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perineal protection birth

Yasuko Sano, Chihiro Hirai, Shintaro Makino, Xianglan Li, Jun Takeda, Atsuo Itakura, Satoru Takeda
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of severe lacerations during forceps delivery and the risk factors associated with such delivery in a hospital where simulation training is held annually. METHODS: The medical records of 857 women who underwent forceps delivery at term with singleton cephalic presentation from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. The relationship between clinical characteristics and birth canal trauma was analyzed. Birth canal trauma included third and fourth degree perineal lacerations...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Hanna Ulfsdottir, Sissel Saltvedt, Susanne Georgsson
INTRODUCTION: The literature describes advantages for mothers giving birth in water, but waterbirth is controversial in Sweden and has not been offered at hospitals until recently. This study aimed to describe and compare the characteristics and outcome of waterbirths with spontaneous vaginal births at the same clinics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all waterbirths at two maternity units in Sweden from March 2014 to November 2015 (n=306), and a consecutively selected comparison group of 306 women having conventional spontaneous vaginal births...
December 29, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Constantin M Durnea, Ali E Jaffery, Nivedita Gauthaman, Stergios K Doumouchtsis
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between perineal trauma at childbirth and maternal body mass index (BMI), and estimate the risk of perineal trauma among different BMI groups. METHODS: Data were retrospectively assessed from all vaginal deliveries in a UK tertiary maternity unit between 1999 and 2014. Associations between BMI at booking and first- and second-degree tears (minor perineal trauma), third- and fourth-degree tears (obstetric anal sphincter injuries [OASIS]), and frequency of instrumental deliveries were assessed...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
José A Sainz, José A García-Mejido, Adriana Aquise, María J Bonomi, Carlota Borrero, Paloma De La Fuente, Ana Fernández-Palacín
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive value of intrapartum transperineal ultrasound in the identification of complicated operative (vacuum or forceps) deliveries in nulliparous women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational study of nulliparous women with an indication for operative delivery who underwent intrapartum transperineal ultrasound before fetal extraction. Managing obstetricians were blinded to the ultrasound data...
December 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Vigdis Aasheim, Anne Britt Vika Nilsen, Liv Merete Reinar, Mirjam Lukasse
BACKGROUND: Most vaginal births are associated with trauma to the genital tract. The morbidity associated with perineal trauma can be significant, especially when it comes to third- and fourth-degree tears. Different interventions including perineal massage, warm or cold compresses, and perineal management techniques have been used to prevent trauma. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of perineal techniques during the second stage of labour on the incidence and morbidity associated with perineal trauma...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
R de Tayrac, L Carligny, R Zimmerman, S Huberlant, V Letouzey
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate expert's opinion in order to obtain a consensus on the different measures of perineal protection at the time of vaginal delivery. METHODS: A survey using the Delphi method was carried out with a panel of French obstetricians, urogynecologists and midwives. The questionnaire included 22 questions grouped into four groups: expulsive efforts, indications of episiotomy, episiotomy repair and other forms of perineal protection. The experts had to answer on a 9-point scale, both on the validity and the clarity of each proposal...
May 24, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
Chloé Barasinski, Françoise Vendittelli
INTRODUCTION: The scientific data currently available do not allow any definitive conclusion to be reached about what type of pushing should be recommended to women during the second stage of labour. The objective of this trial is to assess and compare the effectiveness of directed open-glottis pushing versus directed closed-glottis pushing. Secondary objectives are to assess, according to the type of pushing: immediate maternal and neonatal morbidity, intermediate-term maternal pelvic floor morbidity, uncomplicated birth, and women's satisfaction at 4 weeks post partum...
December 20, 2016: BMJ Open
Diana Garretto, Brian B Lin, Helen L Syn, Nancy Judge, Karen Beckerman, Fouad Atallah, Arnold Friedman, Michael Brodman, Peter S Bernstein
Objective. To determine if there is an association between BMI and 3rd- or 4th-degree perineal lacerations in normal spontaneous and operative vaginal deliveries. Study Design. We performed a retrospective case control study using a large obstetric quality improvement database over a six-year period. Cases were identified as singleton gestations with third- and fourth-degree lacerations. Controls were obtained randomly from the database of patients without third- or fourth-degree lacerations in a 1 : 1 ratio...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Kathleen Chin, Cecilia Wieslander, Haolin Shi, Sunil Balgobin, T Ignacio Montoya, Hiromi Yanagisawa, R Ann Word
Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5) during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox) treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i...
2016: PloS One
Anat Shmueli, Rinat Gabbay Benziv, Liran Hiersch, Eran Ashwal, Rami Aviram, Yariv Yogev, Amir Aviram
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for mediolateral episiotomy, and evaluate the risk of obstetrical anal sphincter injury (OASI) among women with an episiotomy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of all singletons vaginal deliveries at term between 2007 and 2014. Spontaneous and operative vaginal deliveries were compared separately, as well as nulliparous and multiparous women. RESULTS: Overall, 41,347 women were included in the spontaneous vaginal delivery group: 12,585 (30...
