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basal metabolism

Nicholette D Palmer, Hayrettin Okut, Fang-Chi Hsu, Maggie C Y Ng, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Jill M Norris, Carlos Lorenzo, Jerome I Rotter, Richard N Bergman, Carl D Langefeld, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Donald W Bowden
Context: Metabolomics provides a biochemical fingerprint which, when coupled with clinical phenotypes, can provide insight into physiological processes and disease. Objective: Survey metabolites associated with dynamic and basal measures of glucose homeostasis. Design: Analysis of 733 serum metabolites from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: 1111 Mexican Americans...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Katarzyna Otulak-Kozieł, Edmund Kozieł, Benham E L Lockhart
The cell wall provides the structure of the plant, and also acts as a barier against biotic stress. The vein necrosis strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN ) induces necrotic disease symptoms that affect both plant growth and yield. Virus infection triggers a number of inducible basal defense responses, including defense proteins, especially those involved in cell wall metabolism. This study investigates the comparison of cell wall host dynamics induced in a compatible (potato cv. Irys) and incompatible (potato cv...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
José F Muñoz, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Christina A Cuomo
Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marcin Czarnoleski, Anna Maria Labecka, Dominika Dragosz-Kluska, Tomasz Pis, Katarzyna Pawlik, Filip Kapustka, Wincenty M Kilarski, Jan Kozłowski
Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consistently evolved larger cells for five cell types (erythrocytes, enterocytes, chondrocytes, skin epithelial cells, and kidney proximal tubule cells) and evolved smaller hepatocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biology Open
Antonio A F De Salles, Daniel A N Barbosa, Fernando Fernandes, Julio Abucham, Debora M Nazato, Juliana D Oliveira, Abrão Cury, Alexandre Biasi, Ronaldo Rossi, Camila Lasagno, Priscila T Bueno, Renato H N Santos, Lucas P Damiani, Alessandra A Gorgulho
BACKGROUND: Human morbid obesity is increasing worldwide in an alarming way. The hypothalamus is known to mediate its mechanisms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may be an alternative to treat patients refractory to standard medical and surgical therapies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, identify possible side effects, and to optimize stimulation parameters of continuous VMH-DBS. Additionally, this study aims to determine if continuous VMH-DBS will lead to weight loss by causing changes in body composition, basal metabolism, or food intake control...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Özlem Korkmaz, Günay Demir, Hafize Çetin, İlkin Mecidov, Yasemin Atik Altınok, Samim Özen, Şükran Darcan, Damla Gökşen
AIM: To compare continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (CSII) with multiple daily insulin therapy (MDI) on metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) over the long term. METHOD: 52 T1DM patients treated with CSII and monitored for at least 1 year prior to and at least five years following CSII were included. 38 age and sex-matched MDI controls with a 5-year follow up were recruited. RESULTS: Mean age of the subjects, duration of diabetes and CSII therapy were 17...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Giovanni Matera, Maria Teresa Loria, Cinzia Peronace, Tatiana Catanzariti, Pio Settembre, Aida Giancotti, Angelo G Lamberti, Giorgio S Barreca, Luisa Galati, Gessica Dodaro, Maria Mazzitelli, Alessio Strazzulla, Carlo Torti, Angela Quirino, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
We aim to investigate some of the pathogenetic mediators of the human echinococcosis and to obtain updated epidemiological findings on cases of echinococcosis in Calabria, Southern Italy. Echinococcosis diagnosis was based on imaging, serological investigations, and molecular assay. Indeed, real-time PCR indicated the presence of G2/G3 genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus complex. Regarding pathogenesis, a relevant novel tool of immune depression should be deemed the reduced level of serum MCP-1. Also, we found a previously unreported VEGF, possibly associated with neovascularization requested by the parasite cyst metabolism...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Hussain N Alhamami, Md Main Uddin, A S M Hasan Mahmood, Karen P Briski
The hypothalamic energy sensor adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia, responds to pharmacological manipulation of hindbrain AMPK activity. Dorsomedial hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons express hypoglycemia-sensitive metabolo-sensory biomarkers, including AMPK. Here, adult male rats were pretreated by intra-caudal fourth ventricular administration of the selective neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to determine if catecholamine signaling from the aforesaid site governs hypothalamic AMPK activation during insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH)...
March 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Laurentiu M Pop, Andrea Mari, Tong-Jin Zhao, Lori Mitchell, Shawn Burgess, Xilong Li, Beverley Adams-Huet, Ildiko Lingvay
AIM: To investigate the physiological mechanisms leading to rapid improvement in diabetes after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB). In particular, the roles of concurrent peri-operative dietary restrictions, which may also alter glucose metabolism, have not been completely elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To assess the differential contributions of diet and surgery to the mechanisms leading to the rapid improvement in diabetes after RYGB we enrolled ten patients with type 2 diabetes scheduled to undergo RYGB...
