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T A C Gordon, H R Harding, F K Clever, I K Davidson, W Davison, D W Montgomery, R C Weatherhead, F M Windsor, J D Armstrong, A Bardonnet, E Bergman, J R Britton, I M Côté, D D'agostino, L A Greenberg, A R Harborne, K K Kahilainen, N B Metcalfe, S C Mills, N J Milner, F H Mittermayer, L Montorio, S L Nedelec, J M Prokkola, L A Rutterford, A G V Salvanes, S D Simpson, A Vainikka, J K Pinnegar, E M Santos
Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Hannah Padda, Amy Niedbalski, Erin Tate, Sharon L Deem
Zoological institutions play an important role in promoting the goals of the One Health movement. We launched the Institute for Conservation Medicine (ICM) at the Saint Louis Zoo in 2011 to advance the goals of One Health. In 2016, we distributed a survey to Zoo members to evaluate member awareness and understanding of One Health and to provide direction for future communication and actions from the ICM. We hypothesized that Zoo members would be aware of One Health and care about infectious disease issues. Survey results showed Zoo members primarily cared about chronic, non-infectious diseases and their associated economic costs, with participants ranking their top three health issues of concern for humans as nutrition/obesity/diet (49%), costs of health care (48%), and cancer (37%)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Georgios D Floros
Research on adolescence gambling over the past twenty years has revealed significant incidence and prevalence rates and highlighted the possible negative effects on an adolescent's well-being. Several risk and protective factors have also been identified. Over the course of the past few years, technological advances have heralded the advent of new avenues for gambling as well as new opportunities to gamble without any direct monetary exchange. This review article examines those established trends as well as the new issues that we are faced with, in order to accurately portray the current challenges in research, prevention, and treatment...
2018: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Joaquín García-Gómez, Roberto Gil-Pita, Manuel Rosa-Zurera, Antonio Romero-Camacho, Jesús Antonio Jiménez-Garrido, Víctor García-Benavides
Pipeline inspection is a topic of particular interest to the companies. Especially important is the defect sizing, which allows them to avoid subsequent costly repairs in their equipment. A solution for this issue is using ultrasonic waves sensed through Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) actuators. The main advantage of this technology is the absence of the need to have direct contact with the surface of the material under investigation, which must be a conductive one. Specifically interesting is the meander-line-coil based Lamb wave generation, since the directivity of the waves allows a study based in the circumferential wrap-around received signal...
March 7, 2018: Sensors
Anand Gururajan, Aron Kos, Juan Pablo Lopez
Stress is a major risk factor in the development of various psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. The use of stress paradigms in preclinical contexts is essential to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders. However, they are not without their limitations and in this commentary, we have examined some of the practical issues associated with their use. We also highlight some of the latest techniques to identify their neuromolecular correlates as well as the potentially important and integrative role of computational neuroscience...
March 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Bryan Klapes, Steven Riley, J J McDowell
A direct-suppression, or subtractive, model of punishment has been supported as the qualitatively and quantitatively superior matching law-based punishment model (Critchfield, Paletz, MacAleese, & Newland, 2003; de Villiers, 1980; Farley, 1980). However, this conclusion was made without testing the model against its predecessors, including the original (Herrnstein, 1961) and generalized (Baum, 1974) matching laws, which have different numbers of parameters. To rectify this issue, we reanalyzed a set of data collected by Critchfield et al...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Haitao Xu, Jesús Cuevas-Maraver, Panayotis G Kevrekidis, Anna Vainchtein
In this work, we revisit a criterion, originally proposed in Friesecke & Pego (Friesecke & Pego 2004 Nonlinearity 17 , 207-227. (doi:10.1088/0951715/17/1/013)), for the stability of solitary travelling waves in Hamiltonian, infinite-dimensional lattice dynamical systems. We discuss the implications of this criterion from the point of view of stability theory, both at the level of the spectral analysis of the advance-delay differential equations in the co-travelling frame, as well as at that of the Floquet problem arising when considering the travelling wave as a periodic orbit modulo shift...
April 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Vedran Dunjko, Hans J Briegel
Quantum information technologies, on the one side, and intelligent learning
 systems, on the other, are both emergent technologies that will likely have a
 transforming impact on our society in the future.
 The respective underlying fields of basic research -- quantum information (QI) versus
 machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI)
 -- have their own specific questions and challenges, which have hitherto been
 investigated largely independently. However, in a growing body of recent work,
 researchers have been probing the question to what extent these fields can indeed
 learn and benefit from each other...
March 5, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Minkyu Ahn, Hohyun Cho, Sangtae Ahn, Sung C Jun
Performance variation is a critical issue in motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI), and various neurophysiological, psychological, and anatomical correlates have been reported in the literature. Although the main aim of such studies is to predict MI-BCI performance for the prescreening of poor performers, studies which focus on the user's sense of the motor imagery process and directly estimate MI-BCI performance through the user's self-prediction are lacking. In this study, we first test each user's self-prediction idea regarding motor imagery experimental datasets...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Marina Bolzoni, Denise Toscani, Paola Storti, Valentina Marchica, Federica Costa, Nicola Giuliani
Bone destruction is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). About 80% of MM patients at diagnosis presents myeloma bone disease (MBD) leading to bone pain and pathological fractures, significantly affecting patients' quality of life. Bisphosphonates are the treatment of choice for MBD, but osteolytic lesions remain a critical issue in the current management of MM patients. Several studies clarified the mechanisms involved in MM-induced osteoclast formation and activation, leading to the identification of new possible targets and the development of better bone-directed therapies, that are discussed in this review...
