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Velvet antler

Xueming Liao, Zhinong Gao, Yan Xia, Fei Niu, Wenzhong Zhai
A series of carboxylate gemini surfactants (CGS, Cn-Φ-Cn, n = 12, 14, 16, 18) with diphenyl ketone as a spacer group were prepared using a simple and feasible synthetic method. These CGS exhibited an excellent surface activity with extremely low critical micelle concentration (CMC) value (approximately 10(-5) mol/L), good performance in reducing surface tension (nearly 30 mN/m), and the ability of molecular self-assembly into different aggregate morphologies via adjusting the concentrations, which is attributed to the introduction of diphenyl ketone and carboxylic acid ammonium salt in the molecular structure...
March 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wenhe Zhu, Huiyan Wang, Wei Zhang, Na Xu, Junjie Xu, Yan Li, Wensen Liu, Shijie Lv
Antler velvet polypeptide (VAP) is a prominent bioactive component of antler velvet. Whereas uncharacterized crude extracts have typically been used in pharmacological studies, in this study, the velvet polypeptide was isolated and purified by acid water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ammonium sulfate fractionation and precipitation, and chromatography, progressively. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were induced with H2O2 followed purified polypeptide treatment. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay...
January 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Chao Jiang, Yan Jin, Xinlei Zhao, Yuan Yuan, Yuyang Zhao, Luqi Huang
Deer antler velvet is widely used as a vitalizing, tonifying, haemopoietic and strengthening agent for debilitated persons in East Asia. To develop a rapid and sensitive method for the identification of the biological source or origin in antler velvet products, a molecular approach was applied using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The cytochrome b gene sequences of nine cervidae species were analyzed, and a Dde I restriction endonuclease recognition site was found only in sika deer and red deer, the official origin of deer velvet in Chinese pharmacopoeia...
January 10, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Wolfgang Pita-Thomas, Gemma Barroso-García, Veronica Moral, Amber R Hackett, Valeria Cavalli, Manuel Nieto-Diaz
Every spring, deer cast their old antlers and initiate a regeneration process, which yields a new set of antlers of up to 1m in length. Over the course of three months, branches of the trigeminal nerve, originating from the frontal skull, innervate velvet, a modified skin that covers the regenerating antler. The rate of growth of these axons reaches up to 2cm per day making them the fastest regenerating axons in adult mammals. Here, we aim to identify the factors secreted by velvet that promote such high speed axon growth...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience
Alejandro Bielli, Aline Freitas-de-Melo, Patricia Genovese, Matías Villagrán, Rodolfo Ungerfeld
Antlers are lined by soft velvet tissue during antler growth. Later, the velvet is shed before rut onset. There are no detailed histological descriptions of the growing velvet, nor whether the velvet changes according to stag age. Our aims were to: 1) describe the basic histology of pampas deer antler velvet from adult and yearling males; and 2) determine the influence of age and time of antler growth on velvet's tissues morphometry. Samples were collected from 10 stags allocated in 2 groups, either adult (3-5 years old, n=5) or yearling males (2 years old, n=5)...
November 4, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Zhigang Sui, Yejing Weng, Qun Zhao, Nan Deng, Fei Fang, Xudong Zhu, Yichu Shan, Lihua Zhang, Yukui Zhang
The cartilage zone of the velvet antler is richly vascularized, this being a major difference to the classical cartilage, in which there are no blood vessels. Angiogenesis and rapid growth of vasculature in velvet antler cartilage (VAC) make it an ideal model for discovering the novel angiogenic regulatory factors. However, the proteomic analysis of VAC is challenging due to the serious interference of proteoglycans (PGs) and collagens. To achieve a comprehensive proteome characterization of VAC, herein, we developed an ionic liquid-based method using 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12-mim]Cl) for selective extraction of cellular proteins from VAC...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Enhui Zha, Li Dandan, Xue Bai, Tiezhong Zhou, Yongong Li, Gao Shenyang, Xiqing Yue
CONTEXT: Velvet antler (VA) is recognized as one of the most important Chinese traditional medical herbs. To date, the immunoactivity of the single component of VA is rarely studied though its compound extracts have been well analyzed. OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant polypeptide (rVAP32) based on the VA of the sika deer by comparison with its natural counterpart (nVAP32). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Splenocytes proliferation and NK-cell cytotoxicity assay was evaluated by the WST-8 colorimetric method...
September 7, 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Hye Kyung Kim, Myung-Gyou Kim, Kang-Hyun Leem
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of velvet antler (VA) from different sections for promoting longitudinal bone growth in growing rats. VA was divided into upper (VAU), middle (VAM), and basal sections (VAB). An in vivo study was performed to examine the effect on longitudinal bone growth in adolescent rats. In addition, in vitro osteogenic activities were examined using osteoblastic MG-63 cells. VA promoted longitudinal bone growth and height of the growth plate in adolescent rats. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in growth plate of VA group was highly expressed compared with control...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Seung-Hong Lee, Hye-Won Yang, Yuling Ding, Yanmei Wang, You-Jin Jeon, Sang-Ho Moon, Byong-Tae Jeon, Si-Heung Sung
Enzymatic hydrolysis has been successfully used for the extraction of numerous biologically active components from a wide variety of natural sources. In the present study, velvet antler was subjected to the extraction process using Alcalase protease. We analyzed bioactive components, such as uronic acid, sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (sulfated-GAGs), and sialic acid, present in the velvet antler Alcalase hydrolysate (VAAH) and assessed their anti-inflammatory effects in zebrafish as well as in vitro using cell lines...
