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Bodil Ivarsson, Roger Hesselstrand, Göran Rådegran, Barbro Kjellström
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are rare diseases with a gradual decline in physical health. Adherence to treatment is crucial in these very symptomatic and life threatening diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe PAH and CTEPH patients experience of their self-reported medication adherence, beliefs about medicines and information about treatment. METHODS: A quantitative, descriptive, national cohort survey that included adult patients from all PAH-centres in Sweden...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Patrick Thornton
The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine endorses an algorithm for estimating the probability of successful vaginal birth for women undergoing trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC). The algorithm is available online in the form of an easy-to-use calculator. This calculator has significant limitations that are easily overlooked by women and providers alike. The calculator has much greater positive than negative predictive power, and it cannot predict unsuccessful TOLAC or uterine rupture. Furthermore, the calculator cannot predict rare catastrophes, such as unplanned hysterectomy, permanent injury, or death...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Todd R Logan, D Michael Malone
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between nurses' perceptions and attitudes of teamwork and workplace bullying. A total of 128 nurses in two hospitals in the northeast USA completed three surveys: Attitudes about teamwork survey, Team characteristics survey, and Negative intention questionnaire. A majority of nurses believed that teamwork was an important vehicle for providing quality patient care. Two thirds of the nurses reported the presence of important variables such as leadership, trust and communication on their teams...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Shaun Nichols, Nina Strohminger, Arun Rai, Jay Garfield
It is an old philosophical idea that if the future self is literally different from the current self, one should be less concerned with the death of the future self (Parfit, ). This paper examines the relation between attitudes about death and the self among Hindus, Westerners, and three Buddhist populations (Lay Tibetan, Lay Bhutanese, and monastic Tibetans). Compared with other groups, monastic Tibetans gave particularly strong denials of the continuity of self, across several measures. We predicted that the denial of self would be associated with a lower fear of death and greater generosity toward others...
January 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
Timothy J Beebe, Robert M Jacobson, Sarah M Jenkins, Kandace A Lackore, Lila J Finney Rutten
OBJECTIVE: To compare response rate and nonresponse bias across two mixed-mode survey designs and two single-mode designs. DATA SOURCES: This experiment was embedded in a clinician survey of knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV vaccination (n = 275). STUDY DESIGN: Clinicians were randomly assigned one of two mixed-mode (mail/web or web/mail) or single-mode designs (mail-only/web-only). Differences in response rate and nonresponse bias were assessed...
January 22, 2018: Health Services Research
Iñaki Lete, Paloma Lobo, Rossella E Nappi, Axelle Pintiaux, Christian Fiala, Günther Häusler, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet
OBJECTIVE: To assess men's perceptions about monthly bleeding and associated inconveniences for their partner, as well as men's attitudes regarding the desired menstruation frequency for their partner and knowledge about hormonal contraceptives. METHODS: A 15 min quantitative online survey was conducted among 5044 men aged 18-45 years, who had been in a relationship for more than 6 months, across 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland)...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Joseph H Hammer, Mike C Parent, Douglas A Spiker
Attitudes is a key help-seeking construct that influences treatment seeking behavior via intention to seek help, per the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This article presents the development and psychometric evaluation of the Mental Help Seeking Attitudes Scale (MHSAS), designed to measure respondents' overall evaluation (unfavorable vs. favorable) of their seeking help from a mental health professional. In Study 1 (N = 857 United States adults), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and item response theory (IRT) analysis were used to identify an optimal set of 9 items that demonstrated initial evidence of internal consistency, unidimensionality, and strong measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) across gender, past help-seeking experience, and psychological distress...
January 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Oscarina da Silva Ezequiel, Isabella Noceli de Oliveira, Alexander Moreira-Almeida, Giancarlo Lucchetti
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to investigate the effect of two educational strategies to teach geriatrics (flipped classroom-FL and traditional lectures-TR) in relation to a control group (no intervention) on students' competences. METHOD: An intervention study was conducted during the third year of medicine. Two different educational strategies (flipped classroom and traditional lectures) were incorporated into a theoretical-practical discipline of geriatrics...
January 21, 2018: Medical Teacher
Stephen von Tetzchner, Kaisa Launonen, Beata Batorowicz, Leila Regina d'Oliveira de Paula Nunes, Cátia Crivelenti de Figueiredo Walter, Judith Oxley, Munique Massaro, Kristine Stadskleiv, Chih-Kang Yang, Débora Deliberato
A fundamental requirement of a supportive language development for young children who need aided communication is that an aided communication system is made available and its use is supported. There is limited information about the age at which children are typically provided with a communication aid or about how aided communication is used in everyday situations. Using questionnaire-based interview data, this study investigated (a) the pattern of provision of communication aids to 84 children and adolescents, (b) parents' and professionals' evaluation of the quality of communication across contexts, and (c) availability and use of aided communication in these contexts...
January 22, 2018: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
Akihiro Shiina, Tomihisa Niitsu, Aiko Sato, Soichiro Omiya, Takako Nagata, Aika Tomoto, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Yoshito Igarashi, Masaomi Iyo
AIM: To evaluate the effect of educational intervention on individuals' knowledge of and attitudes toward forensic mental health. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire regarding attitudes toward various ideas about forensic mental health. The respondents attended a 1-h seminar regarding forensic mental health after answering the questionnaire. On completion of the seminar, the respondents answered another questionnaire containing many of the same questions as contained in the pre-seminar questionnaire...
