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intestinal microflora

Ichiro Takada, Makoto Makishima
Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are associated with an increased risk of cancer, autoimmune disease, inflammation, infection, cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease, as well as bone and mineral disorders. The vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a receptor for the active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and mediates vitamin D regulation of specific target gene expression. The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid, which is produced by intestinal bacteria, is another natural VDR ligand...
December 2, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Eva Nývltová, Robert Šuťák, Vojtěch Žárský, Karel Harant, Ivan Hrdý, Jan Tachezy
p-Cresol and indole are volatile biologically active products of the bacterial degradation of tyrosine and tryptophan, respectively. They are typically produced by bacteria in animal intestines, soil and various sediments. Here, we demonstrate that the free-living eukaryote Mastigamoeba balamuthi and its pathogenic relative Entamoeba histolytica produce significant amounts of indole via tryptophanase activity. Unexpectedly, M. balamuthi also produces p-cresol in concentrations that are bacteriostatic to non-p-cresol-producing bacteria...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Albert J Czaja
The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
R X Lan, S I Lee, I H Kim
This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of multistrain probiotics in weaning pigs. A total of 125 28-day-old weaning pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc] with an initial average body weight (BW) of 7.26 ± 0.76 kg were randomly allotted into 5 treatments, 5 replicate pens/treatment with 5 pigs/pen for 42-day experiment. Dietary treatments were as follows: CON, basal diet; PC1, CON + 0.01% multistrain probiotics; PC2, CON + 0.03% multistrain probiotics; PC3, CON + 0.06% multistrain probiotics; PC4, CON + 0...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
H K Kang, S B Park, C H Kim
This study aimed to determine the effect of different dietary levels of a Chlorella by-product (CBP) on the growth performance, immune response, intestinal microflora and intestinal mucosal morphology of broilers. In total, 480 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with four replicated pens consisting of 30 chicks. The basal diet was formulated to be adequate in energy and nutrients. Three additional diets were prepared by supplementing 25, 50 or 75 g/kg of CBP to the basal diet...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ryan D Heath, Fazia Mir, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
Many disease processes lead to chronic liver disease, however, progress has been made regarding common findings amongst these disease processes that may suggest a path forward for treatment. In particular, common alterations in the intestinal microflora of patients with different etiologies of liver disease may provide a clue as to the pathogenesis of these disorders as well a potential therapy. Data is still scant at this point, however, what is available suggests a promising opportunity for future studies to expand upon what has been demonstrated...
November 2016: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Konstantinos Gardikis, Marco Signorelli, Chiara Ferrario, Alberto Schiraldi, Maria Grazia Fortina, Sophia Hatziantoniou, Costas Demetzos, Dimitrios Fessas
The release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) incorporated in a new drug carrier, namely a chimeric nanosystem formed by liposomes and dendrimers, was studied following the influence of the drug on the growth kinetics of the Lactobacillus helveticus bacterium, that would mimic the intestinal microflora. The bacterial growth was followed at 37°C by means of Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and the method was assessed to monitor the overall effect of the delivered drug obtaining simple objective parameters to define the encapsulation effectiveness of the system, discriminating dose effects even in cases of very low release...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Emília Hijová, Jozef Kuzma, Ladislav Strojný, Alojz Bomba, Izabela Bertková, Anna Chmelárová, Zdena Hertelyová, Veronika Benetinová, Jana Štofilová, Ľuboš Ambro
The ability of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 to modify the activity of intestinal bacterial enzymes - β-glucuronidase (β-GLUCUR), β-galactosidase (β-GAL), and β-glucosidase (β-GLU) in prevention of chronic diseases - cancer, atherosclerosis and dysbiosis was investigated. The male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 12 experimental groups: controls groups - C (control), AT (atherosclerotic), CC (carcinogenic), dysbiotic groups - each group in combination with antibiotics (ATB), probiotics groups - in combinatioan with probiotic (PRO) alone, and each group with combination of antibiotic and probiotic (ATB+PRO)...
November 7, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Bernard Perbal
The human gut microflora has drawn a lot of attention as a potent therapeutic tool for many decades. More recently, efforts have been developed to devise efficient ways of complementing or replacing deficient intestinal microflora associated with intestinal diseases that are resistant to conventional medical treatments. Aside from the medical and industrial applications that emerged from the use of gut microbiota, the complex constitution of this ecosystem raises fascinating questions regarding host-cell communication and host response mechanisms to the ever changing environment...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Yingfeng Wei, Benhua Zeng, Jianing Chen, Guangying Cui, Chong Lu, Wei Wu, Jiezuan Yang, Hong Wei, Rufeng Xue, Li Bai, Zhi Chen, Lanjuan Li, Kazuya Iwabuchi, Toshimitsu Uede, Luc Van Kaer, Hongyan Diao
Glycolipids are potent activator of natural killer T (NKT) cells. The relationship between NKT cells and intestinal bacterial glycolipids in liver disorders remained unclear. We found that, in sharp contrast to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury. ConA treatment failed to trigger the activation of hepatic NKT cells in GF mice. These defects correlated with the sharply reduced levels of CD1d-presented glycolipid antigens in ConA-treated GF mice compared with SPF counterparts...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bing Yang, Wuren Huang, Jie Zhang, Qiuyun Xu, Shoulin Zhu, Qiaoli Zhang, Brenda T Beerntsen, Hongsheng Song, Erjun Ling
BACKGROUND: Insects can be models for understanding human intestinal infection and pathology. Molting, a special period during which the old insect cuticle is shed and a new one is produced, is crucial for insect development. Holometabolous insects may experience several larva-to-larva moltings to become larger, a pupal molt and adult eclosion to become adults. During the larval molts, they stop feeding and become quiescent. Although the molting larvae become quiescent, it is not known if changes in microbiome, physiology, development and immunity of midguts occur...
