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Clostridium tetani

Marta Kierzkowska, Piotr Pędzisz, Ireneusz Babiak, Jakub Janowicz, Mateusz Kulig, Anna Majewska, Anna Sawicka-Grzelak, Grażyna Młynarczyk
Most Clostridium species are part of saprophytic microflora in humans and animals; however, some are well-known human pathogens. We presented the challenges in identifying the Clostridium species isolated from a patient with an infected open dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fourth digit of the right hand. The clinical materials were intraoperative samples collected from a patient diagnosed with an injury-related infection, with soft tissue loss and tendon sheath involvement. The available biochemical, molecular, and genetic techniques were used in identifying the isolated bacteria...
March 9, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Henok Tadele
Background: Tetanus is an acute vaccine preventable illness manifested by neuromuscular dysfunction due to a potent exotoxin, tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is a common health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess clinical profile and outcome of Pediatrics tetanus in a referral hospital, South Ethiopia. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of medical records of 24 Pediatric tetanus patients who were admitted from July 2014 to June 2016 to the Pediatrics Department of Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa-Ethiopia...
September 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Romain Paillot, Christel Marcillaud Pitel, Xavier D'Ablon, Stéphane Pronost
To date, vaccination is one of the most efficient methods of prevention against equine infectious diseases. The vaccinology session, which was organised during the annual meeting of the French Equine Veterinarians Association (AVEF) at Reims (France) in 2016, aimed to approach three subjects of importance for the equine industry. Vaccination against three major equine diseases were used as examples: equine influenza (equine influenza virus), rhinopneumonitis (equine herpes virus 1/4), and tetanus ( Clostridium tetani neuro-toxin)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccines
James E Hennessy, Melissa J Latter, Somayeh Fazelinejad, Amy Philbrook, Daniel M Bartkus, Hye-Kyung Kim, Hideki Onagi, John G Oakeshott, Colin Scott, Apostolos Alissandratos, Christopher J Easton
Carbamate kinases catalyze the conversion of carbamate to carbamoyl phosphate, which is readily transformed into other compounds. Carbamate forms spontaneously from ammonia and carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions, so the kinases have potential for sequestrative utilization of the latter compounds. Here, we compare seven carbamate kinases from mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sources. In addition to the known enzymes from Enterococcus faecalis and Pyrococcus furiosus, the previously unreported enzymes from the hyperthermophiles Thermococcus sibiricus and Thermococcus barophilus, the thermophiles Fervidobacterium nodosum and Thermosipho melanesiensis, and the mesophile Clostridium tetani, were all expressed recombinantly, each in high yield...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Landry W Tchuenkam, Emmanuel K Ndame, Marc L Guifo, Celestin Danwang, Ginette C Kalla, Arthur Essomba
BACKGROUND: Tetanus is a severe infectious disease that can lead to death. The clinical manifestations are due to an exotoxin secreted by Clostridium tetani, a spore-producing Gram-positive bacillus. The penetration of the germ is made through a skin opening, independently of the size of the wound. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old black African boy of the Bantu ethnic group with unknown tetanus vaccination status presented to our pediatric emergency room for the management of chest and vertebral pains which started a few days after traditional treatment by scarification and herbal and leaf ointment...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Raymond Kiu, Shabhonam Caim, Cristina Alcon-Giner, Gusztav Belteki, Paul Clarke, Derek Pickard, Gordon Dougan, Lindsay J Hall
Clostridium species (particularly Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens) are associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Several other species including Clostridium tertium, Clostridium cadaveris, and Clostridium paraputrificum have also been linked with sporadic human infections, however there is very limited, or in some cases, no genomic information publicly available. Thus, we isolated one C. tertium strain, one C. cadaveris strain and three C...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Masoud Ghader, Nader Shokoufi, Ali Es-Haghi, Kazem Kargosha
A novel and efficient headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method, followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was developed to study volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emerging from microorganisms. Two homemade SPME fibers, a semi-polar poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) fiber, and a polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) fiber, along with two commercial fibers (PDMS and PDMS/DVB) were used to collect VOCs emerging from Clostridium tetani which was cultured in different media. The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed and identified, in vitro, using GC-MS...