December 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
Kyoung Won Cho, Jakyoung Lee, Ji-Hye Ryu, Soo Jeong Kim
Objectives: This study aimed to identify the effects of anti-smoking public service announcements on the attitudes of Korean college students toward smoking. Methods: This study involved students via convenience sampling from seven universities who were randomly assigned to four groups. All groups completed a preliminary questionnaire, before being shown a public service announcement twice, and then completed a post viewing questionnaire. Results: For announcements with positive messages, the proportion of changes in beliefs and attitudes were 39...
December 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Barinder Singh, Emma Banwell, Dianne Groll
Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada specifies both respect for diversity as a requirement of professionalism and culturally sensitive provision of medical care. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perception of preparedness and attitudes of medical residents to deliver cross-cultural care. Methods: The Cross Cultural Care Survey was sent via e-mail to all Faculty of Medicine residents (approx. 450) in an academic health sciences centre...
December 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
Rakesh Kumar Shah, Nayan Kamal Sainju, Sunil Kumar Joshi
BACKGROUND: Kangaroo mother care is an effective and low cost technique which prevents neonate from hypothermia, a leading cause of preventable neonatal mortality. Knowledge and practice of Kangaroo mother care is of utmost importance in developing countries such as Nepal. Purpose of this study was to find out knowledge, attitude and practice of kangaroo mother care among health workers in tertiary health centres in Nepal. METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out in three teaching hospitals in Nepal during the period from January 2016 to April 2016...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Ram Naresh Yadav, Shrijana Joshi, Rajesh Poudel, Pawan Pandeya
BACKGROUND: Menstrual hygiene management remains a taboo in many communities in Nepal. Cultural beliefs about menstruation such as food taboos and untouchability have negative impact on dignity, health and education of adolescent girls. The objective of the study was to assess the current knowledge, attitude and practice of school adolescents on menstrual hygiene management in Doti District in Far-Western Nepal. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out from October to December 2016 at seven village development committees in Doti district, Nepal...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Guizhen He, Chunci Chen, Lei Zhang, Yonglong Lu
Recent decade has witnessed accelerating expansion of chemical industry and increasing conflicts between the local citizens, governmental authorities and project developers, especially in some coastal and port cities in China. Development and transformation of chemical industrial parks has been adopted as a national initiative recently. However, there is a paucity of research examining public perspectives on chemical industrial parks and their risks. Aiming to understand public perception, attitude, and response and the factors underlying the support/acceptance of chemical industry park, this paper investigated 418 residents neighboring to two chemical industrial parks, Dalian in Bohai Rim through face-to-face questionnaire survey...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tobias Feldhaus, Sebastian Falke, Lara von Gruchalla, Birgit Maisch, Christina Uhlmann, Eva Bock, Rebekka Lencer
Negative attitudes towards medication in schizophrenia patients are one major factor contributing to non-adherence behavior. Besides, self-stigmatization represents another frequent and important obstacle in patients suffering from psychotic disorders. Here, we investigated possible associations between medication adherence attitude and the extent of self-stigmatization, while also exploring factors related to self-stigmatization. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, medication attitude and self-stigmatization were assessed among 81 subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
January 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Svenja Konowalczyk, Michael T McKay, Kevin E Wells, Jon C Cole
Mental well-being is of great importance for emotional, psychological and social functioning, particularly in adolescence, a period characterized by significant physical, social, and emotional changes. The extant literature examining the relationship between temporal attitudes and mental and psychosomatic health outcomes is increasing rapidly. Using Latent Transition Analysis (LTA) of Adolescent and Adult Time Inventory-Time Attitude Scale scores across three waves of data (N = 1667; 13-15 years; 42.0% female), we sought to examine the predictive power of time attitudes profile membership on mental well-being and psychosomatic symptomatology at distal wave four...
January 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Brenda Agyeiwaa Poku, Ann-Louise Caress, Susan Kirk
BACKGROUND: Sickle Cell Disease is the commonest monogenic haemoglobinopathy worldwide. Living with a long-term condition such as sickle cell disease during adolescence constitutes a significant challenge for the key stakeholders due to the combined effects of chronic illness and adolescent development. For adolescents with sickle cell disease to be cared for and supported appropriately and effectively, it is crucial that health professionals have a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of how adolescents experience living with the condition...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Felipe De Brigard, Bryce Gessell
Three serious challenges to Mahr & Csibra's (M&C's) proposal are presented. First, we argue that the epistemic attitude that they claim is unique to remembering also applies to some forms of imaginative simulations that aren't memories. Second, we argue that their account cannot accommodate critical neuropsychological evidence. Finally, we argue that their proposal looks unconvincing when compared to more parsimonious evolutionary accounts.
January 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Aisha Khan, Kashf Naz, Haroon Ahmed, Sami Simsek, Muhammad Sohail Afzal, Waseem Haider, Sheikh Saeed Ahmad, Sumaira Farrakh, Wu Weiping, Guan Yayi
BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. It is considered a neglected zoonotic disease caused by the larval form (hydatid cyst) of Echinococcus spp. tapeworm. There are limited studies on echinococcosis in Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to find out recent knowledge, attitudes and practices on the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis in butchers and dog owners in both urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi/Islamabad regions, Pakistan...
January 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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