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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206729/gut-microbiota-and-gastric-disease
#1
Dolores Sgambato, Agnese Miranda, Lorenzo Romano, Marco Romano
The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other...
15, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183153/effects-of-armillariella-tabescens-mycelia-on-the-growth-performance-and-intestinal-immune-response-and-microflora-of-early-weaned-pigs
#2
Wen-Bin Chen, Mao-Ji Cheng, Yun-Bo Tian, Qin-Hua Wang, Bing Wang, Mei-Jun Li, Re-Jun Fang
This study was performed to evaluate effects of Armillariella tabescens (A. tabescens) on the growth performance and intestinal immune response and microflora in early-weaned pigs when used as feed additive. A. tabescens mycelia were added to basal diets at concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.9% (w/w). A total of 144 commercial cross-bred piglets were randomly allocated to one of these four diets and fed for 30 days. The growth performance of early-weaned piglets displayed improvement with diets containing 0...
February 9, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164731/regulatory-modulatory-effect-of-prune-essence-concentrate-on-intestinal-function-and-blood-lipids
#3
Hui-Fang Chiu, Yun-Chien Huang, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Oksana Golovinskaia, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Chin-Kun Wang
CONTEXT: Prunus domestica Linn (Rosaceae) has been considered a functional food, owing to its various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer. OBJECTIVE: This placebo-controlled, randomized study was framed to check the beneficial activity of prune essence concentrates (PEC) in corroboration with intestinal function and lipid profile in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty healthy mild hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly chosen and segregated into three groups as placebo (consume 50 mL of simulated prune drink), PEC I (consume 50 mL of PEC/day) and PEC II (consume 100 mL of PEC/day) for 4 weeks with 2 weeks of follow-up without PEC consumption...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163993/herbicide-resistance-and-biodiversity-agronomic-and-environmental-aspects-of-genetically-modified-herbicide-resistant-plants
#4
REVIEW
Gesine Schütte, Michael Eckerstorfer, Valentina Rastelli, Wolfram Reichenbecher, Sara Restrepo-Vassalli, Marja Ruohonen-Lehto, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest Saucy, Martha Mertens
Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151917/chronic-diarrhea-associated-with-high-serum-level-of-immunoglobulin-a-and-diffuse-infiltration-of-plasma-cell-in-small-intestine-a-case-report
#5
Junwen Yang, Shuijiao Chen, Linlin Chen, Miao Ouyang, Fujun Li
RATIONALE: Chronic diarrhea in adult patients due to various causes is very common in clinic, but patient suffering with mal-absorption due to immunoproliferative small intestinal disease was rarely reported in China. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: A 35-year-old female presented with more than three years history of chronic diarrhea, rickets, high serum value of immunoglobulin A protein, and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration suggested that the patient was in a sideropenic and megalobastic anemia stage...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114473/historical-perspective-on-the-rise-and-fall-and-rise-of-antibiotics-and-human-weight-gain
#6
Scott H Podolsky
In recent medical and popular literature, audiences have been asked to consider whether antibiotics have contributed to the rising obesity epidemic. Prominent magazines have stated that weight may be adversely affected by antibiotics that destroy existing microbiomes and replace them with less helpful ones. However, there is a long history of efforts to investigate the relationship between antibiotics and human weight gain. In the early 1950s, amid initial findings that low doses of antibiotics served as growth promoters in animal livestock, investigators explored the role of antibiotics as magic bullets for human malnutrition...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089895/effects-of-fulvic-acid-on-growth-performance-and-intestinal-health-of-juvenile-loach-paramisgurnus-dabryanus-sauvage
#7
Yang Gao, Jie He, Zhuliu He, Zhiwei Li, Bo Zhao, Yi Mu, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Zhangjie Chu
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary fulvic acid supplements on intestinal digestive activity (enzymatic analysis), antioxidant activity, immune enzyme activity and microflora composition of juvenile loach (initial weight of 6.2 ± 0.1 g) reared in experimental aquaria. Five test diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2% fulvic acid were randomly assigned to three aquaria, respectively. Elevated growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in loaches that were fed fulvic acid...