October 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ibrahim Toker, Turgay Yılmaz Kılıc, Sukran Kose, Murat Yesilaras, Feriyde Calıskan, Ozge Duman Atilla, Orkun Unek, Serkan Hacar, Aysin Kılınc Toker
OBJECTIVES: Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable infectious disease. It is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The aim of this study was to investigate tetanus immunity among adult trauma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was performed with 267 trauma patients who were admitted to the emergency department of Tepecik Training and Research Hospital in Izmir City, Turkey over a six month period. After obtaining a written informed consent from each patient, a questionnaire concerning demographic information and tetanus vaccination history was filled in by the physician...
September 2017: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
Esther Schönauer, Andreas M Kany, Jörg Haupenthal, Kristina Hüsecken, Isabel J Hoppe, Katrin Voos, Samir Yahiaoui, Brigitta Elsässer, Christian Ducho, Hans Brandstetter, Rolf W Hartmann
Secreted virulence factors like bacterial collagenases are conceptually attractive targets for fighting microbial infections. However, previous attempts to develop potent compounds against these metalloproteases failed to achieve selectivity against human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Using a surface plasmon resonance-based screening complemented with enzyme inhibition assays, we discovered an N-aryl mercaptoacetamide-based inhibitor scaffold that showed sub-micromolar affinities toward collagenase H (ColH) from the human pathogen Clostridium histolyticum...
September 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jonathan E Cohen, Rong Wang, Rong-Fong Shen, Wells W Wu, James E Keller
Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum produce two of the most potent neurotoxins known, tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxin, respectively. Extensive biochemical and genetic investigation has been devoted to identifying and characterizing various C. botulinum strains. Less effort has been focused on studying C. tetani likely because recently sequenced strains of C. tetani show much less genetic diversity than C. botulinum strains and because widespread vaccination efforts have reduced the public health threat from tetanus...
2017: PloS One
Aneela Taj, Nusrat Jamil
Neuroinvasive microbes are capable of applying their influences on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) of the host followed by the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) by releasing extracellular metabolites that may cause alterations in the biochemical and neurophysiological environment. Consequently synaptic, neuroendocrine, peripheral immune, neuro-immune, and behavioural responses of the host facilitate the progression of infection. The present study was designed to extrapolate the effects of crude and purified extracellular peptides of neuropathogenic bacteria on behavioural responses and neurotransmission of Sprague Dawley (SD) models...
July 2, 2017: Pathogens
Geoffrey Masuyer, Julian Conrad, Pål Stenmark
The tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is a highly potent toxin produced by Clostridium tetani that inhibits neurotransmission of inhibitory interneurons, causing spastic paralysis in the tetanus disease. TeNT differs from the other clostridial neurotoxins by its unique ability to target the central nervous system by retrograde axonal transport. The crystal structure of the tetanus toxin reveals a "closed" domain arrangement stabilised by two disulphide bridges, and the molecular details of the toxin's interaction with its polysaccharide receptor...
August 2017: EMBO Reports
David L Cech, Katherine Markin, Ronald W Woodard
d-Arabinose-5-phosphate (A5P) isomerases (APIs) catalyze the interconversion of d-ribulose-5-phosphate and d-arabinose-5-phosphate. Various Gram-negative bacteria, such as the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073, contain multiple API paralogs (KdsD, GutQ, KpsF, and c3406) that have been assigned various cellular functions. The d-arabinose-5-phosphate formed by these enzymes seems to play important roles in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and group 2 K-antigen capsules, as well as in the regulation of the cellular d-glucitol uptake and uropathogenic infectivity/virulence...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
Gayatri Ashwinkumar Dave
Clostridium perfringens (MTCC 1349) is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, endospore forming, and rod-shaped bacterium. This bacterium produces a variety of toxins under strict anaerobic environment. C. perfringens can grow at temperatures ranging between 20°C and 50°C. It is the major causetive agent for gas gangrene, cellulitis, septicemia, necrotic enteritis and food poisoning, which are common toxin induced conditions noted in human and animals. C. perfringens can produce produce four major types of toxins that are used for the classification of strains, classified under type A-E...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Yvette M Piceno, Gabrielle Pecora-Black, Sasha Kramer, Monika Roy, Francine C Reid, Eric A Dubinsky, Gary L Andersen
Recycling human waste for beneficial use has been practiced for millennia. Aerobic (thermophilic) composting of sewage sludge has been shown to reduce populations of opportunistically pathogenic bacteria and to inactivate both Ascaris eggs and culturable Escherichia coli in raw waste, but there is still a question about the fate of most fecal bacteria when raw material is composted directly. This study undertook a comprehensive microbial community analysis of composting material at various stages collected over 6 months at two composting facilities in Haiti...