March 2, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Zhaozhong Zhu, Verneri Anttila, Jordan W Smoller, Phil H Lee
Advances in recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that pleiotropic effects on human complex traits are widespread. A number of classic and recent meta-analysis methods have been used to identify genetic loci with pleiotropic effects, but the overall performance of these methods is not well understood. In this work, we use extensive simulations and case studies of GWAS datasets to investigate the power and type-I error rates of ten meta-analysis methods. We specifically focus on three conditions commonly encountered in the studies of multiple traits: (1) extensive heterogeneity of genetic effects; (2) characterization of trait-specific association; and (3) inflated correlation of GWAS due to overlapping samples...
2018: PloS One
Haibo Qiu, Zhiwei Zhou
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) issued the clinical practice guidelines for gastric cancer 2017 edition version 5, which has been fully updated for the treatment of gastric cancer, including systematic treatment, surgery and radiotherapy. This article review and summarize the updated NCCN clinical practice guidelines for gastric cancer in 2017 and try to interpret it. (1)Biomarkers: mismatch repair defect (dMMR) or high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor Epstein Barr virus (EBV) status should be considered for patients with gastric cancer...
February 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Nalini N Jairath, Cynthia J Peden-McAlpine, Mary C Sullivan, Judith A Vessey, Susan J Henly
BACKGROUND: Articles from three landmark symposia on theory for nursing-published in Nursing Research in 1968-1969-served as a key underpinning for the development of nursing as an academic discipline. The current special issue on Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science celebrates the 50th anniversary of publication of these seminal works in nursing theory. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this commentary is to consider the future of nursing theory development in light of articles published in the anniversary issue...
March 2018: Nursing Research
Atsushi Asai, Sakiko Masaki, Taketoshi Okita, Aya Enzo, Yasuhiro Kadooka
BACKGROUND: Destination therapy (DT) is the permanent implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in patients with end-stage, severe heart failure who are ineligible for heart transplantation. DT improves both the quality of life and prognosis of patients with end-stage heart failure. However, there are also downsides to DT such as life-threatening complications and the potential for the patient to live beyond their desired length of life following such major complications...
February 27, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Claudio Rapezzi, Christian Gagliardi, Agnese Milandri
In this issue of JNC, BW Spery and Coll report a retrospective analysis of 57 patients with transthyretin-related amyloidosis (ATTR) in an advanced phase of the disease who underwent 99mTechnetium-pyrophosphate (99mTcPYP) scintigraphy. Although relatively small and "negative," the study is relevant since it broadens our knowledge on the uptake of "bone tracers" in ATTR and contributes to understand the limitations of the clinical use of scintigraphy in this disease. The paper raises, directly or indirectly, at least three questions: To what extent are the different bone tracers interchangeable for the diagnosis of ATTR cardiac amyloidosis? Are bone tracers able to image non-cardiac ATTR amyloidosis? What is the explanation for the variable performance of the different bone tracers in the diagnosis of cardiac and extracardiac ATTR amyloidosis?...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Zhonghui Gao, Huabin Sun, Lin Fu, Fangliang Ye, Yi Zhang, Wei Luo, Yunhui Huang
All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) have the potential to revolutionize battery systems for electric vehicles due to their benefits in safety, energy density, packaging, and operable temperature range. As the key component in ASSLBs, inorganic lithium-ion-based solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) have attracted great interest, and advances in SSEs are vital to deliver the promise of ASSLBs. Herein, a survey of emerging SSEs is presented, and ion-transport mechanisms are briefly discussed. Techniques for increasing the ionic conductivity of SSEs, including substitution and mechanical strain treatment, are highlighted...
February 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Amin Karbasi, Amir Hesam Salavati, Martin Vetterli
The connectivity of a neuronal network has a major effect on its functionality and role. It is generally believed that the complex network structure of the brain provides a physiological basis for information processing. Therefore, identifying the network's topology has received a lot of attentions in neuroscience and has been the center of many research initiatives such as Human Connectome Project. Nevertheless, direct and invasive approaches that slice and observe the neural tissue have proven to be time consuming, complex and costly...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
S Ulmer, A Mooser, H Nagahama, S Sellner, C Smorra
The BASE collaboration investigates the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons, such as charge-to-mass ratios and magnetic moments, using advanced cryogenic Penning trap systems. In recent years, we performed the most precise measurement of the magnetic moments of both the proton and the antiproton, and conducted the most precise comparison of the proton-to-antiproton charge-to-mass ratio. In addition, we have set the most stringent constraint on directly measured antiproton lifetime, based on a unique reservoir trap technique...
March 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Audrey Monneur, Anthony Gonçalves, François Bertucci
The development of immune checkpoints inhibitors represents one of the major recent advances in oncology. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) provides durable disease control, particularly in melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder and head and neck cancers. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current data on the expression of PD-L1 in breast cancer and on the preliminary clinical results of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer patients. In breast cancer, PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the presence of poor-prognosis factors, such as young age, high grade, ER-negativity, PR-negativity, and HER-2 overexpression, high proliferative index, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple negative, basal-like, HER-2-overexpressing)...
February 15, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
P Tenaerts, L Madre, M Landray
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative reflects on 10 years of working to improve the quality and efficiency of clinical trials. This article highlights many of the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative's accomplishments and offers examples of the impact that the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative has had on the clinical trials enterprise. After conducting more than 25 projects and issuing recommendations for specific strategies to improve the design and execution of clinical trials, some common themes and lessons learned have emerged...
February 2018: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
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