dairy-cow
#18
J P McNamara, M J Auldist, L C Marett, P J Moate, W J Wales
Effective pasture supplementation is critical to the efficiency of resource management in milk production. We understand a great deal about ruminal and metabolic processes in dairy cattle that control efficiency but we need to improve our ability to predict effects of practical feeding strategies based on the basic biological processes of the cow. Therefore, a large-scale pasture supplementation study was used to explore the details of both practical management and the underlying biological principles and processes involved...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887573/in-vitro-function-of-upstream-visfatin-polymorphisms-that-are-associated-with-adverse-cardiometabolic-parameters-in-obese-children
#19
Delicia Shu Qin Ooi, Siong Gim Ong, Chew Kiat Heng, Kah Yin Loke, Yung Seng Lee
BACKGROUND: Visfatin is an adipokine associated with glucose and lipid metabolism. We previously reported two visfatin upstream single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.-3187G > A (rs11977021) and c.-1537C > T (rs61330082), which were in perfect linkage disequilibrium, in a Singaporean cohort of severely obese children and are associated with visfatin level and adverse cardiometabolic parameters. We aim to functionally characterize the effect of c.-3187G > A and c...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886631/metagenomics-analysis-reveals-a-new-metallothionein-family-sequence-and-metal-binding-features-of-new-environmental-cysteine-rich-proteins
#20
Antoine Ziller, Rajiv Kumar Yadav, Mercè Capdevila, Mondem Sudhakara Reddy, Laurent Vallon, Roland Marmeisse, Silvia Atrian, Òscar Palacios, Laurence Fraissinet-Tachet
Metallothioneins are cysteine-rich proteins, which function as (i) metal carriers in basal cell metabolism and (ii) protective metal chelators in conditions of metal excess. Metallothioneins have been characterized from different eukaryotic model and cultivable species. Presently, they are categorized in 15 families but evolutionary relationships between these metallothionein families remain unresolved. Several cysteine-rich protein encoding genes that conferred Cd-tolerance in Cd-sensitive yeast mutants have previously been isolated from soil eukaryotic metatranscriptomes...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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