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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355767/co-activation-patterns-in-resting-state-fmri-signals
#1
REVIEW
Xiao Liu, Nanyin Zhang, Catie Chang, Jeff H Duyn
The brain is a complex system that integrates and processes information across multiple time scales by dynamically coordinating activities over brain regions and circuits. Correlations in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals have been widely used to infer functional connectivity of the brain, providing a metric of functional associations that reflects a temporal average over an entire scan (typically several minutes or longer). Not until recently was the study of dynamic brain interactions at much shorter time scales (seconds to minutes) considered for inference of functional connectivity...
January 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352025/state-of-the-art-and-future-directions-for-extinction-as-a-translational-model-for-fear-and-anxiety
#2
REVIEW
Michelle G Craske, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
Through advances in both basic and clinical scientific research, Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction have become an exemplary translational model for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. Discoveries in associative and neurobiological mechanisms underlying extinction have informed techniques for optimizing exposure therapy that enhance the formation of inhibitory associations and their consolidation and retrieval over time and context. Strategies that enhance formation include maximizing prediction-error correction by violating expectancies, deepened extinction, occasional reinforced extinction, attentional control and removal of safety signals/behaviours...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351723/mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-subtle-regulators-of-cellular-redox-signaling
#3
Petr Jezek, Blanka Holendová, Keith D Garlid, Martin Jaburek
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria are the energetic, metabolic, redox and information signaling centers of the cell. Substrate pressure, mitochondrial network dynamics and cristae morphology state are integrated by the protonmotive force Δp or its potential component, ΔΨ, which are attenuated by proton backflux into the matrix, termed uncoupling. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP1-5) play an eminent role in the regulation of each of the above aspects, being involved in numerous physiological events including redox signaling...
January 19, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345974/cognitive-effects-of-cancer-and-cancer-treatments
#4
Tim A Ahles, James C Root
As the population of cancer survivors has grown into the millions, there has been increasing emphasis on understanding how the late effects of treatment affect survivors' ability to return to work/school, their capacity to function and live independently, and their overall quality of life. This review focuses on cognitive change associated with cancer and cancer treatments. Research in this area has progressed from a pharmacotoxicology perspective to a view of the cognitive change as a complex interaction of aspects of the treatment, vulnerability factors that increase risk for posttreatment cognitive decline, cancer biology, and the biology of aging...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344431/noncoding-rnas-in-wound-healing-a-new-and-vast-frontier
#5
REVIEW
Anna Luan, Michael S Hu, Tripp Leavitt, Elizabeth A Brett, Kevin C Wang, Michael T Longaker, Derrick C Wan
Significance: Wound healing requires a highly orchestrated coordination of processes that are not yet fully understood. Therefore, available clinical therapies are thus far limited in their efficacy in preventing and treating both chronic wounds and scars. Current gene-based therapeutics is largely based on our understanding of the protein-coding genome and proteins involved in known wound healing pathways. Recent Advances: Noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs have recently been found to be significant modulators of gene expression in diverse cellular pathways...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341962/withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-therapy
#6
Barbara G Jericho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to examine literature relating to the withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (WLST). RECENT FINDINGS: Discussions regarding end-of-life issues in adults and children are not occurring comprehensively. Discussions relating to the WLST in the pediatric population varies by institution and may vary by race, age, health insurance, diagnosis, and severity of illness. Completing advance directives prior to placement of life-sustaining treatments is not consistent practice...
January 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334759/redox-nano-architectures-perspectives-and-implications-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-human-diseases
#7
Shamim Akhtar Sufi, Sankar Pajaniradje, Victor Mukherjee, Rukkumani Rajagopalan
Significance - Efficient targeted therapy with minimal side effects is the need of the hour.. Locally altered redox state is observed in several human ailments, such as inflammation, sepsis, and cancer. This has been taken advantage in designing redox-responsive nano-drug carriers. Redox-responsive nanosystems open a door to multitude of possibilities for the control of diseases over other drug delivery systems. Recent Advances -The first generation nanotherapy relies on novel properties of nanomaterials to shield the drug and deliver it to the diseased tissue or organ...
