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Clostridium tetani

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902906/generalized-tetanus-in-a-gyrfalcon-falco-rusticolus-with-pododermatitis
#1
Hugues Beaufrère, Delphine Laniesse, Paul Stickings, Robert Tierney, Thea Sesardic, Durda Slavic, Nicole Compo, Dale A Smith
A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858706/adjuvants-for-clostridium-tetani-and-clostridium-diphtheriae-vaccines-updating
#2
Fatimah M Alshanqiti, Saad B Al-Masaudi, Ahmed M Al-Hejin, Elrashdy M Redwan
It's known that diphtheria and tetanus are a contagious lethal disease over the years, they caused by pathogenic microbes corynebacterium diphtheria and Clostridium tetani, respectively. The diseases result from the production of bacterial toxin. Vaccination with bacterial toxoid vaccines adsorbed on particulates adjuvants still are the best way to prevent this epidemic diseases from spread. The particulate vaccines have been shown to be more efficient than soluble one for the induction of the immune responses...
November 4, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626445/tetanus-neurotoxin-neutralizing-antibodies-screened-from-a-human-immune-scfv-antibody-phage-display-library
#3
Han Wang, Rui Yu, Ting Fang, Ting Yu, Xiangyang Chi, Xiaopeng Zhang, Shuling Liu, Ling Fu, Changming Yu, Wei Chen
Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc) as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H) can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492724/tetanus-toxin-production-is-triggered-by-the-transition-from-amino-acid-consumption-to-peptides
#4
Cuauhtemoc Licona-Cassani, Jennifer A Steen, Nicolas E Zaragoza, Glenn Moonen, George Moutafis, Mark P Hodson, John Power, Lars K Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
Bacteria produce some of the most potent biomolecules known, of which many cause serious diseases such as tetanus. For prevention, billions of people and countless animals are immunised with the highly effective vaccine, industrially produced by large-scale fermentation. However, toxin production is often hampered by low yields and batch-to-batch variability. Improved productivity has been constrained by a lack of understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling toxin production. Here we have developed a reproducible experimental framework for screening phenotypic determinants in Clostridium tetani under a process that mimics an industrial setting...
October 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472865/design-and-construction-of-immune-phage-antibody-library-against-tetanus-neurotoxin-production-of-single-chain-antibody-fragments
#5
Sanam Sadreddini, Mehrnosh Seifi-Najmi, Babollah Ghasemi, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Vahideh Alinejad, Sevil Sadreddini, Vahid Younesi, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Mehdi Yousefi
BACKGROUND: Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is composed of a light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) polypeptides, released by anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani and can cause fatal life-threatening infectious disease. Toxin HC and LC modules represents receptor binding and zinc metalloprotease activity, respectively. The passive administration of animal-derived antibodies against tetanus toxin has been considered as the mainstay therapy for years. However, this treatment is associated with several adverse effects due to the presence of anti-isotype antibodies...
December 23, 2015: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433422/generalized-tetanus-initially-presenting-with-dysmasesis
#6
Omar Farooq, Ishrat H Dar, Mohd Iqbal Dar, Samia Rashid, Parvaiz M Zunga, Shah Faisal Ahmad Tarfarosh
A 58-year-old male farmer, with no significant history of any chronic morbidity, was admitted via the Emergency Department of SMHS Hospital, Srinagar, with a history of an injury to the hand 20 days earlier followed by a three-day history of dysmasesis (difficulty chewing), progressing to trismus and generalized stiffness interfering with his daily activities. The patient was clinically managed as tetanus on grounds of high clinical suspicion. The patient was treated for a week and discharged without any sequelae to follow-up in the Neurology Outpatient Department of the SMHS Hospital and is currently doing well...
