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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021702/biotransformation-of-panax-ginseng-extract-by-rat-intestinal-microflora-identification-and-quantification-of-metabolites-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#1
Wei-Wei Dong, Jinhua Zhao, Fei-Liang Zhong, Wen-Jing Zhu, Jun Jiang, Songquan Wu, Deok-Chun Yang, Donghao Li, Lin-Hu Quan
BACKGROUND: In general, after Panax ginseng is administered orally, intestinal microbes play a crucial role in its degradation and metabolization process. Studies on the metabolism of P. ginseng by microflora are important for obtaining a better understanding of their biological effects. METHODS: In vitro biotransformation of P. ginseng extract by rat intestinal microflora was investigated at 37°C for 24 h, and the simultaneous determination of the metabolites and metabolic profile of P...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021509/nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-1-and-gastrointestinal-disorders
#2
Tomohiro Watanabe, Naoki Asano, Masatoshi Kudo, Warren Strober
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an intracellular sensor that detects small peptides derived from the cell wall component of intestinal microflora. NOD1 is expressed in both non-hematopoietic cells such as epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells such as antigen-presenting cells. Detection of its ligand by NOD1 leads to innate immune responses through activation of nuclear factor kappa B and type I interferon as well as induction of autophagy. Innate immune responses through NOD1 activation play an indispensable role both in host defense against microbial infection and in the development of gastrointestinal disorders...
2017: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018435/lactobacillus-plantarum-bsgp201683-isolated-from-giant-panda-feces-attenuated-inflammation-and-improved-gut-microflora-in-mice-challenged-with-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Qian Liu, Xueqin Ni, Qiang Wang, Zhirong Peng, Lili Niu, Hengsong Wang, Yi Zhou, Hao Sun, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
In this work, we searched for an effective probiotic that can help control intestinal infection, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) invasion, in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). As a potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus plantarum BSGP201683 (L. plantarum G83) was isolated from the feces of giant panda and proven beneficial in vitro. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of L. plantarum G83 in mice challenged with ETEC. The mice were orally administered with 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987358/regulatory-efficacy-of-fermented-plant-extract-on-the-intestinal-microflora-and-lipid-profile-in-mildly-hypercholesterolemic-individuals
#4
Hui-Fang Chiu, Yen-Jung Chen, Yan-Ying Lu, Yi-Chun Han, You-Cheng Shen, Kamesh Venkatakrishnan, Chin-Kun Wang
In recent years, the use of fermented plant products to protect against various metabolic syndromes has been increasing enormously. The objective of this study was to check the regulatory efficacy of fermented plant extract (FPE) on intestinal microflora, lipid profile, and antioxidant status in mildly hypercholesterolemic volunteers. Forty-four mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals (cholesterol 180-220 mg/dL) were recruited and assigned to two groups: experimental or placebo. Volunteers were requested to drink either 60 mL of FPE or placebo for 8 weeks...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972494/-dynamics-of-enteroperitoneal-translocation-of-microorganisms-on-the-experimantal-model-of-acute-intestinal-obstruction
#5
Zh Koishibayev, Ye Turgunov, G Sandblom, A Lavrinenko, A Zhumakayev
The article presents an analysis of the dynamics of enteroperitoneal translocation of bacteria on the model of acute intestinal obstruction (AIO) in rats by performing an experimental study on laboratory animals. Using the proposed model of AIO we have tried to determine the level of enteroperitoneal translocation as a function of the time of the impassable obstruction. The results which presented in the article clearly demonstrate that when AIO is developing in experimental animals the greatest level of translocation was revealed on the 3rd and 5th days...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965248/decaffeinated-green-and-black-tea-polyphenols-decrease-weight-gain-and-alter-microbiome-populations-and-function-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#6
Susanne M Henning, Jieping Yang, Mark Hsu, Ru-Po Lee, Emma M Grojean, Austin Ly, Chi-Hong Tseng, David Heber, Zhaoping Li
PURPOSE: Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959626/safety-assesment-of-bacillus-clausii-ubbc07-a-spore-forming-probiotic
#7
Suvarna G Lakshmi, N Jayanthi, M Saravanan, M Sudha Ratna
Probiotics are vital bacteria that colonize the intestine and modify its microflora with benefits for the host. Very few members of the Bacillus group are recognized as safe for use and hence only a few strains are available as commercial preparations for application in humans and animals. Acute and subacute studies in rats were conducted to establish safety of Bacillus clausii (B. clausii) UBBC07. In the acute toxicity study, the oral LD50 for B. clausii UBBC07 was found to be >5000 mg/kg (630 billion cfu/kg) body weight...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955644/effects-of-debaryomyces-hansenii-treatment-on-intestinal-microorganisms-in-mice-with-antibiotics-induced-diarrhea
#8
Lu He, Chengxing Long, Youjia Liu, Yanfang Guo, Nenqun Xiao, Zhoujin Tan
