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basal metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352068/maternal-fetal-disposition-and-metabolism-of-retrorsine-in-pregnant-rats
#1
Xia Li, Xiaojing Yang, E Xiang, Jinyuan Luo, Shuaikai Qiu, Yan Fang, Li Zhang, Yu Guo, Jiang Zheng, Hui Wang
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are extensively synthesized by plants and are commonly present in herbs and foodstuffs, which exhibit hepatotoxicity requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A to form the electrophilic metabolites-pyrrolic ester. PAs also cause embryo toxicity, but the metabolic profiles of PAs in fetus and placenta have been far from clear. In this study, we determined the basal metabolic activation of retrorsine (RTS) in rat maternal liver, placenta and fetal liver in vitro, and examined the fetal toxicity and bioactivation of RTS in vivo...
January 19, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351765/retrospective-analysis-of-insulin-responses-to-standard-dosed-oral-glucose-tests-ogts-via-naso-gastric-tubing-towards-definition-of-an-objective-cut-off-value
#2
Tobias Warnken, Julien Delarocque, Svenja Schumacher, Korinna Huber, Karsten Feige
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far...
January 19, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348607/evaluation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-dynamics-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-crosstalk-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-complex-i-deficiency
#3
Guilhian Leipnitz, Al-Walid Mohsen, Anuradha Karunanidhi, Bianca Seminotti, Vera Y Roginskaya, Desiree M Markantone, Mateus Grings, Stephanie J Mihalik, Peter Wipf, Bennett Van Houten, Jerry Vockley
Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most frequent cause of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) disorders in humans. In order to benchmark the effects of CI deficiency on mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics, respiratory chain (RC) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria communication, and superoxide production, fibroblasts from patients with mutations in the ND6, NDUFV1 or ACAD9 genes were analyzed. Fatty acid metabolism, basal and maximal respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP levels were decreased...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343514/trpm2-channel-mediated-regulation-of-autophagy-maintains-mitochondrial-function-and-promotes-gastric-cancer-cell-survival-via-the-jnk-signaling-pathway
#4
Shekoufeh Almasi, Barry E Kennedy, Mariam El Aghil, Andra M Sterea, Shashi Gujar, Santiago Partida-Sánchez, Yassine El Hiani
A lack of effective treatment is one of the main factors contributing to gastric cancer-related death. Discovering effective targets and understanding their underlying anticancer mechanism is key to achieving the best response to treatment and to limiting side effects. Although recent studies have shown that the cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) is crucial for cancer cell survival, the exact mechanism remains unclear, limiting its therapeutic potential. Here, using molecular and functional assays, we investigated the role of TRPM2 in survival of gastric cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341311/decreased-thermal-sweating-of-central-sudomotor-mechanism-in-african-and-korean-men
#5
Jeong Beom Lee, Jeong Ho Kim
OBJECTIVE: Tropical natives sweat less and preserve more body fluid than temperate natives, tolerating heat stress. However, the mechanisms involved in such sweating reduction have not been fully elucidated. We examined the sudomotor responses of men of African (n = 36) and Korean (n = 41) ancestry during hot water (43 °C) leg immersion (central sudomotor response). Correlations between mean body temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and sweat rate were also examined. METHODS: All procedures were done in an automated climate chamber...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339183/evolution-of-the-growth-hormone-prolactin-prolactin-2-and-somatolactin-family
#6
Daniel Ocampo Daza, Dan Larhammar
Growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), prolactin 2 (PRL2) and somatolactin (SL) belong to the same hormone family and have a wide repertoire of effects including development, osmoregulation, metabolism and stimulation of growth. Both the hormone and the receptor family have been proposed to have expanded by gene duplications in early vertebrate evolution. A key question is how hormone-receptor preferences have arisen among the duplicates. The first step to address this is to determine the time window for these duplications...
January 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337247/effects-of-dietary-administration-of-fenugreek-seeds-on-metabolic-parameters-and-immune-status-of-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l
#7
F A Guardiola, A Bahi, M A Esteban
Medical plants could be used as a prophylactic method in aquaculture because they are considered safe and so very promising alternatives to the use of chemicals. The aim of the present work was to examine the effects of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds administered for 8 weeks on the metabolic and immune status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Four experimental groups were designated: one receiving a basal diet (control) and three fed powdered fenugreek seeds incorporated in the fish feed at 1%, 5% and 10%...
