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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922758/the-role-of-arabidopsis-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-genes-in-response-to-high-temperature-and-stress-combinations
#1
Junyi Zhao, Tagnon D Missihoun, Dorothea Bartels
Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that are involved in plant metabolism and contribute to aldehyde homeostasis to eliminate toxic aldehydes. The ALDH enzymes produce NADPH and NADH in their enzymatic reactions and thus contribute to balancing redox equivalents. Previous studies showed that Arabidopsis ALDH genes are expressed in response to high salinity, dehydration, oxidative stress, or heavy metals, suggesting important roles in environmental adaptation. However, the role of ALDH genes in high temperature and stress combinations (heat stress combined with dehydration, wounding, or salt stress) is unclear...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919865/coping-with-salt-water-habitats-metabolic-and-oxidative-responses-to-salt-intake-in-the-rufous-collared-sparrow
#2
Pablo Sabat, Cristóbal Narváez, Isaac Peña-Villalobos, Carolina Contreras, Karin Maldonado, Juan C Sanchez-Hernandez, Seth D Newsome, Roberto Nespolo, Francisco Bozinovic
Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis) could generate differences in basal (BMR) and maximum metabolic rates (Msum), as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918342/the-potential-effect-of-ultra-long-insulin-degludec-on-glycemic-variability
#3
REVIEW
M Rodacki, R M Carvalho, L Zajdenverg
Despite the therapeutic advances in the treatment of diabetes, metabolic control instability due to glycemic variability (GV) is frequently observed in patients with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy and is associated with hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemic episodes. Hyperglycemia associated with GV has been implicated in the development of chronic complications due to its pro-oxidative consequences. On the other hand, hypoglycemia can be associated with increased cardiovascular risk secondarily to adrenergic activation...
June 30, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916138/peptide-yy-induces-characteristic-meal-patterns-of-aged-mice
#4
Sachiko Mogami, Chihiro Yamada, Naoki Fujitsuka, Tomohisa Hattori
BACKGROUND & AIM: Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device...
September 12, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915840/evolution-and-bad-prognostic-value-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-after-acute-heart-failure-relation-with-body-composition
#5
Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro, Ángel Fernández-Trasancos, Diana Bou-Teen, Sonia Eiras, Rocío González-Ferreiro, Rosa M Agra, Alfonso Varela-Román, Ana I Castro-Pais, Marcos C Carreira, Felipe F Casanueva, Ezequiel Álvarez, José R González-Juanatey
AIM: The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their soluble receptor (sRAGE) on the progression and prognosis of acute heart failure (HF) was analysed in relation with metabolic parameters as body composition and nutritional status. METHODS: A hundred and fifty consecutive patients were included in a prospective clinical study during hospitalization by acute HF. Detailed medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and vein peripheral blood were taken for all patients...
September 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915272/receptor-and-post-receptor-abnormalities-contribute-to-insulin-resistance-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-and-type-2-skeletal-muscle
#6
Laura Valentina Renna, Francesca Bosè, Sara Iachettini, Barbara Fossati, Lorenzo Saraceno, Valentina Milani, Roberto Colombo, Giovanni Meola, Rosanna Cardani
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant multisystemic disorders caused by expansion of microsatellite repeats. In both forms, the mutant transcripts accumulate in nuclear foci altering the function of alternative splicing regulators which are necessary for the physiological mRNA processing. Missplicing of insulin receptor (IR) gene (INSR) has been associated with insulin resistance, however, it cannot be excluded that post-receptor signalling abnormalities could also contribute to this feature in DM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914474/determination-of-net-energy-content-of-soybean-oil-fed-to-growing-pigs-using-indirect-calorimetry
#7
Enkai Li, Zhiqian Lv, Hu Liu, Ling Liu, Yakui Li, Zhongchao Li, Fenglai Wang, Defa Li, Shuai Zhang
The objectives of this experiment were: (i) to determine the net energy (NE) of soybean oil (SBO) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC); and (ii) to evaluate the effects of inclusion rate of SBO on heat production, oxidative status and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows were allotted to three diets based on completely randomized design with six replicate pigs (period) per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and two test diets containing 5% or 10% SBO at the expense of corn and soybean meal...
