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basal metabolism

Markolf Hanefeld, Denis Raccah, Louis Monnier
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with hyperglycemia, which can lead to serious vascular complications. Current treatment guidelines place particular emphasis on personalization of therapy. Within this guidance, the use of various second-line therapies, including glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), is recommended under certain circumstances. Areas covered: Factors influencing glucose homeostasis, including gastric emptying and the associated cardiovascular (CV) risk when homeostasis is not maintained, are reviewed...
October 25, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Shiho Fujisaka, Siegfried Ussar, Clary Clish, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan M Dreyfuss, Masaji Sakaguchi, Marion Soto, Masahiro Konishi, Samir Softic, Emrah Altindis, Ning Li, Georg Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Interactions of diet, gut microbiota, and host genetics play important roles in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we have investigated the molecular links between gut microbiota, insulin resistance, and glucose metabolism in 3 inbred mouse strains with differing susceptibilities to metabolic syndrome using diet and antibiotic treatment. Antibiotic treatment altered intestinal microbiota, decreased tissue inflammation, improved insulin signaling in basal and stimulated states, and improved glucose metabolism in obesity- and diabetes-prone C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet (HFD)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
H Cumming, N A Herbert
Turbidity as a result of increased suspended sediments in coastal waters is an environmental stress of worldwide concern. Recent research on fish suggests that detrimental changes to gill structure can occur in turbid waters, with speculation that these alterations diminish fitness variables, such as growth and development, by negatively impacting the O2 uptake capacity (respiration) of fish. Specifically to address this unknown, the impact of turbid water on the gill structure, somatic growth rate and O2 uptake rates of a juvenile sparid species (Pagrus auratus) was addressed following exposure to five different turbidity treatments (<10, 20, 40, 60 or 80 nephelometric turbidity units) for 30 days...
2016: Conservation Physiology
Stephen B Smith, Zhaobin Xu, Tatiana Novitskaya, Bo Zhang, Elena Chepurko, Xin-An Pu, Debra G Wheeler, Mark Ziolo, Richard J Gumina
AIMS: Prior work suggests that ischemic preconditioning increases the level of CD39 in the heart and contributes to cardiac protection. Therefore, we examined if targeted cardiac expression of CD39 protects against myocardial injury. MAIN METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific expression of human CD39 (αMHC/hCD39-Tg) were generated, characterized and subjected to left coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct size at 24h following injury quantified. KEY FINDINGS: αMHC/hCD39-Tg mice have increased in cardiac ATPase and ADPase activity compared to WT littermates...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Jody K Takemoto, Tracie L Miller, Jiajia Wang, Denise L Jacobson, Mitchell E Geffner, Russell B Van Dyke, Mariana Gerschenson
OBJECTIVE: To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) youth. DESIGN: Case-control study METHODS:: Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in pHIV youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). IR was defined as a Homeostatic Model of Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥4.0. A novel, high-throughput oximetry method was used to evaluate cellular respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Leonor Rodríguez-Sánchez, Eduardo Rial
The uncoupling protein UCP1 from brown adipose tissue is a mitochondrial carrier which allows dissipation of metabolic energy as heat. We have characterized the human UCP1 (HsUCP1) recombinantly expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and we demonstrate that HsUCP1 is activated by fatty acids and retinoids in a nucleotide sensitive manner just as its rodent orthologs. However, in the absence of regulators, rodent UCP1 presents a high ohmic proton conductance that cannot be detected in HsUCP1. Since the human protein can be activated in a nucleotide sensitive manner, we conclude that it must have lost selectively the basal proton conductance...
October 14, 2016: Biochimie
Kevin J Sheridan, Beatrix Elisabeth Lechner, Grainne O' Keeffe, Markus A Keller, Ernst R Werner, Herbert Lindner, Gary W Jones, Hubertus Haas, Sean Doyle
Ergothioneine (EGT; 2-mercaptohistidine trimethylbetaine) is a trimethylated and sulphurised histidine derivative which exhibits antioxidant properties. Here we report that deletion of Aspergillus fumigatus egtA (AFUA_2G15650), which encodes a trimodular enzyme, abrogated EGT biosynthesis in this opportunistic pathogen. EGT biosynthetic deficiency in A. fumigatus significantly reduced resistance to elevated H2O2 and menadione, respectively, impaired gliotoxin production and resulted in attenuated conidiation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Z B Lopéz-Cedillo, A M Rosales-Torres, G D Mendoza, Y Heuze, A E Ávila-Espítia, A Guzmán
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of methionine supplementation on energy metabolism and reproductive performance during the early post-partum period in primiparous does. Forty nulliparous New Zealand White does were used. Females were randomized in two groups at calving: the control group (n = 20) was fed with the basal diet, and the methionine group (n = 20) was fed the basal diet plus 1 g/animal/day of methionine from the day of calving to 4 days post-partum. Results showed that methionine supplementation increased (p = 0...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Artuso, C Caimmi, G Tripi, O Viapiana, M Bonifacio, L Idolazzi, I Gavioli, D Gatti, R Zanotti, M Rossini
Systemic Mastocytosis has been long identified as a potential cause of osteoporosis; nevertheless, data regarding longitudinal variation of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) are missing . We studied BMD variation at lumbar spine and proximal hip after 30-month (±6 months) follow-up in a large cohort of patients (83) with ISM without osteoporosis, supplementated with vitamin D and/or calcium when needed. We also analyzed the correlation between variation of BMD, basal serum tryptase levels and bone turnover markers (BTM)...
