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TUBERCULOSIS IN THE PREGNANCY

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454243/health-inequities-faced-by-ethiopian-migrant-domestic-workers-in-lebanon
#1
Bina Fernandez
This paper investigates the healthcare needs, access to healthcare, and healthcare strategies of Ethiopian migrant domestic workers (MDWs) in Lebanon, drawing on qualitative empirical research. The analysis focusses on four types of health care needs: minor illnesses, pregnancies, serious illnesses (such as cancer, tuberculosis or heart problems), and emergencies (due to accidents, suicide attempts or assaults). Predictably, access to healthcare is distinctly differentiated according to an MDW's status as a documented, freelancer, or undocumented worker...
February 14, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400025/strengthening-implant-provision-and-acceptance-in-south-africa-with-the-%C3%A2-any-woman-any-place-any-time%C3%A2-approach-an-essential-step-towards-reducing-unintended-pregnancies
#2
H Rees, D Pillay, S Mullick, M Chersich
Progress in reducing unintended pregnancies in South Africa is slow. The implant, introduced in 2014, expanded the range of available longacting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and held much promise. Uptake, however, has declined precipitously, in spite of its ‘unmatched effectiveness’ and high levels of satisfaction for most users. We propose policy and provider interventions to raise implant use, underscored by a ‘LARC-first’ approach. Contraceptive counselling should focus on the particular benefits of LARCs and methods be presented in order of effectiveness...
November 1, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394247/health-and-socio-demographic-profile-of-women-of-reproductive-age-in-rural-communities-of-southern-mozambique
#3
Charfudin Sacoor, Beth Payne, Orvalho Augusto, Faustino Vilanculo, Ariel Nhacolo, Marianne Vidler, Prestige Tatenda Makanga, Khátia Munguambe, Tang Lee, Eusébio Macete, Peter von Dadelszen, Esperança Sevene
Reliable statistics on maternal morbidity and mortality are scarce in low and middle-income countries, especially in rural areas. This is the case in Mozambique where many births happen at home. Furthermore, a sizeable number of facility births have inadequate registration. Such information is crucial for developing effective national and global health policies for maternal and child health. The aim of this study was to generate reliable baseline socio-demographic information on women of reproductive age as well as to establish a demographic surveillance platform to support the planning and implementation of the Community Level Intervention for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) study, a cluster randomized controlled trial...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393655/exposure-to-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-during-pregnancy-the-prevent-tb-and-the-iadhere-trials
#4
Ruth N Moro, Nigel A Scott, Andrew Vernon, Naomi K Tepper, Stefan V Goldberg, Kevin Schwartzman, Chi-Chiu Leung, Neil W Schluger, Robert W Belknap, Richard E Chaisson, Masahiro Narita, Elizabeth S Machado, Marta Lopez, Jorge Sanchez, Margarita E Villarino, Timothy R Sterling
RATIONALE: Data are limited regarding the safety of 12-dose once-weekly isoniazid (900 mg) plus rifapentine (900 mg) (3HP) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women who were inadvertently exposed to study medications in two LTBI trials (PREVENT TB or iAdhere) evaluating 3HP and 9 months of daily isoniazid (300 mg) (9H). METHODS: Data from reproductive age (15-51 years) women who received ≥1 study dose of 3HP or 9H in either trial were analyzed...
February 2, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317240/toxicity-and-cardiac-effects-of-acute-exposure-to-tryptophan-metabolites-on-the-kynurenine-pathway-in-early-developing-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos
#5
Michal Majewski, Natalia Kasica, Anna Jakimiuk, Piotr Podlasz
Defects in tryptophan metabolism on the l-kynurenine pathway (KP) are implicated in a number of human diseases, including chronic kidney disease, brain edema or injury, tuberculosis and malaria - as well as cancer, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. However, it is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of exposure to tryptophan metabolites might impact the early development of organism. Thus, this study examined the effects of KP exposure in zebrafish embryos starting at the blastula period (4hpf) and the segmentation stage (24hpf)...
January 6, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297407/pregnancy-and-the-global-disease-burden
#6
Barbara J Sina
Pregnant women experience unique physiological changes pertinent to the effective prevention and treatment of common diseases that affect their health and the health of their developing fetuses. In this paper, the impact of major communicable (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, helminth infections, emerging epidemic viral infections) as well as non-communicable conditions (mental illness, substance abuse, gestational diabetes, eclampsia) on pregnancy is discussed. The current state of research involving pregnant women in these areas is also described, highlighting important knowledge gaps for the management of key illnesses that impact pregnancy globally...