June 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386340/clinical-profile-of-tetanus-patients-attended-at-felege-hiwot-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#7
Awoke Derbie, Anteneh Amdu, Amanuel Alamneh, Amare Tadege, Amelwork Solomon, Bihanu Elfu, Daniel Mekonnen, Yinebeb Mezgebu, Seble Worku, Fantahun Biadglegne
BACKGROUND: Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles. Tetanus remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia like other developed nations. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical profile and outcome of tetanus patients in a referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross sectional study in which we collected, compiled and analyzed medical records of patients aged greater than 15 years who were admitted at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital from Sep 2012 to Sep 2015...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27301930/an-unexpected-tetanus-case
#8
REVIEW
Onder Ergonul, Demet Egeli, Bulent Kahyaoglu, Mois Bahar, Mill Etienne, Thomas Bleck
1 million cases of tetanus are estimated to occur worldwide each year, with more than 200 000 deaths. Tetanus is a life-threatening but preventable disease caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium tetani-a Gram-positive bacillus found in high concentrations in soil and animal excrement. Tetanus is almost completely preventable by active immunisation, but very rarely unexpected cases can occur in individuals who have been previously vaccinated. We report a case of generalised tetanus in a 22-year-old woman that arose despite the protective antitoxin antibody in her serum...
June 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043044/evaluation-of-ebv-transformation-of-human-memory-b-cells-isolated-by-facs-and-macs-techniques
#9
Sanam Sadreddini, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Vahid Younesi, Tala Pourlak, Amir Afkham, Fazel Shokri, Mehdi Yousefi
Several studies have been performed to develop effective neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can efficiently immortalize B-cells to establish lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and so it has been used extensively for transformation of B-cells to produce and secrete immunoglobulin. The present study addressed the effect of TLR7/8 agonist (R848), feeder cells layer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) cell separation methods on the transformation efficiency of antibody-producing memory B-cells...
July 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26867313/-bactericidal-activity-of-constructed-recombinant-fusion-protein-pheromonicin-ct
#10
Huan Yu, Yue-wen Zuo, Xiao-qing Qiu
OBJECTIVE: To construct engineering peptide pheromonicin-Clostrzaum tretant krn-ui), and to test its bactericidal activity. METHODS: We amplified the gene of variable regions from hybridoma cells which secreted monoclonal antibody (mAb) against antigen in the membrane of Clostridium tetani and linked the small antibody mimetic to the channel-forming domain of colicin Ia to create Ph-CT. The Ph-CT was purified by CM sepharose ion-exchange column. Its in vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated by colony culture with different doses of Ph-CT (final concentration 2, 4, 8, and 16 microg/mL,respectively)...
November 2015: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26865948/isph-rps1-and-isph-ubia-rosetta-stone-proteins
#11
Guodong Rao, Bing O'Dowd, Jikun Li, Ke Wang, Eric Oldfield
The protein IspH, (E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl 4-diphosphate (HMPPP) reductase, is an essential 4Fe-4S cluster-containing protein in the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. Using a sequence similarity network we found that there are >400 IspH proteins that are about twice as large as most of the IspHs studied to date since their IspH domains are fused to either the ribosomal protein S1 (RPS1), or to a UbiA (4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase)-like protein. Many of the IspH-RPS1 proteins are present in anaerobes found in the human gut and some, such as Clostridium botulinum, C...
December 1, 2015: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779817/isolation-of-acetic-propionic-and-butyric-acid-forming-bacteria-from-biogas-plants
#12
Katharina Gabriela Cibis, Armin Gneipel, Helmut König
In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids...
February 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26760928/optimization-of-tetanus-toxoid-ammonium-sulfate-precipitation-process-using-response-surface-methodology
#13
Marija Brgles, Pero Prebeg, Tihana Kurtović, Jelena Ranić, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Günter Allmaier, Beata Halassy
Tetanus toxoid (TTd) is a highly immunogenic, detoxified form of tetanus toxin, a causative agent of tetanus disease, produced by Clostridium tetani. Since tetanus disease cannot be eradicated but is easily prevented by vaccination, the need for the tetanus vaccine is permanent. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of optimizing TTd purification, i.e., ammonium sulfate precipitation process. The influence of the percentage of ammonium sulfate, starting amount of TTd, buffer type, pH, temperature, and starting purity of TTd on the purification process were investigated using optimal design for response surface models...