February 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
I Kamisan Atan, K L Shek, S Langer, R Guzman Rojas, J Caudwell-Hall, J O Daly, H P Dietz
OBJECTIVE: Vaginal childbirth may result in levator ani injury secondary to overdistension during the second stage of labour. Other injuries include perineal and anal sphincter tears. Antepartum use of a birth trainer may prevent such injuries by altering the biomechanical properties of the pelvic floor. This study evaluates the effects of Epi-No(®) use on intrapartum pelvic floor trauma. DESIGN: Multicentre prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two tertiary obstetric units in Australia...
May 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
William L Palmer, A Bottle, P Aylin
STUDY QUESTION: What is the association between day of delivery and measures of quality and safety of maternity services, particularly comparing weekend with weekday performance? METHODS: This observational study examined outcomes for maternal and neonatal records (1,332,835 deliveries and 1,349,599 births between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2012) within the nationwide administrative dataset for English National Health Service hospitals by day of the week. Groups were defined by day of admission (for maternal indicators) or delivery (for neonatal indicators) rather than by day of complication...
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Petra Petrocnik, Jayne Marshall
A majority of women will experience some degree of perineal trauma during vaginal birth. The morbidity of women related to perineal trauma can reveal in perineal pain, urinary or faecal incontinence and dyspareunia. Midwives can adopt many techniques to protect the perineum from injury. However, there are still no clear guidelines regarding the hands-on and hands-poised approaches of perineal management during the second stage of labour. The current evidence remains contradictory, so which technique should midwives adopt?...
July 2015: Practising Midwife
Marilene Vale de Castro Monteiro, Gláucia M Varella Pereira, Regina Amélia Pessoa Aguiar, Rodrigo Leite Azevedo, Mário Dias Correia-Junior, Zilma Silveira Nogueira Reis
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of severe perineal lacerations in vaginal delivery and its relationship with predisposing clinical and obstetric factors. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis using an electronic clinical database at a University Referral Center for high-risk pregnancies was performed. A total of 941 vaginal deliveries were analyzed, over 10 consecutive months in 2013 and 2014. The relationship between obstetric and clinical characteristics and lacerations, especially severe forms, was analyzed...
January 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Amanda J Ampt, Michelle de Vroome, Jane B Ford
BACKGROUND: Midwives are reported to have changed from 'hands on' to 'hands poised or off' approaches to birth at the same time as obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) are increasing. As perineal management details are not routinely collected, it is difficult to quantify practice. AIMS: To determine which perineal protections techniques midwives prefer for low-risk non-water births; whether preference is associated with technique taught or with other characteristics; and whether midwives change preference according to clinical scenario...
June 2015: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
S Bulchandani, E Watts, A Sucharitha, D Yates, K M Ismail
BACKGROUND: Genital tract trauma is common with vaginal births and is associated with significant morbidity, particularly with obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). Debate continues regarding the effectiveness of perineal support during childbirth in reducing the risk of trauma. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to assess the effect of routine 'hands on'/manual perineal support (MPS) during childbirth, versus ad hoc/no perineal support ('hands off/poised'), on the risk and degree of perineal trauma...
August 2015: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Antonio Macedo, Marcela Leal da Cruz, Rodrigo Trivelato, Gilmar Garrone, Bruno Leslie, Diego Estevam Oliveira, Geórgia Rubiane Souza, Valdemar Ortiz
INTRODUCTION: Complete female epispadia (CFE) is a rare congenital anomaly occurring in 1 of 500,000 live births. The goals of CFE management include achieving continence, while protecting the kidneys, and creating functional, cosmetic external genitalia. PATIENT AND METHODS: We demonstrate in this video the steps of the surgery and present midterm follow-up of a 6-year-old child with CFE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The patient had an excellent cosmetic result, and reported continence of 3 h period with mild leakage...
February 2015: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Yvonne L Hauck, Lucy Lewis, Elizabeth A Nathan, Christine White, Dorota A Doherty
AIM: To determine rates and risk factors for third and fourth degree perineal tears (severe perineal trauma) in a Western Australian context. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective hospital-based cohort study was performed using computerised data for 10,408 singleton vaginal deliveries from 28 weeks gestation. METHODS: Women with severe perineal trauma were compared to those without. Logistic regression analysis, stratified by parity, was used to assess demographic and obstetric factors associated with perineal trauma...
March 2015: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Petra Petrocnik, Jayne E Marshall
BACKGROUND: vaginal birth is often accompanied with perineal trauma that affects postpartum morbidity. There are many techniques for protecting the perineum from injury during childbirth. The Hands-On or Hands Poised (HOOP) study (McCandlish et al., 1998) was the first trial that compared different techniques of perineal protection during the second stage of labour with very little research subsequently being undertaken. OBJECTIVES: to systematically review all available literature that compares the hands-on and hands-poised techniques of perineal management during the second stage of labour...
February 2015: Midwifery
Khaled M K Ismail, Elena Paschetta, Dimitrios Papoutsis, Robert M Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To explore the views of a multidisciplinary group of experts and achieve consensus on the importance of perineal support in preventing obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). DESIGN: A three-generational Delphi survey. SETTING: A UK-wide survey of experts. POPULATION: A panel of 20 members consisting of obstetricians, midwives and urogynecologists recommended by UK professional bodies. METHODS: A 58-item web-based questionnaire was sent to all participants who were asked to anonymously rate the importance of each item on a six-point Likert scale...
February 2015: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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