December 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238270/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#7
REVIEW
Patrick Tang, James Johnston
The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an essential component of tuberculosis (TB) elimination in regions that have a low incidence of TB. However, the decision to treat individuals with LTBI must consider the limitations of current diagnostic tests for LTBI, the risk of developing active TB disease, the potential adverse effects from chemoprophylactic therapy, and the importance of treatment adherence. When an individual has been diagnosed with LTBI and active TB has been ruled out, this is followed by an evaluation of the risks and benefits of LTBI treatment within the context of the regional epidemiology of TB and public health priorities...
2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234108/mother-to-newborn-transmission-of-mycobacterial-l-forms-and-v%C3%AE-2-t-cell-response-in-placentobiome-of-bcg-vaccinated-pregnant-women
#8
T Dimova, A Terzieva, L Djerov, V Dimitrova, A Nikolov, P Grozdanov, N Markova
The ability of bacteria to exist as a population of self-replicating forms with defective or entirely missing cell wall (L-forms) is an adaptive mechanism for their survival and reproduction under unfavorable conditions. Bacterial mother-to-fetus transfer is a universal phenomenon in the animal kingdom. However, data about vertical transfer of L bacterial forms are extremely scarce. Bacille Calmette-Guérin is an attenuated strain of M. bovis and the only licensed vaccine used for tuberculosis prevention. We already have shown that filterable L-forms of BCG exist freely in the vaccine and are able to reproduce and to form colonies...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225131/role-of-tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-in-the-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-hiv-and-hbv-infections
#9
REVIEW
Erik De Clercq
Tenofovir (TFV) is the cornerstone of the treatment and prophylaxis of HIV infections. It has been routinely used in its prodrug form TDF (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) combined with emtricitabine ((-)FTC) and other antiretroviral agents. TDF has now been replaced by TAF (tenofovir alafenamide) which allows better uptake by the lymphoid tissue. In combination with elvitegravir (E), cobicistat (C), emtricitabine (F), TAF can be advocated as an STR (single tablet regimen, Genvoya®) for the treatment of HIV infections...
December 7, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208873/correlation-between-seropositivity-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-tubal-and-or-pelvic-pathology-detected-by-diagnostic-laparoscopy-in-subfertile-women
#10
N Begum, S A Anwary, M Alfazzaman, Z Mahzabin, F Deeba, M A Mostafa, M Akhter, M M Rahman
This prospective observational study was carried out in the Infertility Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, from February 2011 to December 2013. Sixty-nine (69) subfertile women who were seropositive for Chlamydia Trachomatis were included in this study. Inclusion criteria was patients with sub-fertility having age between 22 and 40 years, seeking infertility treatment, normal ovarian function, all normozoospermic male partner, duration of infertility ranged from 1...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183354/motives-for-change-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-in-an-unselected-cohort-of-hiv-aids-patients-at-a-major-referral-centre-in-south-west-cameroon
#11
Christian Akem Dimala, Ndemazie Nkafu Bechem, Desmond Aroke, Benjamin Momo Kadia
OBJECTIVE: The rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa has encountered the challenge of maintaining international clinical standards of ART utilization and change of ART regimens. In Cameroon, scarce reports have documented the motives for change of ART. This study had as objective to investigate the reasons for switch in ART through a secondary analysis and descriptive synthesis of data from a cross-sectional study at the Limbe Regional Hospital...
November 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138300/high-zika-virus-seroprevalence-in-salvador-northeastern-brazil-limits-the-potential-for-further-outbreaks
#12
Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136014/treatment-guidelines-and-early-loss-from-care-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Ingrid T Katz, Richard Kaplan, Garrett Fitzmaurice, Dominick Leone, David R Bangsberg, Linda-Gail Bekker, Catherine Orrell
BACKGROUND: South Africa has undergone multiple expansions in antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility from an initial CD4+ threshold of ≤200 cells/μl to providing ART for all people living with HIV (PLWH) as of September 2016. We evaluated the association of programmatic changes in ART eligibility with loss from care, both prior to ART initiation and within the first 16 weeks of starting treatment, during a period of programmatic expansion to ART treatment at CD4+ ≤ 350 cells/μl...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130574/drug-interactions-between-rifamycin-antibiotics-and-hormonal-contraception-a-systematic-review
#14
Katharine B Simmons, Lisa B Haddad, Kavita Nanda, Kathryn M Curtis
BACKGROUND: Rifamycin antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of tuberculosis, but may reduce effectiveness of hormonal contraception (HC). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether interactions between rifamycins and HC result in decreased effectiveness or increased toxicity of either therapy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and clinicaltrials. gov through May, 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials, cohort, and case-control studies addressing pregnancy rates, pharmacodynamics, or pharmacokinetic (PK) outcomes when HC and rifamycins were administered together versus apart...