January 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332950/microwave-evaluation-of-electromigration-susceptibility-in-advanced-interconnects
#8
Christopher E Sunday, Dmitry Veksler, Kin C Cheung, Yaw S Obeng
Traditional metrology has been unable to adequately address the needs of the emerging integrated circuits (ICs) at the nano scale; thus, new metrology and techniques are needed. For example, the reliability challenges in fabrication need to be well understood and controlled to facilitate mass production of through-substrate-via (TSV) enabled three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs). This requires new approaches to the metrology. In this paper, we use the microwave propagation characteristics to study the reliability issues that precede the physical damage caused by electromigration in the Cu-filled TSVs...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330082/clinical-trials-recruitment-planning-a-proposed-framework-from-the-clinical-trials-transformation-initiative
#9
Grant D Huang, Jonca Bull, Beth Harper, Elizabeth Mahon, Kelly McKee, Jamie N Roberts
Patient recruitment is widely recognized as a key determinant of success for clinical trials. Yet a substantial number of trials fail to reach recruitment goals-a situation that has important scientific, financial, ethical, and policy implications. Further, there are important effects on stakeholders who directly contribute to the trial including investigators, sponsors, and study participants. Despite efforts over multiple decades to identify and address barriers, recruitment challenges persist. To advance a more comprehensive approach to trial recruitment, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) convened a project team to examine the challenges and to issue actionable, evidence-based recommendations for improving recruitment planning that extend beyond common study-specific strategies...
January 9, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329960/the-future-of-lgbt-cancer-care-practice-and-research-implications
#10
REVIEW
David Rice, Matthew B Schabath
OBJECTIVES: To synthesize state of the knowledge collected in this volume and propose future directions for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer practice, education, research, and advocacy. DATA SOURCES: Current and extant literature. CONCLUSION: Health care disparities that are known but not yet fully elucidated in the LGBT population carry into the cancer arena. Substantially more effort is required in the domains of patient care, nursing practice, nursing and patient-facing services provider education, patient education, nursing and interprofessional research, governmental commitment, professional organization action, and patient advocacy...
January 9, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329573/female-genital-mutilation-cutting-in-italy-an%C3%A2-enhanced-estimation-for-first-generation-migrant-women-based-on-2016-survey-data
#11
Livia Elisa Ortensi, Patrizia Farina, Els Leye
BACKGROUND: Migration flows of women from Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting practicing countries have generated a need for data on women potentially affected by Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. This paper presents enhanced estimates for foreign-born women and asylum seekers in Italy in 2016, with the aim of supporting resource planning and policy making, and advancing the methodological debate on estimation methods. METHODS: The estimates build on the most recent methodological development in Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting direct and indirect estimation for Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting non-practicing countries...
January 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328876/meta-analysis-of-complex-interventions
#12
Emily E Tanner-Smith, Sean Grant
Meta-analysis is a prominent method for estimating the effects of public health interventions, yet these interventions are often complex in ways that pose challenges to using conventional meta-analytic methods. This article discusses meta-analytic techniques that can be used in research syntheses on the effects of complex public health interventions. We first introduce the use of complexity frameworks to conceptualize public health interventions. We then present a menu of meta-analytic procedures for addressing various sources of complexity when answering questions about the effects of public health interventions in research syntheses...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328532/population-genomic-footprints-of-host-adaptation-introgression-and-recombination-in-coffee-leaf-rust
#13
Diogo Nuno Silva, Vítor Várzea, Octávio Salgueiro Paulo, Dora Batista
Coffee Leaf Rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix (Hv), represents the biggest threat to coffee production worldwide and ranks amongst the most serious fungal diseases in history. Despite a recent series of outbreaks and emergence of hyper-virulent strains, the population evolutionary history and potential of this pathogen remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we used RADseq to generate ∼19,000 SNPs across a worldwide collection of 37 Hv samples. Contrarily to the longstanding idea that Hv represents a genetically unstructured and cosmopolitan species, our results reveal the existence of a cryptic species complex with marked host tropism...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327813/computational-tools-for-the-identification-and-interpretation-of-sequence-motifs-in-immunopeptidomes
#14
REVIEW
Bruno Alvarez, Carolina Barra, Morten Nielsen, Massimo Andreatta
Recent advances in proteomics and mass-spectrometry have widely expanded the detectable peptide repertoire presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the cell surface, collectively known as the immunopeptidome. Finely characterizing the immunopeptidome brings about important basic insights into the mechanisms of antigen presentation, but can also reveal promising targets for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapy. In this report, we describe a number of practical and efficient approaches to analyze immunopeptidomics data, discussing the identification of meaningful sequence motifs in various scenarios and considering current limitations...
