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Tim G J de Meij, Evelien F J de Groot, Anat Eck, Andries E Budding, C M Frank Kneepkens, Marc A Benninga, Adriaan A van Bodegraven, Paul H M Savelkoul
OBJECTIVES: Disruption of the intestinal microbiota is considered an etiological factor in pediatric functional constipation. Scientifically based selection of potential beneficial probiotic strains in functional constipation therapy is not feasible due to insufficient knowledge of microbiota composition in affected subjects. The aim of this study was to describe microbial composition and diversity in children with functional constipation, compared to healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN: Fecal samples from 76 children diagnosed with functional constipation according to the Rome III criteria (median age 8...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Garrido, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano, Nina Kirmiz, Jasmine C Davis, Sarah M Totten, Danielle G Lemay, Juan A Ugalde, J Bruce German, Carlito B Lebrilla, David A Mills
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Jason D Stone, Stephanie M Turner, Anthony J Anzalone, Micah J Eimerbrink, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, David S Rowlands, Jonathan M Oliver
Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium (B.) breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
GwangPyo Ko
Recently, there were dramatically increased interests on human microbiome research worldwide. Human microbiome has been considered as the second genome in addition to our own genome and played very crucial roles in maintaining human health. Human microbiota typically reside on the surface of epithelial cells and play various biological roles ranging from metabolism, immune development, mental health, and to organ development. Since 2008, we have determined the diversity of Korean microbiome and determined the genes and pathways of gut microbiome using Korean Twin Cohort...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fatemeh Famouri, Zainab Shariat, Mahin Hashemipour, Mojtaba Keikha, Roya Kelishadi
OBJECTIVES: This trial aims to evaluate the effects of some probiotics on sonographic and biochemical non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: This randomized triple-blind trial was conducted among 64 obese children with sonographic NAFLD. They were randomly allocated to receive probiotic capsule (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC B3208, 3 × 10 colony forming units, CFU; Bifidobacterium lactis DSMZ 32269, 6 × 10 CFU; B bifidum ATCC SD6576, 2 × 10 CFU; L rhamnosus DSMZ 21690, 2 × 10 CFU) or placebo for 12 weeks...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Sabina Górska, Ewa Dylus, Angelika Rudawska, Ewa Brzozowska, Dagmar Srutkova, Martin Schwarzer, Agnieszka Razim, Hana Kozakova, Andrzej Gamian
The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Toshio Mori, Hiroko Kako, Tomoki Sumiya, Hirokazu Kawagishi, Hirofumi Hirai
A lactic acid (LA)-producing strain of the hyper-lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 with the lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene from Bifidobacterium longum (Blldh) was constructed. When the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase gene-knocked down and Blldh-expressing transformant was cultured with beech wood meal, the transformant was able to successively delignify and ferment the substrate. Supplementation of calcium carbonate into the culture medium, significantly increased the level of LA accumulation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Zhipeng Li, Hui Jin, So Young Oh, Geun Eog Ji
Previous researchers have documented that probiotic bacteria can have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) and improve metabolic syndrome. The beneficial effects of the probiotic bacteria are suggested to be strain dependent. In this study, two candidate lactobacteria strains, Lactobacillus casei IBS041, Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 and two bifidobacteria strains, Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI, were individually administered to HFD-fed mice for 8 weeks. B...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Borja Sánchez, Patricia Rúas-Madiedo, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Abelardo Margolles, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia González
PURPOSE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) formation by intestinal bacteria is regulated by many different factors, among which dietary fibre is currently receiving most attention. However, since fibre-rich foods are usually good dietary sources of phenolic compounds, which are also known to affect the microbiota, authors hypothesize that the regular intake of these bioactive compounds could be associated with a modulation of faecal SCFA production by the intestinal microbiota. METHODS: In this work, food intake was recorded by means of a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Mehri Jamilian, Fereshteh Bahmani, Zahra Vahedpoor, Ali Salmani, Maryam Tajabadi-Ebrahimi, Parvaneh Jafari, Shahrzad Hashemi Dizaji, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Limited data is available on the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. The current study was carried out to determine the effects of multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on metabolic status among pregnant women in the first half of pregnancy. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted among 60 pregnant women aged 18-37 years. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 30) received multispecies probiotic supplements containing three probiotic bacteria spices Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum (2 × 109 CFU/g each) and group B (n = 30) received placebo from 9 weeks of gestation for a duration of 12 weeks...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Jenni Firrman, LinShu Liu, Liqing Zhang, Gustavo Arango Argoty, Minqian Wang, Peggy Tomasula, Masuko Kobori, Sherri Pontious, Weidong Xiao
Quercetin is one of the most abundant polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables. The ability of the gut microbiota to metabolize quercetin has been previously documented; however, the effect that quercetin may have on commensal gut microbes remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the commensal gut microbes Ruminococcus gauvreauii, Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Enterococcus caccae were determined through evaluation of growth patterns and cell morphology, and analysis of genetic expression profiles between quercetin treated and non-treated groups using Single Molecule RNA sequencing via Helicos technology...