January 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080916/aerobic-microflora-and-endoparasites-of-freshly-shot-wild-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-in-trinidad-west-indies
#8
Rod Suepaul, Roxanne Charles, Francis Dziva
The agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina ) is a New World wild rodent hunted for its meat in Trinidad and other Latin American countries. Studies on agouti under captive conditions have yielded some data on health-related aspects, but relatively very little is known about their wild counterparts. The environment of the agouti can influence the microflora and parasites harbored by the animals, which may contain zoonotic pathogens. Here, the microflora found on the nasal mucosa and sections of the intestinal tract and endoparasites of freshly shot agouti from various areas of Trinidad are described...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077947/asthma-and-the-microbiome-defining-the-critical-window-in-early-life
#9
REVIEW
Leah T Stiemsma, Stuart E Turvey
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory immune disorder of the airways affecting one in ten children in westernized countries. The geographical disparity combined with a generational rise in prevalence, emphasizes that changing environmental exposures play a significant role in the etiology of this disease. The microflora hypothesis suggests that early life exposures are disrupting the composition of the microbiota and consequently, promoting immune dysregulation in the form of hypersensitivity disorders. Animal model research supports a role of the microbiota in asthma and atopic disease development...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063239/effect-of-laboratory-isolated-lactobacillus-plantarum-lgfcp4-from-gastrointestinal-tract-of-guinea-fowl-on-growth-performance-carcass-traits-intestinal-histomorphometry-and-gastrointestinal-microflora-population-in-broiler-chicken
#10
P G Vineetha, S Tomar, V K Saxena, M Kapgate, A Suvarna, K Adil
The study aimed to investigate the effect of feed supplements, viz Lactobacillus plantarum LGFCP4 (laboratory isolate from GIT of Guinea fowl), Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCDC, Karnal) and in-feed antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) on growth performance, FCR, carcass traits and immune organs weight, intestinal histomorphometry and gastrointestinal microflora population in broiler chickens. In a completely randomized design, CARIBRO-Dhanraja broiler chicks (n = 160) were used with four treatment groups...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061434/systematic-evaluation-of-supervised-classifiers-for-fecal-microbiota-based-prediction-of-colorectal-cancer
#11
Luoyan Ai, Haiying Tian, Zhaofei Chen, Huimin Chen, Jie Xu, Jing-Yuan Fang
Predicting colorectal cancer (CRC) based on fecal microbiota presents a promising method for non-invasive screening of CRC, but the optimization of classification models remains an unaddressed question. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different supervised machine-learning models in predicting CRC in two independent eastern and western populations. The structures of intestinal microflora in feces in Chinese population (N = 141) were determined by 454 FLX pyrosequencing, and different supervised classifiers were employed to predict CRC based on fecal microbiota operational taxonomic unit (OTUs)...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059938/the-effects-of-probiotics-and-symbiotics-on-risk-factors-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#12
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Amanda Avery, Ruth Stow
Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053506/development-of-a-chitosan-based-double-layer-coated-tablet-as-a-platform-for-colon-specific-drug-delivery
#13
Min Soo Kim, Dong Woo Yeom, Sung Rae Kim, Ho Yub Yoon, Chang Hyun Kim, Ho Yong Son, Jin Han Kim, Sangkil Lee, Young Wook Choi
A double layer-coated colon-specific drug delivery system (DL-CDDS) was developed, which consisted of chitosan (CTN) based polymeric subcoating of the core tablet containing citric acid for microclimate acidification, followed by an enteric coating. The polymeric composition ratio of Eudragit E100 and ethyl cellulose and amount of subcoating were optimized using a two-level factorial design method. Drug-release characteristics in terms of dissolution efficiency and controlled-release duration were evaluated in various dissolution media, such as simulated colonic fluid in the presence or absence of CTNase...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034292/the-effect-of-pullulan-on-the-growth-and-acidifying-activity-of-selected-stool-microflora-of-human
#14
Anna Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Małgorzata Gniewosz, Marek Kieliszek, Anna Bzducha-Wróbel
BACKGROUND: Pullulan is a microbial polysaccharide of low energy value, which can component of low-calorie foods and in dietary snacks for diabetics. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of pullulan on the growth and fermentation activity of selected human intestinal bacteria. METHODS: Commercial pullulan purchased from Focubase (China) of a molecular weight of 100,000 Da constituted as experimental material. Food grade pullulan 99% purity. Two control media were prepared: the first standard RCM composed of (g/100 ml): 0...