January 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337137/basal-mitophagy-occurs-independently-of-pink1-in-mouse-tissues-of-high-metabolic-demand
#8
Thomas G McWilliams, Alan R Prescott, Lambert Montava-Garriga, Graeme Ball, François Singh, Erica Barini, Miratul M K Muqit, Simon P Brooks, Ian G Ganley
Dysregulated mitophagy has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) due to the role of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) in mediating depolarization-induced mitophagy in vitro. Elegant mouse reporters have revealed the pervasive nature of basal mitophagy in vivo, yet the role of PINK1 and tissue metabolic context remains unknown. Using mito-QC, we investigated the contribution of PINK1 to mitophagy in metabolically active tissues. We observed a high degree of mitophagy in neural cells, including PD-relevant mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and microglia...
January 10, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336469/transcriptional-regulation-of-hiv-1-host-factor-commd1-by-the-sp-family
#9
Eriko Kudo, Manabu Taura, Mary Ann Suico, Hiroki Goto, Hirofumi Kai, Seiji Okada
Copper metabolism Murr1 domain containing 1 (COMMD1) has multiple functions in the regulation of protein stability at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm. However, the regulation of COMMD1 transcriptional has remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the 5'‑flanking region (‑1,192/+83 bp) of the human COMMD1 gene was cloned. It was observed that the COMMD1 promoter region contains GC‑rich region that has 7 putative Sp1‑binding sites via in silico analysis. The proximal promoter region at ‑289/+83 bp was required for COMMD1 basal promoter activity by deletion constructs of COMMD1 promoter...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335587/bacterial-and-fungal-community-composition-and-functional-activity-associated-with-lake-wetland-water-level-gradients
#10
Yantian Ma, Jinqian Li, Juan Wu, Zhaoyu Kong, Larry M Feinstein, Xia Ding, Gang Ge, Lan Wu
The water regime is often the primary force driving the evolution of freshwater lakes, but how soil microbes responded to this process is far from understood. This study sampled wetland soils from a shallow lake that experienced water regime changes, Poyang Lake of China, to explore the features of bacterial and fungal community in response to water level changes. The soil physicochemical properties, T-RFLP based community structures and soil activities (including basal respiration, microbial biomass and enzymes) were all determined...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334431/activation-state-of-circulating-eosinophils-in-nasal-polyposis
#11
Vincent Dupuch, Arlette Tridon, Sylvie Ughetto, Stéphane Walrand, Benjamin Bonnet, Claude Dubray, Aude Virlogeux, Marie-Paule Vasson, Nicolas Saroul, Thierry Mom, Laurent Gilain, Bertrand Evrard
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a common disease with an uncertain pathophysiology. It is characterized by polyps rich in eosinophils, with an activation status already investigated at the tissue level. In a group of CRSwNP patients, we assessed the activation status of circulating eosinophils in the blood before migration into tissues. METHODS: Thirteen patients with CRSwNP and 16 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Several biologic parameters were studied: blood count of eosinophils; plasma eosinophil cationic protein; oxidative metabolism by chemiluminescence at baseline or when activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or platelet-activating factor, with or without interleukin-5 (IL-5); percent of granulosar cells; and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) by flow cytometry...
January 15, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330693/the-enhanced-biomass-and-lipid-accumulation-in-coccomyxa-subellipsoidea-with-an-integrated-treatment-strategy-initiated-by-brewery-effluent-and-phytohormones
#12
Tingting Liu, Fei Luo, Zhenyao Wang, Yuqin Li
Brewery effluent (BE) as an appreciable and sustainable resource presented new possibilities in low-cost algal biomass production, whereas the relatively low essential macronutrients hindered extensive applications as growth medium for microalgae cultivation. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an integrated treatment strategy initiated by BE coupling phytohormones in augmenting biomass and lipid accumulation in Coccomyxa subellipsoidea. Results revealed that BE coupling synthetic 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) accomplished the favorable lipid productivity of 481...
January 12, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330220/regulation-of-drug-metabolism-by-the-interplay-of-inflammatory-signaling-steatosis-and-xeno-sensing-receptors-in-heparg-cells
#13
Norman Tanner, Lisa Kubik, Claudia Luckert, Maria Thomas, Ute Hofmann, Ulrich M Zanger, Linda Bohmert, Alfonso Lampen, Albert Braeuning
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by triglyceride deposition in hepatocytes due to imbalanced lipid homeostasis, is of increasing concern in Western countries, with progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Previous studies suggest a complex, mutual influence of hepatic fat accumulation, NASH-related inflammatory mediators, and drug-sensing receptors regulating xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we investigated the suitability of human HepaRG hepatocarcinoma cells as a model for NAFLD and NASH...
January 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326137/expression-changes-in-lactate-and-glucose-metabolism-and-associated-transporters-in-basal-ganglia-following-hypoxic-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-in-piglets
#14
Y Zheng, X-M Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The neonatal brain has active energy metabolism, and glucose oxidation is the major energy source of brain tissue. Lactate is produced by astrocytes and released to neurons. In the central nervous system, lactate is transported between neurons and astrocytes via the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes in the basal ganglia of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury piglet model...