October 14, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Robert S Miletich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are now available for routine clinical applications in neurology. This article discusses their diagnostic use in dementia, brain tumors, epilepsy, parkinsonism, cerebrovascular disease, and traumatic brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuromolecular imaging, also known as nuclear neurology, involves clinical imaging of both basal regional physiology (perfusion, metabolism, and transport mechanisms) and specific neurochemical physiology (currently, only the dopamine transporter)...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Chao Wang, Jianjun Lu, Le Zhou, Jun Li, Jiaman Xu, Weijian Li, Lili Zhang, Xiang Zhong, Tian Wang
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnOs) are widely used and possess great potentials in agriculture and biomedicine. It is inevitable for human exposure to these nanoparticles. However, no study had been conducted to investigate the long term effects of nano-ZnOs. This study aimed at investigating effects of nano-ZnOs on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn) in mice from week 3 to 35. After the characteristics of nano-ZnOs were determined, they were added into the basal diet at 0, 50, 500 and 5000 mg/kg...
2016: PloS One
Susanne Grond, Franz P W Radner, Thomas O Eichmann, Dagmar Kolb, Gernot F Grabner, Heimo Wolinski, Robert Gruber, Peter Hofer, Christoph Heier, Silvia Schauer, Thomas Rülicke, Gerald Hoefler, Matthias Schmuth, Peter M Elias, Achim Lass, Rudolf Zechner, Guenter Haemmerle
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and its co-activator comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) are limiting in cellular triglyceride (TG)-catabolism. While ATGL-deficiency is compatible with normal skin development, mice globally lacking CGI-58 die postnatally and exhibit a severe epidermal permeability barrier defect, which may originate from epidermal and/or peripheral changes in lipid and energy metabolism. Here, we show that epidermis-specific disruption of CGI-58 is sufficient to provoke a defect in the formation of a functional corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE) linked to impaired ω-O-acylceramide synthesis...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Siegfried Zerche, Klaus-Thomas Haensch, Uwe Druege, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei
BACKGROUND: Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (Nt), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how elevated Nt contents with a combined dark exposure of cuttings influence their internal N-pools including free amino acids and considered early anatomic events of AR formation as well as further root development in Petunia hybrida cuttings...
October 10, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Bastien Dalzon, Hélène Diemer, Véronique Collin-Faure, Sarah Cianférani, Thierry Rabilloud, Catherine Aude-Garcia
The physiology of cells cultured in vitro depends obviously on the external conditions, including the nutrients present in the culture medium. In order to test the influence of this parameter, J774 macrophages grown either in RPMI or in DMEM were compared by a combination of targeted analyses and a proteomic approach. The two media differ in their glucose, amino acids and vitamins concentrations, but there was no significant differences in the cell cycle nor in the percentage of phagocytic cells in both media, although the phagocytic capacity (i...
October 9, 2016: Proteomics
S Mudaliar, R R Henry, T P Ciaraldi, D A Armstrong, P M Burke, J H Pettus, P Garhyan, S L Choi, M P Knadler, E C Q Lam, M J Prince, N Bose, N K Porksen, V P Sinha, H Linnebjerg, S J Jacober
AIMS: Basal insulin peglispro (BIL), a novel PEGylated basal insulin with a large hydrodynamic size, has a delayed absorption and reduced clearance that prolongs the duration of action. The current study compared the effects of BIL and insulin glargine (GL) on endogenous glucose production (EGP), glucose disposal rate (GDR) and lipolysis in patients with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, open-label, four-period, crossover study. Patients received intravenous infusions of BIL and GL, each at two dose levels selected for partial and maximal suppression of EGP, during an 8 to 10 h euglycemic clamp procedure with d-[3-(3) H] glucose...
October 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Fumiki Katsuoka, Hiromi Yamazaki, Masayuki Yamamoto
Nrf1 and Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factors 1 and 2, respectively) are transcription factors that belong to the Cap'n'collar (CNC) family and play critical roles in various tissues, including the liver. Liver-specific Nrf1 knockout mice show hepatic steatosis, accompanied by dysregulation of various metabolic genes. Nrf2 knockout mice show impairment in the induction of antioxidant and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme genes. Although it has been shown that small Maf (sMaf) proteins act as obligatory partners of CNC proteins, their precise contributions to the function of CNC proteins remain unclear especially in the context of adult liver functions...
October 10, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Ilaria Croci, Nuala M Byrne, Veronique S Chachay, Andrew P Hills, Andrew D Clouston, Trisha M O'Moore-Sullivan, Johannes B Prins, Graeme A Macdonald, Ingrid J Hickman
AIM: To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions...
September 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Xian Zhang, Siyuan She, Weiling Dong, Jiaojiao Niu, Yunhua Xiao, Yili Liang, Xueduan Liu, Xiaoxia Zhang, Fenliang Fan, Huaqun Yin
Members of the Acidithiobacillus genus are widely found in extreme environments characterized by low pH and high concentrations of toxic substances, thus it is necessary to identify the cellular mechanisms needed to cope with these harsh conditions. Pan-genome analysis of ten bacteria belonging to the genus Acidithiobacillus suggested the existence of core genome, most of which were assigned to the metabolism-associated genes. Additionally, the unique genes of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans were much less than those of other species...
September 26, 2016: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
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