September 15, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911811/an-intergenerational-effect-of-neuroendocrine-metabolic-programming-alteration-induced-by-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#8
Hao Kou, Lang Shen, Han-Wen Luo, Liao-Bin Chen, Dong-Fang Wu, Hui Wang
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in the first generation (F1) rats. In this study, the HPA hormones and glucose/lipid phenotypes under basal state and stressed condition induced by a fortnight ice-water swimming were examined in F2 to verify the intergenerational effect. Under the basal state, serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose of some PEE groups were lowered while those of serum triglycerides (TG) were increased comparing with controls...
September 11, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911136/protein-rich-food-ingestion-stimulates-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-in-sedentary-young-adults-of-different-bmis
#9
Joseph W Beals, Richard W A Mackenzie, Stephan van Vliet, Sarah K Skinner, Brandon A Pagni, Grace M Niemiro, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Anna C Dilger, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
Context: Excess fat mass may diminish the anabolic potency of protein-rich food ingestion to stimulate muscle protein subfractional synthetic responses. However, the impact of adiposity on mitochondrial protein synthesis (MPS) rates after protein-rich food ingestion has not been thoroughly examined in vivo in humans. Objective: We compared basal and postprandial MPS and markers of muscle inflammation [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein content] in young adults with different body mass indices (BMIs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905113/influence-of-increased-heart-rate-and-aortic-pressure-on-resting-indices-of-functional-coronary-stenosis-severity
#10
Lorena Casadonte, Bart-Jan Verhoeff, Jan J Piek, Ed VanBavel, Jos A E Spaan, Maria Siebes
Baseline assessment of functional stenosis severity has been proposed as a practical alternative to hyperemic indices. However, intact autoregulation mechanisms may affect intracoronary hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in aortic pressure (Pa) and heart rate (HR) on baseline coronary hemodynamics and functional stenosis assessment. In 15 patients (55 ± 3% diameter stenosis) Pa, intracoronary pressure (Pd) and flow velocity were obtained at control, and during atrial pacing at 120 bpm, increased Pa (+30 mmHg) with intravenous phenylephrine (PE), and elevated Pa while pacing at sinus heart rate (PE + sHR)...
September 13, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904985/cholinergic-activity-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia-a-multitracer-molecular-imaging-study
#11
Joachim Brumberg, Sebastian Küsters, Ehab Al-Momani, Giorgio Marotta, Kelly P Cosgrove, Christopher H van Dyck, Ken Herrmann, György A Homola, Gianni Pezzoli, Andreas K Buck, Jens Volkmann, Samuel Samnick, Ioannis U Isaias
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between levodopa-induced dyskinesias and striatal cholinergic activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: This study included 13 Parkinson's disease patients with peak-of-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias, 12 nondyskinetic patients, and 12 healthy controls. Participants underwent 5-[(123)I]iodo-3-[2(S)-2-azetidinylmethoxy]pyridine single-photon emission computed tomography, a marker of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, [(123)I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single-photon emission computed tomography, to measure dopamine reuptake transporter density and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography to assess regional cerebral metabolic activity...
September 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899903/socs3-expression-in-sf1-cells-regulates-adrenal-differentiation-and-exercise-performance
#12
João Ab Pedroso, Pedro Omori Ribeiro de Mendonça, Marco As Fortes, Igor Tomaz, Vitor L Pecorali, Thais B Auricino, Ismael C Costa, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Debora N Bueno, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi, Jose Donato
Many hormones/cytokines are secreted in response to exercise and cytokine signaling may play a pivotal role in the training adaptations. To investigate the importance of cytokine signaling during vertical ladder climbing, a resistance exercise model, we produced mice lacking SOCS3 protein exclusively in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells (SF1 Socs3 KO mice). SF1 expression is found in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads, as well as in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899364/determination-of-risk-factors-affecting-the-in-hospital-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#13
Rui Wang, Biqi Mei, Xinlong Liao, Xia Lu, Lulu Yan, Man Lin, Yao Zhong, Yili Chen, Tianhui You
BACKGROUND: To determine the factors affecting the in-hospital prognosis of patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and to establish its prognostic discriminant model. METHODS: A total of 701 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing PCI were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into two groups, good prognosis and poor prognosis, based on whether the patient had adverse outcomes (death or heart function ≥ grade III) at discharge...