November 12, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108662/hospital-length-of-stay-and-cost-burden-of-hiv-tuberculosis-and-hiv-tuberculosis-coinfection-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#15
Adeola Falana, Vanessa Akpojiyovwi, Esther Sey, Andika Akpaffiong, Olive Agumbah, Samara Chienye, Jamie Banks, Erin Jones, Kiara K Spooner, Jason L Salemi, Omonike A Olaleye, Sherri D Onyiego, Hamisu M Salihu
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost burden associated with hospital admissions among pregnant women with HIV monoinfection, tuberculosis (TB) monoinfection, or HIV-TB coinfection in the United States. METHODS: Analysis covered the period from 2002-2014 using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Relevant ICD-9-CM codes were used to determine HIV and TB status. Costs associated with hospitalization were calculated and adjusted to 2010 dollars using the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017245/a-community-perspective-on-the-inclusion-of-pregnant-women-in-tuberculosis-drug-trials
#16
Lindsay McKenna, Mike Frick, Cynthia Lee, Dorothy Namutamba, Liani Smit, Marie Theunissen, Wim Vandevelde, Suraj Madoori, Kathryn Snow, Barbara Seaworth
Affecting both mother and the existing pregnancy, tuberculosis (TB) increases the likelihood of poor birth outcomes. Despite substantial clinical need for TB prevention and treatment, pregnant women remain neglected by research initiatives. As members of 3 community advisory boards that provide input into TB drug trials, we offer a community perspective on the inclusion of pregnant women in TB drug research and discuss (1) our perspective on the risk/benefit tradeoff of including pregnant women in research to address different forms of TB; (2) recent examples of progress in this area; (3) lessons learned from the human immunodeficiency virus research field, where pregnant women have enjoyed better-although imperfect-representation in research; and (4) recommendations for different stakeholders, including researchers, regulatory authorities, ethics committees, and policymakers...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912984/caecal-perforation-from-primary-intestinal-tuberculosis-in-pregnancy
#17
Soe Lwin, Nina Lau Lee Jing, Haris Suharjono, Mardiana Binti Kipli, Tin Moe Nwe, Myat San Yi, Lucas Luk Tien Wee
The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is rising worldwide, despite the efficacy of the BCG vaccination. Populations at greatest risk of contracting TB are migrant communities, as well as immunocompromised individuals. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) can often present as a diagnostic conundrum, due to its nonspecific and varied presentation, often mimicking inflammatory bowel disease or malignancy. We present a case of caecal TB in pregnancy, which resulted in caecal perforation, a right hemicolectomy, and severe preterm delivery...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885339/role-of-chemotherapy-and-thrombolysis-in-treatment-of-choriocarcinoma-accompanied-with-pulmonary-embolism-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#18
Mei Yang, Li Peng
RATIONALE: Choriocarcinoma accompanied with pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. There are about 25 cases reported in literature, which presented variable clinical characteristics and prognosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a case of choriocarcinoma presenting PE as the first manifestation in a 26-year-old Chinese female. DIAGNOSES: Four months before her admission to our hospital, she presented to a local hospital with respiratory manifestations, and was first diagnosed as bronchitis and treated with antibiotics without improvement, and subsequently suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and receive anti-tuberculosis therapy, with no response...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870263/effect-of-maternal-vitamin-d3-supplementation-on-maternal-health-birth-outcomes-and-infant-growth-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-pregnant-women-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Christopher P Duggan, Said Aboud, Alfa Muhihi, David M Sando, Fadhlun M Alwy Al-Beity, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D has significant immunomodulatory effects on both adaptive and innate immune responses. Observational studies indicate that adults infected with HIV with low vitamin D status may be at increased risk of mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, and HIV disease progression. Growing observational evidence also suggests that low vitamin D status in pregnancy may increase the risk of adverse birth and infant health outcomes. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adjunct vitamin D3 supplementation may improve the health of HIV-infected pregnant women and their children...
September 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862174/genital-tuberculosis-in-females
#20
REVIEW
G Angeline Grace, D Bella Devaleenal, Mohan Natrajan
The morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) is high worldwide, and the burden of disease among women is significant, especially in developing countries. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli reach the genital tract primarily by haematogenous spread and dissemination from foci outside the genitalia with lungs as the common primary focus. Genital TB in females is a chronic disease with low-grade symptoms. The fallopian tubes are affected in almost all cases of genital TB, and along with endometrial involvement, it causes infertility in patients...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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