October 2, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26598719/eradication-of-tetanus
#14
REVIEW
C L Thwaites, H T Loan
INTRODUCTION: The causative agent of tetanus, Clostridium tetani is widespread in the environment throughout the world and cannot be eradicated. To reduce the number of cases of tetanus efforts are focussed on prevention using vaccination and post-exposure wound care. SOURCES OF DATA: Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane databases; World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund publications. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: The maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination initiative has resulted in significant reductions in mortality from neonatal tetanus throughout the world...
2015: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26591383/-evaluation-of-an-immunochromatographic-dipstick-test-for-the-assessment-of-tetanus-immunity-in-horses
#15
Stephan Recknagel, Alice Snyder, Annemarie Blanke, Albrecht Uhlig, Benjamin Brüser, Gerald Fritz Schusser
Knowledge of tetanus immunity in equine patients is crucial in cases of injuries, elective surgeries, or when effective vaccination protocols are to be designed. The Fassisi® TetaCheck is a stall-side rapid test which was developed to address these issues. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate its performance parameters. To this end, the qualitative test results obtained by two blinded observers were compared to tetanus toxoid antibody levels from 99 serum samples, measured with a double antigen ELISA...
September 2015: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26454827/an-experimental-design-approach-to-optimize-an-amperometric-immunoassay-on-a-screen-printed-electrode-for-clostridium-tetani-antibody-determination
#16
Stéphanie Patris, Marie Vandeput, Gersonie Momo Kenfack, Dominique Mertens, Bieke Dejaegher, Jean-Michel Kauffmann
An immunoassay for the determination of anti-tetani antibodies has been developed using a screen printed electrode (SPE) as solid support for toxoid (antigen) immobilization. The assay was performed in guinea pig serum. The immunoreaction and the subsequent amperometric detection occurred directly onto the SPE surface. The assay consisted of spiking the anti-tetani sample directly onto the toxoid modified SPE, and then a second antibody, i.e. a HRP-labeled anti-immunoglobulin G, was deposited onto the biosensor...
March 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449578/-shiga-toxin-and-tetanus-toxin-as-a-potential-biologic-weapon
#17
REVIEW
Izabela Toczyska, Tadeusz Płusa
Toxins produced by the bacteria are of particular interest as potential cargo combat possible for use in a terrorist attack or war. Shiga toxin is usually produced by shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli (STEC - shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli). To infection occurs mostly after eating contaminated beef. Clinical syndromes associated with Shiga toxin diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS - hemolytic uremic syndrome) or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Treatment is symptomatic...
September 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26389711/an-update-on-the-hazards-and-risks-of-forensic-anthropology-part-ii-field-and-laboratory-considerations
#18
Lindsey G Roberts, Gretchen R Dabbs, Jessica R Spencer
This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures...
January 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376540/-tetanus-and-clostridium-tetani-a-brief-review
#19
REVIEW
Ingo Stock
Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin (tetanospasmin) produced by the anaerobic, gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is characterized by generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles. In most industrialized countries, tetanus is a rare disease. However, in many tropical and subtropical countries with low vaccination coverage and poor medical care, it is still widely distributed. This applies in particular for neonatal tetanus. About 50 000 newborns and infants die each year from consequences from this severe illness...
February 2015: Medizinische Monatsschrift Für Pharmazeuten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279626/dna-sequence-signatures-for-rapid-detection-of-six-target-bacterial-pathogens-using-pcr-assays
#20
Kenjiro Nagamine, Guo-Chiuan Hung, Bingjie Li, Shyh-Ching Lo
Using Streptococcus pyogenes as a model, we previously established a stepwise computational workflow to effectively identify species-specific DNA signatures that could be used as PCR primer sets to detect target bacteria with high specificity and sensitivity. In this study, we extended the workflow for the rapid development of PCR assays targeting Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium tetani, and Staphylococcus aureus, which are of safety concern for human tissue intended for transplantation...
2015: Microbiology Insights
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