November 3, 2016: BMC Genomics
Gaku Harata, Fang He, Kyoko Takahashi, Akira Hosono, Kenji Miyazawa, Kazutoyo Yoda, Masaru Hiramatsu, Shuichi Kaminogawa
Mast cells play a critical role in immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases, and the degranulation of mast cells is important in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A disturbance of the intestinal microflora, especially of endogenous lactic acid bacteria, might be a contributing factor for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Additional knowledge regarding the interaction of human intestinal Lactobacilli with mast cells is still necessary. Twenty-three strains of Lactobacilli, including commercial and reference strains and strains from the human intestine, were tested for their ability to regulate degranulation of cells from rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells (RBL-2H3) in vitro based on a β-hexosaminidase release assay...
October 27, 2016: Microorganisms
Weiqun Lin, Wenting Wang, Hai Yang, Dongliang Wang, Wenhua Ling
Although in vitro studies have shown that flavonoids are metabolized into phenolic acids by the gut microbiota, the biotransformation of flavonoids by intestinal microbiota is seldom studied in vivo. In this study, we investigated the impact of the gut microbiota on the biotransformation of 3 subclasses of flavonoids (flavonols, flavones, and flavanones). The ability of intestinal microbiota to convert flavonoids was confirmed with an in vitro fermentation model using mouse gut microflora. Simultaneously, purified flavonoids were administered to control and antibiotic-treated mice by gavage, and the metabolism of these flavonoids was evaluated...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Food Science
Xiu-Li Zheng, Yu Yang, Bao-Jia Wang, Ju Wang, Hong-Qu Tang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of the Chinese medicine theory that Fei (Lung) and Dachang (Large Intestine) are exteriorly and interiorly related via synchronous observation on the dynamic changes of the respiratory and intestinal microflora. METHODS: Forty specific pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into blank (10 rats) and chronic bronchitis model groups (30 rats). The blank group rats were put into the smoke-free environment and the model group rats were put into the smoke environment in order to establish pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis) model...
October 24, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Wen-Tao Fan, Yong-Mei Yan, Yu-Long Bie, Qian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in the population and distribution intestinal microflora and their relationship with depression in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Fecal specimens were obtained from 32 patients with post-stroke depression and 30 healthy adults for gene sequencing of 16S RNA V3 region of the intestinal microorganism using Roche/45 high-throughput sequencing platform. RESULTS: The genus and species of intestinal bacteria showed significant differences between the post-stroke patients and health adults...
October 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Jin-Yi Wan, Yu-Zhen Zhang, Jin-Bin Yuan, Feng-Qing Yang, Yan Chen, Lian-Di Zhou, Qi-Hui Zhang
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been commonly used in Asia, and Anemoside B4 conducted as its major saponin with diverse pharmaceutical effects. Previous studies showed that intestinal flora plays an important role in the metabolism of herbs administered orally. In this study, the metabolic profile of AB4 with microflora in rat small and large intestine in vitro was investigated. Gut microflora was collected from different intestinal segments and anaerobically incubated with AB4 at 37 °C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Guiping Guan, Hongbing Wang, Shuai Chen, Gang Liu, Xia Xiong, Bie Tan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jun Fang
C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Cigdem Yucel Falco, Javier Sotres, Ana Rascón, Jens Risbo, Marité Cárdenas
HYPOTHESIS: Chitosan and sulfated oat β-glucan are materials suitable to create a prebiotic coating for targeted delivery to gastrointestinal system, using the layer by layer technology. EXPERIMENT: Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to assess the multilayer formation capacity and characterize the resulting coatings in terms of morphology and material properties such as structure and rigidity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Yu Guan, Honghai Zhang, Xiaodong Gao, Shuai Shang, Xiaoyang Wu, Jun Chen, Wei Zhang, Weihua Zhang, Mingsheng Jiang, Baohong Zhang, Peng Chen
The composition of mammalian intestinal microflora is related to many environmental and geographical factors, and it plays an important role in many aspects such as growth and development. Sequencing data of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from sable (Martes zibellina) samples using next-generation sequencing technology are limited. In our research, 84,116 reads obtained by high-throughput sequencing were analyzed to characterize and compare the intestinal microflora of wild sables and housed sables. Firmicutes (31...
December 2016: AMB Express
Elisabeth Schrumpf, Martin Kummen, Laura Valestrand, Thomas U Greiner, Kristian Holm, Velmurugesan Arulampalam, Henrik M Reims, John Baines, Fredrik Bäckhed, Tom H Karlsen, Richard S Blumberg, Johannes R Hov, Espen Melum
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A strong association between human inflammatory biliary diseases and gut inflammation has led to the hypothesis that gut microbes and lymphocytes activated in the intestine play a role in biliary inflammation. The NOD.c3c4 mouse model develops spontaneous biliary inflammation in extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. We aimed to clarify the role of the gut microbiota in the biliary disease of NOD.c3c4 mice. METHODS: We sampled cecal content and mucosa from conventionally raised (CONV-R) NOD...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
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