January 11, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326115/understanding-variation-in-metabolic-rate
#15
REVIEW
Amanda K Pettersen, Dustin J Marshall, Craig R White
Metabolic rate reflects an organism's capacity for growth, maintenance and reproduction, and is likely to be a target of selection. Physiologists have long sought to understand the causes and consequences of within-individual to among-species variation in metabolic rates - how metabolic rates relate to performance and how they should evolve. Traditionally, this has been viewed from a mechanistic perspective, relying primarily on hypothesis-driven approaches. A more agnostic, but ultimately more powerful tool for understanding the dynamics of phenotypic variation is through use of the breeder's equation, because variation in metabolic rate is likely to be a consequence of underlying microevolutionary processes...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323757/differentiation-associated-urothelial-cytochrome-p450-oxidoreductase-predicates-the-xenobiotic-metabolising-activity-of-luminal-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancers
#16
Simon C Baker, Volker M Arlt, Radek Indra, Madeleine Joel, Marie Stiborova, Ian Eardley, Niaz Ahmad, Wolfgang Otto, Maximilian Burger, Peter Rubenwolf, David H Phillips, Jennifer Southgate
Extra-hepatic metabolism of xenobiotics by epithelial tissues has evolved as a self-defence mechanism but has potential to contribute to the local activation of carcinogens. Bladder epithelium (urothelium) is bathed in excreted urinary toxicants and pro-carcinogens. This study reveals how differentiation affects cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and the role of NADPH:P450 oxidoreductase (POR). CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcripts were inducible in normal human urothelial (NHU) cells maintained in both undifferentiated and functional barrier-forming differentiated states in vitro...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322349/development-of-a-chemically-defined-platform-fed-batch-culture-media-for-monoclonal-antibody-producing-cho-cell-lines-with-optimized-choline-content
#17
Shinobu Kuwae, Ichiko Miyakawa, Tomohiro Doi
A chemically defined platform basal medium and feed media were developed using a single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (mAb). Cell line A, which showed a peak viable cell density of 5.9 × 106 cells/mL and a final mAb titer of 0.5 g/L in batch culture, was selected for the platform media development. Stoichiometrically balanced feed media were developed using glucose as an indicator of cell metabolism to determine the feed rates of all other nutrients. A fed-batch culture of cell line A using the platform fed-batch medium yielded a 6...
January 11, 2018: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320718/adiposity-and-family-history-of-type-2-diabetes-in-an-admixed-population-of-adolescents-associations-with-insulin-sensitivity-beta-cell-function-and-hepatic-insulin-extraction-in-brams-study
#18
Daniella F Camilo, Ana Carolina J Vasques, Keila Hayashi, Andrea Tura, Cleliani de Cassia da Silva, Mariana P Zambon, Maria Ângela R de G Monteiro Antônio, Bruno Geloneze
AIMS: Insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction manifest differently across racial/ethnic groups, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for ethnically admixed adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the influence of adiposity and family history (FH) of T2DM on aspects of insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and hepatic insulin extraction in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: A total of 82 normoglycemic adolescents were assessed...
January 7, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316143/basal-insulin-peglispro-increases-lipid-oxidation-metabolic-flexibility-thermogenesis-and-ketone-bodies-compared-to-insulin-glargine-in-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Niels K Porksen, Helle Linnebjerg, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Parag Garhyan, Alok Pachori, Richard E Pratley, Steven R Smith
AIMS: When treated with basal insulin peglispro (BIL), patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit weight loss and lower prandial insulin requirements versus insulin glargine (GL), while total insulin requirements remain similar. One possible explanation is enhanced lipid oxidation and improved ability to switch between glucose and lipid metabolism with BIL. This study compared the effects of BIL and GL on glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with T1DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen subjects with T1DM were enrolled into this open-label, randomised, crossover study, and received once-daily stable, individualised, subcutaneous doses of BIL and GL for 4 weeks each...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316081/alterations-of-the-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia-in-bipolar-disorder-mood-states-detected-by-quantitative-t1%C3%AF-mapping
#20
Casey P Johnson, Gary E Christensen, Jess G Fiedorowicz, Merry Mani, Joseph J Shaffer, Vincent A Magnotta, John A Wemmie
OBJECTIVES: Quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique sensitive to pH and other cellular and microstructural factors, and is a potentially valuable tool for identifying brain alterations in bipolar disorder. Recently, this technique identified differences in the cerebellum and cerebral white matter of euthymic patients vs healthy controls that were consistent with reduced pH in these regions, suggesting an underlying metabolic abnormality...
January 7, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
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