September 12, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899199/transcriptional-regulation-by-nrf2
#14
Claudia Tonelli, Iok In Christine Chio, David A Tuveson
SIGNIFICANCE: Nrf2 is a transcription factor that coordinates the basal and stress-inducible activation of a vast array of cytoprotective genes. Understanding the regulation of Nrf2 activity and downstream pathways has major implications for human health. Recent Advances: Nrf2 regulates the transcription of components of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems, as well as enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification of exogenous and endogenous products, NADPH regeneration, and heme metabolism...
September 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898340/-from-insulin-pump-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-to-the-artificial-pancreas
#15
Pamela Apablaza, Néstor Soto, Ethel Codner
Technology for diabetes care has undergone major development during recent decades. These technological advances include continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), also known as insulin pumps, and real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS). The integration of CSII and RT-CGMS into a single device has led to sensor-augmented pump therapy and more recently, a technology that has automated delivery of basal insulin therapy, known as hybrid system. These new technologies have led to benefits in attaining better metabolic control and decreasing the incidence of severe hypoglycemia, especially in patients with type 1 diabetes...
May 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894242/complementary-acsl-isoforms-contribute-to-a-non-warburg-advantageous-energetic-status-characterizing-invasive-colon-cancer-cells
#16
Ruth Sánchez-Martínez, Silvia Cruz-Gil, María Soledad García-Álvarez, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina
Metabolic reprogramming is one of cancer hallmarks. Here, we focus on functional differences and individual contribution of acyl coA synthetases (ACSL) isoforms to the previously described ACSL/stearoyl-CoA desaturase (ACSL1/ACSL4/SCD) metabolic network causing invasion and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). ACSL4 fuels proliferation and migration accompanied by a more glycolytic phenotype. Conversely, ACSL1 stimulates invasion displaying a lower basal respiratory rate. Acylcarnitines elevation, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) lower levels, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) upregulation characterize the individual overexpression of ACSL1, ACSL4 and SCD, respectively...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893911/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-the-endothelial-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel
#17
Qadeer Aziz, Yiwen Li, Naomi Anderson, Leona Ojake, Elena Tsisanova, Andrew Tinker
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system where they regulate a range of biological activities by linking cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. KATP channels in vascular smooth muscle have a well-defined role in regulating vascular tone. KATP channels are also thought to be expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), but their presence and function in this context is less clear. As a result, we aimed to investigate the molecular composition and physiological role of endothelial KATP channels...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892665/difference-in-glycogen-metabolism-glycogen-synthesis-and-glycolysis-between-normal-and-dysplastic-malignant-oral-epithelium
#18
Hitoshi Aizawa, Shin-Ichi Yamada, Tiepeng Xiao, Tetsu Shimane, Kiyonori Hayashi, Fangfang Qi, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Kurita
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate a difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between the iodine stained (normal non-keartinized) and the unstained (dysplasctic/malignant) oral epithelium. METHODS: Twenty-one frozen tissue samples of iodine-stained and unstained mucosal tissue were obtained from 21 OSCC patients. Serial frozen sections were cut and examined with the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff methods and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67, P53, molecules associated with glycogenesis (i...
September 2, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889972/the-emerging-role-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-cholestatic-liver-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Xiaojiaoyang Li, Runping Liu, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), recognized as an energy sensor with three heterotrimeric subunits (α, β and γ), not only maintains basal intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but also regulates energy-intensive pathological responses, such as neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, through multiple signaling pathways. Recent studies open a new direction for AMPK research and demonstrate that AMPK is a critical player in the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver injury and plays paradoxical roles in the regulation of different pathological processes, including the disruption of bile acid homeostasis and the regulation of hepatic polarity, inflammation and fibrosis...
September 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888986/pde-5-inhibitor-improves-insulin-sensitivity-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-function-in-adipocytes
#20
Hea Min Yu, Hyo Kyun Chung, Koon Soon Kim, Jae Min Lee, Jun Hwa Hong, Kang Seo Park
Adipocytes are involved in many metabolic disorders. It was recently reported that phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) is expressed in human adipose tissue. In addition, PDE5 inhibitors have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in humans. However, the mechanism underlying the role of PDE5 inhibitors as an insulin sensitizer remains largely unknown. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the PDE5 inhibitor udenafil in insulin signaling in adipocytes and whether this is mediated through the regulation of mitochondrial function...
September 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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