To investigate the influence of Debaryomyces hansenii treatment on intestinal microorganisms in mice with antibiotics-induced diarrhea, mouse model of antibiotics-induced diarrhea was created by gavaging mice with mixed antibiotics (23.33 mL/kg/days) composed of gentamycin sulfate and cefradine for 5 days. Mice with the symptom of diarrhea were then treated with D. hansenii by intragastric administration. The control group mice were given with sterile water. After 4 day treatment, total DNA of intestinal microflora of treated and control mice was extracted, and their quantities were measured by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rDNA...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950281/effects-of-synbiotics-to-prevent-postoperative-infectious-complications-in-highly-invasive-abdominal-surgery
#9
Yukihiro Yokoyama, Takashi Asahara, Koji Nomoto, Masato Nagino
Postoperative infectious complication (POIC) is one of the most common complications following highly invasive abdominal surgeries, such as hepatectomy, esophagectomy, and pancreatoduodenectomy. The surgical stress temporarily deteriorates the intestinal microenvironment, and the fecal concentrations of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus decrease following highly invasive abdominal surgery. In parallel with these changes, the concentrations of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid also decrease after surgery...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948462/prebiotic-oligosaccharides-special-focus-on-fructooligosaccharides-its-biosynthesis-and-bioactivity
#10
Sudhir P Singh, Jyoti Singh Jadaun, Lokesh K Narnoliya, Ashok Pandey
The bacterial groups in the gut ecosystem play key role in the maintenance of host's metabolic and structural functionality. The gut microbiota enhances digestion processing, helps in digestion of complex substances, synthesizes beneficial bioactive compounds, enhances bioavailability of minerals, impedes growth of pathogenic microbes, and prevents various diseases. It is, therefore, desirable to have an adequate intake of prebiotic biomolecules, which promote favorable modulation of intestinal microflora. Prebiotics are non-digestible and chemically stable structures that significantly enhance growth and functionality of gut microflora...
September 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935866/mulberry-leaf-alleviates-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-by-attenuating-nefa-signaling-and-modulating-intestinal-microflora
#11
Yao Sheng, Shujuan Zheng, Tianshi Ma, Chuanhai Zhang, Xiaoqun Ou, Xiaoyun He, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang
Improvement of hyperglycemia through dietotherapy/herbal remedy is an effective approach to treating diabetes. In this study, mulberry leaf, famous for silkworm's special food and therapeutic value without any side effects, alleviated diabetes by attenuating NEFA signaling and modulating intestinal microflora. Mulberry leaf treatment significantly reduce fasting blood-glucose and HbA1c, ameliorate the blood lipid profile and improve insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Mechanistically, we found that mulberry leaf inhibited NEFA signaling by reducing downstream signaling in the NEFA pathway, further verified by reduced PKC and improved cellular energy homeostasis based on restored expression of PGC-1α, AK2, OXPHOS and adiponectin...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917709/in-vitro-interactions-of-acanthamoeba-castellanii-neff-and-vibrio-harveyi
#12
María Reyes-Batlle, Alberto J Martín-Rodríguez, Atteneri López-Arencibia, Ines Sifaoui, Aitor Rizo Liendo, Carlos J Bethencourt Estrella, Ana B García Méndez, Olfa Chiboub, Soumaya Hajaji, Basilio Valladares, Enrique Martínez-Carretero, José E Piñero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are opportunistic protozoa widely distributed in the environment. They are frequently found in water and soil samples, but they have also been reported to be associated with bacterial human pathogens such as Legionella spp. Campylobacter spp or Vibrio cholerae among others. Including within Vibrio spp. V. harveyi (Johnson and Shunk, 1936) is a bioluminescent marine bacteria which has been found swimming freely in tropical marine waters, being part of the stomach and intestine microflora of marine animals, and as both a primary and opportunistic pathogen of marine animals...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914862/-liver-diseases-the-pathogenetic-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-potential-of-treatment-for-its-modulation
#13
K A Aitbaev, I T Murkamilov, V V Fomin
The paper gives an update on the role of the gut microbiome (GM) in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis (LC), and its complications, such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and discusses the possibilities of its correction with prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The pathophysiology of the liver diseases in question demonstrates some common features that are characterized by pathogenic changes in the composition of the gastrointestinal tract microflora, by intestinal barrier impairments, by development of endotoxemia, by increased liver expression of proinflammatory factors, and by development of liver inflammation...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905280/enzymatic-synthesis-of-fucose-containing-galacto-oligosaccharides-using-%C3%AE-galactosidase-and-identification-of-novel-disaccharide-structures
#14
Anne Usvalampi, Hannu Maaheimo, Olli Tossavainen, Alexander D Frey
Fucosylated oligosaccharides have an important role in maintaining a healthy immune system and homeostatic gut microflora. This study employed a commercial β-galactosidase in the production of fucose-containing galacto-oligosaccharides (fGOS) from lactose and fucose. The production was optimized using experiment design and optimal conditions for a batch production in 3-liter scale. The reaction product was analyzed and the produced galactose-fucose disaccharides were purified. The structures of these disaccharides were determined using NMR and it was verified that one major product with the structure Galβ1-3Fuc and two minor products with the structures Galβ1-4Fuc and Galβ1-2Fuc were formed...