December 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029082/probiotics-in-curing-allergic-and-inflammatory-conditions-research-progress-and-futuristic-vision
#15
Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K Latheef, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Hari Abdul Samad, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil K Joshi
BACKGROUND: Probiotics constitute the viable and beneficial microbes, which offer a dietary means to sustain the balance of gastro-intestinal (GI) microflora. Owing to their multiple health benefits, these have recently gained wide attention among researchers for exploring their potential in safeguarding the health of humans and animals. Probiotics could also modulate host-immune responses, thereby help in counteracting the immunological dysfunctions. Probiotics can inhibit the systemic invasion of pathogens entering through the GI mucosa/ oral cavity and have been found to possess effective prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various infectious pathogens as well as non-infectious diseases and disorders...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008837/-enteric-microflora-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#16
Oumaira Rahmouni, Laurent Dubuquoy, Pierre Desreumaux, Christel Neut
During the last years, the importance of a well equilibrated intestinal microbiota (eubiosis) has become more and more obvious in human health. Dysbiosis is now a well-recognized feature associated with IBD (inflammatory bowel disease). Rupture of the normal microbiota can occur through different mechanisms: (1) by a typical Western diet rich in fat and low in fiber, (2) by an acute disruption of the microbiota (by an acute gastroenteritis or by intake of antibiotics) or (3) by a combination of event in early childhood avoiding the establishment of eubiosis (the hygiene hypothesis)...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002487/long-term-transcriptomic-effects-of-prebiotics-and-synbiotics-delivered-in-ovo-in-broiler-chickens
#17
Anna Slawinska, Arkadiusz Plowiec, Maria Siwek, Marcin Jaroszewski, Marek Bednarczyk
In ovo delivery of prebiotics and synbiotics in chickens allows for the development of intestinal microflora prior to hatching, which boosts their robustness. The goal of this study was to determine the transcriptomic profile of the spleen (S), cecal tonsils (CT), and large intestine (LI) of adult chickens injected with prebiotics and synbiotics in ovo. On day 12 of embryo development, incubating eggs were injected with prebiotics: inulin alone (P1) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB2955 (S1), galactooligosaccharides (GOS) alone (P2) or in combination with Lactococcus lactis subsp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999620/effects-of-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-ciprofloxacin-on-small-intestinal-epithelial-cell-mrna-expression-in-the-neonatal-piglet-model-of-human-rotavirus-infection
#18
Francine C Paim, Stephanie N Langel, David D Fischer, Sukumar Kandasamy, Lulu Shao, Moyasar A Alhamo, Huang-Chi Huang, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif, Anastasia N Vlasova
We evaluated the effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) on mRNA expression of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets colonized with a defined commensal microflora (DMF) and inoculated with human rotavirus (HRV) that infects IECs. We analyzed mRNA levels of IEC genes for enteroendocrine cells [chromogranin A (CgA)], goblet cells [mucin 2 (MUC2)], transient amplifying progenitor cell [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)], intestinal epithelial stem cell (SOX9) and enterocytes (villin)...
2016: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995407/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-and-intestinal-barrier-protection-of-hu210-differentially-depend-on-tlr4-signaling-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-murine-colitis
#19
Sisi Lin, Yongyu Li, Li Shen, Ruiqin Zhang, Lizhi Yang, Min Li, Kun Li, Jakub Fichna
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is strongly associated with inflammation and intestinal barrier disorder. The nonselective cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 has been shown to ameliorate inflamed colon in colitis, but its effects on intestinal barrier function and extraintestinal inflammation are unclear. AIMS: To investigate the effects and the underlying mechanism of HU210 action on the UC in relation to a role of TLR4 and MAP kinase signaling. METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (Tlr4 (-/-)) mice were exposed to 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days...
December 19, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992455/rhamnogalacturonan-i-based-microcapsules-for-targeted-drug-release
#20
Anna J Svagan, Anja Kusic, Cristian De Gobba, Flemming H Larsen, Philip Sassene, Qi Zhou, Marco van de Weert, Anette Mullertz, Bodil Jørgensen, Peter Ulvskov
Drug targeting to the colon via the oral administration route for local treatment of e.g. inflammatory bowel disease and colonic cancer has several advantages such as needle-free administration and low infection risk. A new source for delivery is plant-polysaccharide based delivery platforms such as Rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I). In the gastro-intestinal tract the RG-I is only degraded by the action of the colonic microflora. For assessment of potential drug delivery properties, RG-I based microcapsules (~1 μm in diameter) were prepared by an interfacial poly-addition reaction...
2016: PloS One
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