2017: PloS One
Başak Altıparmak, Ali İhsan Uysal, Eylem Yaşar, Semra Demirbilek
Tetanus is an acute and deadly disease caused by Clostridium tetani. A 60-year-old male came to hospital after he injured his thumb with a knife. Ten days later, he returned to hospital with abdominal spasms. He was vaccinated against tetanus and referred to intensive care unit. As he had sudden difficulty in respiration, he was entubated. Midazolam, magnesium and esmolol infusion were started. Next day, muscle spasms progressed all over his body. Midazolam infusion was replaced with propofol and vecuronium...
May 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Bernhard Hozgraefe, Akad Koria, Victoria Sem, Joak Johansson
Tetanus, an almost forgotten but serious disease Tetanus is the systemic consequence of a local infection with Clostridium tetani, that produces toxin which spreads in the systemic circulation. In developed countries, it is extremely rare. Women born before 1950 are a group at risk due to lower prevalence of immunisation. This report describes a case of tetanus. The patient is a previously healthy 82-year-old woman. She presented to primary care with a complaint of stiffness in the neck and jaw. A physical exam and basic laboratory tests were normal apart from a slightly increased blood pressure...
May 22, 2017: Läkartidningen
Yilong Yang, Rui Yu, Xiuxu Yang, Shuling Liu, Ting Fang, Xiaohong Song, Lihua Hou, Changming Yu, Junjie Xu, Ling Fu, Shaoqiong Yi, Wei Chen
In developing countries, trauma patients and neonates are vulnerable to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Clostridium tetani infections. It has been suggested that a combined vaccine against the two infections may be a reliable and cost‑effective strategy. Previous studies have indicated that the S. aureus surface protein A (SasA) and the C fragment of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT‑Hc) may be suitable candidates for a vaccine against S. aureus and tetanus infections, respectively. In the present study, mice were immunized with a combined vaccine containing SasA and TeNT‑Hc, which induced a robust immune response to both antigens, and mutual interference between SasA and TeNT‑Hc was not observed...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Thomas Riedel, Johannes Wittmann, Boyke Bunk, Isabel Schober, Cathrin Spröer, Sabine Gronow, Jörg Overmann
Pathogenic clostridia typically produce toxins as virulence factors which cause severe diseases in both humans and animals. Whereas many clostridia like e.g., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium tetani were shown to contain toxin-encoding plasmids, only toxin genes located on the chromosome were detected in Clostridioides difficile so far. In this study, we determined, annotated, and analyzed the complete genome of the bacteriophage phiSemix9P1 using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
E A Morozova, N V Anufrieva, D Zh Davydov, M V Komarova, I N Dyakov, A N Rodionov, T V Demidkina, V S Pokrovsky
PK studies were carried out after a single i.v. administration of 500 and 1000 U/kg by measuring of MGL activity in plasma samples. L-methionine concentration was measured by mass spectrometry. After single i.v. injection of 500U/kg the circulating T1/2 of enzymes in mice varies from 73 to 123min. The AUC0-tinf values determined for MGL 500U/kg from C. freundii, C. tetani and C. sporogenes are 8.21±0.28, 9.04±0.33 and 13.88±0.39U/(ml×h), respectively. Comparison of PK parameters of three MGL sources in the dose of 500U/kg indicated the MGL C...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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