January 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326426/mrna-vaccines-a-new-era-in-vaccinology
#15
REVIEW
Norbert Pardi, Michael J Hogan, Frederick W Porter, Drew Weissman
mRNA vaccines represent a promising alternative to conventional vaccine approaches because of their high potency, capacity for rapid development and potential for low-cost manufacture and safe administration. However, their application has until recently been restricted by the instability and inefficient in vivo delivery of mRNA. Recent technological advances have now largely overcome these issues, and multiple mRNA vaccine platforms against infectious diseases and several types of cancer have demonstrated encouraging results in both animal models and humans...
January 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325395/controversial-issues-in-radiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jong Hoon Kim
The role of radiotherapy (RT) as an adjuvant to surgical options in the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer has been established as it reduces local recurrence when combined with surgical resection and enhances survival when used in multidisciplinary treatment. However, many issues need to be addressed; some of these can render RT unnecessary, whereas others can reveal a new role of RT in rectal cancer. This review will discuss not only the basic role of RT but also the associated but controversial issues in detail in an attempt to find answers and determine future directions for the next decade...
December 2017: Radiation Oncology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320792/-advanced-care-planning-and-its-relevance-for-emergency-and-intensive-care-medicine
#17
Friedemann Nauck, Georg Marckmann, Jürgen In der Schmitten
Like in other countries, advance care planning (ACP) is currently being implemented in Germany as a new concept to realise valid and effective advance directives. This concept comprises processes to explore and document individual preferences for future treatment, and to honour them at a time when the person is incapacitated. ACP aims to ensure that patients will be treated according to their preferences when they are no longer capable due to acute health crises or chronic diseases. This paper gives an overview of the concept of ACP with a focus on relevant issues for emergency and intensive care medicine...
January 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316202/anticoagulant-prophylaxis-and-therapy-in-children-current-challenges-and-emerging-issues
#18
Fiona Newall, Brian Branchford, Christoph Male
This review aims to describe the unique challenges of anticoagulant prophylaxis and treatment in children, and to highlight areas for research for improving clinical outcomes of children with thromboembolic disease. The evidence presented demonstrates the challenges of advancing the evidence-base informing optimal management of thromboembolic disease in children. Recent observational studies have identified risk factors of venous thromboembolism in children, but there are few interventional studies assessing the benefit-risk of using thromboprophylaxis in risk-stratified clinical subgroups...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310672/3d-vena-contracta-area-after-mitraclip%C3%A2-procedure-precise-quantification-of-residual-mitral-regurgitation-and-identification-of-prognostic-information
#19
Alexander Dietl, Christine Prieschenk, Franziska Eckert, Christoph Birner, Andreas Luchner, Lars S Maier, Stefan Buchner
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) is increasingly performed in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Post-procedural MR grading is challenging and an unsettled issue. We hypothesised that the direct planimetry of vena contracta area (VCA) by 3D-transoesophageal echocardiography allows quantifying post-procedural MR and implies further prognostic relevance missed by the usual ordinal scale (grade I-IV). METHODS: Based on a single-centre PMVR registry containing 102 patients, the association of VCA reduction and patients' functional capacity measured as six-minute walk distance (6 MW) was evaluated...
January 9, 2018: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304996/-what-did-maxwell-s-equations-really-have-to-do-with-edison-s-invention-addressing-the-complexity-of-developing-clinical-interventions-for-skeletal-muscle-disease
#20
Jonathan Dando
To reach the healthcare market and have a medical intervention reimbursed in any format carries high risk and very low success rates. Even when all regulatory hurdles have been surpassed, there is no guarantee that the product will be purchased; a different body makes that decision using criteria typically unknown to early-stage innovators and intervention developers. In the context of skeletal muscle diseases, the field is at a crossroads; accurate diagnoses are difficult to obtain, patient management and monitoring are equally difficult, cures are evasive, and disease progression is not well enough understood in the human to identify clear targets (irrespective of whether the specific muscle disease is rare or frequent because the progression is slow and the tissue large)...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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