March 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Aditya Jain, Aaron F Struck, Kaitlin M Woo, Christine J Jaskowiak, Lance T Hall
The aim of this study was to investigate thalamic and basal ganglia (BG) metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) on interictal18 F-FDG PET using standardized uptake value (SUV). Retrospective review of data was undertaken for patients who were surgically treated for medically intractable TLE. All patients underwent18 F-FDG PET, MRI brain and EEG as preoperative workup, and subsequently underwent temporal lobe resection. Postoperative outcomes were analyzed as without or with residual disabling seizures. SUVmax and SUVpeak values were calculated for thalamus and BG...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Xiaodong Shi, Hailong Li, Qiang Wang, Zihao Wang, Wei Chen, Bing Xing
Objective: To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods: We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Francis D Gratte, Sara Pasic, John K Olynyk, George C T Yeoh, David Tosh, Deirdre R Coombe, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
The rising prevalence of chronic liver disease, coupled with a permanent shortage of organs for liver transplantation, has sparked enormous interest in alternative treatment strategies. Previous protocols to generate hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) via pancreas-to-liver transdifferentiation have utilised fetal bovine serum, introducing unknown variables and severely limiting study reproducibility. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to develop a protocol for transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells to HLCs in a chemically defined, serum-free culture medium...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
G A Mejicanos, J W Kim, C M Nyachoti
Tail-end dehulling of canola meal (CM) has been shown to reduce dietary fiber and increase crude protein content in the dehulled meal. The application of this procedure also increased the total and non-phytate P content in the dehulled meal. However, it is unclear if dehulling affects P digestibility in the different fractions (i.e., the dehulled meal and the coarse fraction) and if it differs when fed to growing pigs at 2 different BW. Therefore, 2 experiments were conducted to determine the apparent (ATTD) and standardized (STTD) total tract digestibility of P in dehulled CM fed to growing pigs...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J W Kim, B Koo, C M Nyachoti
An experiment was conducted to determine the DE, ME, and NE contents of canola meal (CM) and to investigate the effects of basal diet [corn diet vs. corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet] and methodology (difference method vs. regression method) on energy values of CM. Thirty-six growing barrows (20.8 ± 1.0 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments to give 6 replicates per treatment. The six experimental diets included a corn diet, a corn-SBM diet, a corn diet with 15 or 30% of CM, and a corn-SBM diet with 15 or 30% of CM...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Clothilde Philouze, Philippe Obert, Stéphane Nottin, Asma Benamor, Olivier Barthez, Falah Aboukhoudir
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies are present in the literature on resting myocardial mechanics in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data are noticeably sparse regarding circumferential function and torsional mechanics. Resting deformation imaging may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle dysfunctions. The aim of this study was thus to comprehensively evaluate myocardial mechanics in patients with T2DM at rest and to investigate whether dobutamine stress echocardiography could unmask functional alterations that would remain otherwise subtle at rest...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Rogerio Nogueira Soares, Augusto Schneider, Sandra Costa Valle, Paulo Cavalheiro Schenkel
This study aimed to investigate whether the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure (BP) response to caffeine ingestion was affected by physical activity status and habitual caffeine consumption. Thirty-seven participants (19-50 years old) took place in the study and were categorized according to i) genotype: CYP1A2 (AA) "fast metabolizer", and CYP1A2 (AC) "slow metabolizer"; ii) physical activity level: sedentary (S) and physically active (A); and iii) caffeine consumption level: non-habitual caffeine consumer (NC) and habitual heavy caffeine consumer (C)...
March 6, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Subu Surendran Rajasekaran, Jaeyoon Kim, Gian-Carlo Gaboardi, Jesper Gromada, Stephen B Shears, Karen Tiago Dos Santos, Eduardo Lima Nolasco, Sabrina de Souza Ferreira, Christopher Illies, Martin Köhler, Chunfang Gu, Sung Ho Ryu, Joilson O Martins, Elisabetta Darè, Christopher J Barker, Per-Olof Berggren
Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7 ) is critical for the exocytotic capacity of the pancreatic β-cell, but its regulation by the primary instigator of β-cell exocytosis, glucose, is unknown. The high Km for ATP of the IP7 -generating enzymes, the inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6K1 and 2) suggests that these enzymes might serve as metabolic sensors in insulin secreting β-cells and act as translators of disrupted metabolism in diabetes. To investigate this hypothesis, we now show that glucose stimulation, which increases the ATP/ADP ratio, leads to an early rise in IP7 concentration in β-cells...
March 6, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Landon Wood, Karen Roelofs, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Darleen A Sandoval
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is currently our most effective strategy at weight loss, yet the mechanisms for its success remain unknown. Low exercise capacity, in humans and rodents, predicts poor metabolic outcome. The objective of this manuscript was to determine if bariatric surgery could restore metabolic perturbations in rats with low intrinsic exercise capacity. METHODS: We performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) or sham surgery in high fat-fed rats selectively bred for low running capacity...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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