October 11, 2016: Anaerobe
Enza Giglione, Flavia Prodam, Simonetta Bellone, Sonia Monticone, Sheila Beux, Agostina Marolda, Alessia Pagani, Diana Di Gioia, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna, Gianni Bona
GOALS: To assess the effectiveness of Bifidobacterium breve B632 and BR03 association in the reduction of infants crying over time. The second endpoint was to observe the effect of the same strains on daily evacuations and on the number of regurgitations and vomits. BACKGROUND: Infant colics represent a clinical condition in childhood, characterized by an uncontrollable crying that occurs without any apparent organic cause. An altered intestinal microbiota composition in the very first months may induce intestinal colics in infants...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Teresa Graziano, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Francesca Deidda, Serena Allesina, Marco Pane, Pietro Piffanelli, Francesco Strozzi, Luca Mogna, Mario Del Piano
GOALS: The aim of the study was to unequivocally demonstrate the nontransmissibility of the genes mediating the resistance of the strain Bifidobacterium longum W11 (LMG P-21586) to rifaximin. BACKGROUND: Most antibiotic treatments can induce unfavorable side effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, which is largely attributable to the disruption of the intestinal microbiota. The parallel intake of probiotic bacteria might reduce these events, even if with generally very poor results...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Luca Mogna, Francesca Deidda, Stefania Nicola, Angela Amoruso, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna
GOALS: To determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of healthy humans against Klebsiella pneumoniae. BACKGROUND: Klebsiella is ubiquitous in nature and may colonize the skin, the pharynx, or the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Despite the widespread use of antibiotic molecules with a broad spectrum in hospitalized patients, an increased overall load of klebsiellae as well as the subsequent development of multidrug-resistant strains able to synthesize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase have been registered...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Stefania Nicola, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Marco Pane, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna
GOALS: To investigate the modulation of human cytokines by Bifidobacterium longum strains isolated from Centenarians. In particular, we measured the production of interleukin (IL)-12p70, interferon-γ, IL-17A, and IL-4 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after stimulation with live bacteria. BACKGROUND: Probiotics may inhibit pathogens and modulate the immune system, bringing a beneficial effect on human health. Among the probiotic strains, bifidobacteria play a key role in the maturation of the host's immune system...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Mario Del Piano, Francesco Coggiola, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Luca Mogna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea accounts for 9% of the mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, and it is significantly associated with malnutrition. Each year, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under 5 years of age and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa.In Uganda, the infant mortality rate of 58 per 1000 is unacceptably high, and the major contributors include malnutrition, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, prematurity, sepsis, and newborn illnesses.There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrheal diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Elisa Schiavi, Marita Gleinser, Evelyn Molloy, David Groeger, Remo Frei, Ruth Ferstl, Noelia Rodriguez-Perez, Mario Ziegler, Ray Grant, Thomas Fintan Moriarty, Stephan Plattner, Selena Healy, Mary O'Connell Motherway, Cezmi A Akdis, Jennifer Roper, Friedrich Altmann, Douwe van Sinderen, Liam O'Mahony
: The immune modulating properties of certain bifidobacterial strains, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624: ™ (B. longum 35624), have been well described, although the strain-specific molecular characteristics associated with such immune regulatory activity are not well defined. It has previously been demonstrated that B. longum 35624: produces a cell surface exopolysaccharide and in this study we investigated the role played by this exopolysaccharide in influencing the host immune response...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Atsushi Nishida, Hirotsugu Imaeda, Masashi Ohno, Osamu Inatomi, Shigeki Bamba, Mitsushige Sugimoto, Akira Andoh
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) is still controversial. We investigated the efficacy and safety of single FMT for patients with mild to moderately active UC in a Japanese population. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients were evaluated for eligibility, and 16 patients were excluded. Forty-one patients with UC refractory to standard medical therapy were treated with single FMT by colonoscopic administration...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Stefania Boccia, Ida Torre, Lidia Santarpia, Carmela Iervolino, Concetta Del Piano, Anna Puggina, Roberta Pastorino, Miroslav Dragic, Rosarita Amore, Tonia Borriello, Raffaele Palladino, Francesca Pennino, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal bacterial flora plays a central role in human intestinal health and disease. Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS), a clinical condition deriving from extensive bowel resections, influence intestinal microbiota (IM) composition in order to reach a new metabolic balance. Little is known about IM in adult patients after wide intestinal resections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fecal samples from 12 SBS patients and 16 controls were analyzed in their microbial profile by using both culture-dependent method and quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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