September 13, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895387/chaenomeles-%C3%A2-health-promoting-benefits
#15
Katarzyna Watychowicz, Katarzyna Janda, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jolanta Wolska
Chaenomeles is a genus of deciduous spiny in the family of Rosaceae (Pomoideae subfamily). For centuries, the plant was used for a treatment of anemia, rheumatism, gout and cardiovascular diseases. The chemical composition studies of Chaenomeles showed the presence of many biologically active compounds, such as: phenolic compounds, organic acids, terpenoids, alcohols, ketones or aldehydes. Fruit of Chaenomeles has the largest applying potential due to extensive use of medicinal and high concentration of vitamin C...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884952/soluble-dietary-fiber-reduces-trimethylamine-metabolism-via-gut-microbiota-and-co-regulates-host-ampk-pathways
#16
Qian Li, Tao Wu, Rui Liu, Min Zhang, Ruijun Wang
SCOPE: Evidence from animal experiments and clinical medicine suggest that high dietary fiber intake, followed by gut microbiota-mediated fermentation, decreases trimethylamine (TMA) metabolism, the mechanism of which, however, remains unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate, using mice fed with red meat, the effects of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) intervention on TMA metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Low- or high-dose soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from natural wheat bran (LN and HN, low- and high-dose natural SDF), fermented wheat bran (LF and HF, low- and high-dose fermented SDF), and steam-exploded wheat bran (LE and HE, low- and high-dose exploded SDF groups) were used to examine whether SDF interventions in mice fed with red meat can alter TMA and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism by gut microbial communities in a diet-specific manner...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882791/effects-of-organic-acids-and-essential-oils-blend-on-growth-gut-microbiota-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#17
Wangquan He, Samad Rahimnejad, Ling Wang, Kai Song, Kangle Lu, Chunxiao Zhang
An 8-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate supplemental effects of AviPlus(®) (AP), a blend of organic acids [citric acid, 25%; sorbic acid, 16.7%] and essential oils [thymol, 1.7%; vanillin, 1.0%], on growth, gut microbiota, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A basal experimental diet was formulated and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 g kg(-1) AP to produce five test diets (Con, AP0.3, AP0.6, AP0.9 and AP1...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882639/effects-of-residual-levels-of-tetracycline-on-the-barrier-functions-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#18
Kuppan Gokulan, Carl E Cerniglia, Charles Thomas, Silvia A Pineiro, Sangeeta Khare
Tetracyclines are frequently used in food-producing animals to treat, control, and prevent microbial diseases. Concerns are raised regarding the effects of residual levels of tetracycline, which may be present in the food supply, for emergence of drug-resistance and transfer of antibiotic-resistance gene in intestinal microbiota. In contrast, no information is available regarding the possible effects of residual tetracycline on the gastrointestinal epithelial layer barrier-disruption. This study investigates the outcome of tetracycline treatment on intestinal epithelial cells integrity...
September 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877970/the-transcriptional-response-of-candida%C3%A2-albicans-to-weak-organic-acids-carbon-source-and-mig1%C3%A2-inactivation-unveils-a-role-for-hgt16-in-mediating-the-fungistatic-effect-of-acetic-acid
#19
Fabien Cottier, Alrina Shin Min Tan, Marina Yurieva, Webber Liao, Josephine Lum, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Norman Pavelka
Candida albicans is a resident fungus of the human intestinal microflora. Commonly isolated at low abundance in healthy people, C. albicans outcompetes local microbiota during candidiasis episodes. Under normal conditions, members of the human gastrointestinal microbiota were shown to keep C. albicans colonization under control. By releasing weak organic acids (WOAs), bacteria are able to moderate yeast growth. This mechanism displayed a synergistic effect in vitro with the absence of glucose in medium of culture, which underline the complex interaction that C...
September 6, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872093/-research-progress-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#20
Huahua He, Xinfu Lian, Zhiqun Tang
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), metabolites of the intestinal microflora, is a newly discovered risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The intestinal flora converted choline and L-carnitine into trimethylamine in the food. Trimethylamine is oxidized to TMAO in liver enzymes. Lowering TMA can stimulate macrophages to reverse cholesterol transport and inhibit atherogenesis. TMAO poietin-monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is a tool for cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transpor, lowering FMO3 can slow the gallbladder's secretion of bile, delay intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and limit the synthesis of oxidized cholesterol and cholesterol esters...
August 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
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