2015: EXCLI journal
Lihong Zhao, Yang Mi, Hongya Guan, Yan Xu, Yingwu Mei
Velvet antlers (VAs) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and invigorant and contain many functional components for health promotion. The velvet antler peptide sVAP32 is one of active components in VAs; based on structural study, the sVAP32 interacts with TGF-β1 receptors and disrupts the TGF-β1 pathway. We hypothesized that sVAP32 prevents cardiac fibrosis from pressure overload by blocking TGF-β1 signaling. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation...
July 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
YuJiao Tang, Byong-Tae Jeon, Yanmei Wang, Eun-Ju Choi, Yon-Suk Kim, Jin-Woo Hwang, Pyo-Jam Park, Sang Ho Moon, Eun-Kyung Kim
Deer velvet antler (DVA) is one of the most popular medicines in China. Numerous studies have demonstrated that velvet antler possess biological effects. However, data regarding its anti-migration activity on prostate cancer is scarce. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of top DVA (T-DVA) on the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and migration-related genes in the human prostate cancer cell, LNCaP. The T-DVA down-regulated the expression of PSA. In addition, the Radius(TM) assay revealed that T-DVA inhibited the migration behavior of prostate cancer cells...
2015: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Zhi-Jun Zang, Hong-Feng Tang, Ying Tuo, Wei-Jie Xing, Su-Yun Ji, Yong Gao, Chun-Hua Deng
Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
Sung-Hui Tseng, Lih-Geeng Chen, Ying-Jang Lai, Kun-Teng Wang, Ching-Chiung Wang
For this study, we aimed to assess the dose-response antiosteoporotic effects of the middle section of velvet antlers (VAs) from sika deers (Cervus nippon) fed with different types of fodders. VAs prepared from farmed sika deers fed with feed mixtures containing sorghum distillery residue (VA-SDR) or without SDR (SDR replaced with hay, VA-Hay) were divided into upper (VAU), middle (VAM) and basal (VAB) sections. The chemical constituents of the middle sections obtained from each VA type were compared, and their antiosteoporotic activities were evaluated using rats with ovaries removed surgically (ovariectomy, OVX)...
August 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Jiongran Chen, Yanfei Yang, Sepideh Abbasi, Daryoush Hajinezhad, Saija Kontulainen, Ali Honaramooz
Elk velvet antler (EVA) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine for centuries to promote general health; however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. We investigated the effects of lifelong exposure of Wistar rats to a diet containing 10% EVA on physical growth and bone development. Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age), and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Dayong Tao, Jinxiang Zhao, Ganzhen Deng, Jifeng Jiao
Ossification degree is one of the primary variables affecting the medicinal value of velvet antler. Multiple factors regulate the calcification of velvet antler. We studied the relationship between the ossification of velvet antlers and the serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and androgen (ADG) in Tarim red deer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and atomic absorption spectrometry demonstrated that the changes in serum PTH and ADG levels nearly paralleled antler ossification during Tarim red deer antler mineralization...
September 9, 2015: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Jaehyun Park, Byongtae Jeon, Sungki Kang, Mirae Oh, Myonghwa Kim, Seyoung Jang, Pyojam Park, Sangwoo Kim, Sangho Moon
This study was conducted to investigate changes in blood enzyme parameters and to evaluate the relationship between insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), antler growth and body weight during the antler growth of sika deer (Cervus nippon). Serum enzyme activity and IGF-1 concentrations were measured in blood samples collected from the jugular and femoral veins at regular intervals during the antler growth period. Blood samples were taken in the morning from fasted stags (n = 12) which were healthy and showed no clinical signs of disease...
September 2015: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Jeong Jin Ahn, Youngjoo Kim, Ji Young Hong, Gi Won Kim, Seung Yong Hwang
Velvet antlers are used medicinally in Asia and possess various therapeutic effects. Prices are set according to the country of origin, which is unidentifiable to the naked eye, and therefore counterfeiting is prevalent. Additionally, antlers of the Canadian elk, which can generate chronic wasting disease, are prevalently smuggled and distributed in the market. Thus, a method for identifying the country of origin of velvet antlers was developed, using polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA, fluorescence melting curve analysis and analysis of locked nucleic acids (LNA)...
July 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Amy P Myers, Troy A Watson, Steven B Strock
The likelihood of a drug reaction with lamotrigine is increased by dose escalation that is too rapid or drug interactions that increase the concentration of lamotrigine. There is a well-documented interaction between valproic acid and lamotrigine in which lamotrigine levels are increased, subsequently increasing the risk of a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, diffuse maculopapular rash, multivisceral involvement, eosinophilia, and atypical lymphocytes and has a mortality rate of 10-40%...
March 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Karen A Fox, Brandon Diamond, Feng Sun, Alfonso Clavijo, Loyd Sneed, Donald N Kitchen, Lisa L Wolfe
Antler abnormalities of deer and other cervids often result from testicular lesions and decreased levels of testosterone, inhibiting normal cycles of antler growth. Affected males have antlers with retained velvet, numerous short, misshapen points ("cactus bucks"), and failure to shed these abnormal antlers annually. In Colorado, US, we observed a high occurrence of "cactus bucks" in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations after management efforts to increase the number of mature male deer in the state...
January 2015: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Yu-Shu Huo, Hong Huo, Jie Zhang
Deer velvet antler is the only mammal organ which can continuous regenerate. Currently, international scholars are interested in antler that is defined as a perfect regeneration model of neuro, blood vessel, connective tissue, cartilage, and bones. In 1986, we started to study the separation of active protein and peptide of fresh velvet antler using classic biochemical methods. After entering the 21st century, we further investigated the differentiation of antler proteome from different growth periods using advance differential proteomics approach, and unveiled the correlation between the proteome difference and life cycle...
October 2014: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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