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intestinal microflora

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453162/the-effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-diversity-of-intestinal-microbial-community-of-rana-chensinensis-tadpoles
#1
Danyang Mu, Jinhua Meng, Xiaoxue Bo, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
Cadmium is a natural and widely distributed toxicant, and can be commonly found in environment. Intestinal microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. The effects of cadmium on the intestinal microbiota composition and stability of amphibians are little known. We exposed Rana chensinensis (R. chensinensis) embryos to different concentrations of cadmium (0, 112 and 448 μg Cd L -1 ) until they reached Gosner stage 38, and analyzed their microbial communities using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452399/response-of-goose-intestinal-microflora-to-the-source-and-level-of-dietary-fiber
#2
Haizhu Zhou, Wei Guo, Tao Zhang, Bo Xu, Di Zhang, Zhanwei Teng, Dapeng Tao, Yujie Lou, Yunhang Gao
Geese are capable of digesting and making use of a high-fiber diet, but the mechanism is not well understood and would be of great significance for the development and utilization of roughage resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary fiber (source: corn stover and alfalfa, included at 5% or 8%) on microflora in goose intestines. We used 35-day-old Carlos geese in which we first studied the influence of fiber ingestion on diet digestibility and immune organ indices of geese and found that high dietary fiber (8% content) significantly increased feed intake, the digestibility of neutral and acid detergent fiber, and thymus, bursa, and spleen size...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445360/the-dynamic-distribution-of-small-tail-han-sheep-microbiota-across-different-intestinal-segments
#3
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438296/natural-occurrence-of-nivalenol-deoxynivalenol-and-deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside-in-polish-winter-wheat
#4
Marcin Bryła, Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety factor. The occurrence of "masked" mycotoxins has been intensively investigated in recent years. In this study, the occurrence of nivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, and deoxynivalenol in 92 samples of winter wheat from Polish cultivars was determined. The frequency of the occurrence of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in the samples was 83% and 70%, respectively. The average content of the analytes was: for deoxynivalenol 140.2 µg/kg (10...
February 13, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429468/-research-advances-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-neonates
#5
Xin Gan, Juan Li
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease caused by a variety of factors in neonates, especially preterm infants. Severe NEC has a high fatality rate, and most survivors may face short- and long-term adverse prognosis. Risk factors for NEC include preterm birth, non-breastfeeding, microbial abnormalities in the digestive tract, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. High-resolution abdominal ultrasound helps with the early diagnosis of NEC. The preventive measures for NEC include protecting the intestinal mucosa through nutritional intervention, interfering with intestinal injury signals, changing intestinal microflora, and performing early minimal enteral nutrition...
February 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426774/does-ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis-during-chemotherapy-induce-intestinal-microflora-resistance-to-ceftazidime-in-children-with-cancer
#6
Wanutsanun Tunyapanit, Sureerat Chelae, Kamolwish Laoprasopwattana
To determine the susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ceftazidime, the commonly used empirical antibiotic in patients with febrile neutropenia, in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the intestinal microflora of pediatric patients with cancer, who received ciprofloxacin prophylaxis during chemotherapy, children younger than 18 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma scheduled to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to receive oral ciprofloxacin 20 mg/kg/day or placebo from the beginning of their chemotherapy...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415902/influence-of-changes-in-the-intestinal-microflora-on-the-immune-function-in-mice
#7
Shigefumi Kishida, Yuko Kato-Mori, Katsuro Hagiwara
The composition of the intestinal microbiota is related to the health and immune function of the host. Administration of antibiotics affects the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, the effects of immune function on the composition of the intestinal microbiota are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the lymphocyte composition and determined the relationships between lymphocyte function and the intestinal microbiota following antibiotic treatment in mice. To change the composition of the intestinal microbiota, mice were treated with or without antibiotics...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405736/polyphenols-and-bioavailability-an-update
#8
Hui Teng, Lei Chen
Based on many cell culture, animal and human studies, it is well known that the most challenge issue for developing polyphenolics as chemoprevention or anti-diabtetic agents is the low oral bioavailability, which may be the major reason relating to its ambiguous therapeutic effects and large inter-individual variations in clinical trials. This review intends to highlight the unscientific evaluation on the basis of the published data regarding in vitro bioactivity of polyphenols, which may sometimes mislead the researchers and to conclude that: first, bio-accessibilities values obtained in the studies for polyphenols should be highly reconsidered in accordance with the abundant newly identified circulating and excreted metabolites, with a particular attention to colonic metabolic products which are obviously contributing much more than expected to their absorptions; second, it is phenolic metabolites, which are formed in the small intestine and hepatic cells,low molecular weight catabolic products of the colonic microflora to travel around the human body in the circulatory system or reach body tissues to elicit bioactive effects...
February 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376606/-the-role-of-the-uretral-catheter-in-the-development-of-catheter-related-urinary-tract-infection
#9
A O Vasilyev, A V Govorov, A A Shiryaev, D Yu Pushkar
The most common source of nosocomial infection is the urinary tract, especially if they it is drained with a urethral catheter. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for at least 80% of all complicated urinary tract infections and are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. Intestinal microflora plays the leading role in the pathogenesis of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, whereas the most important risk factor for their development is the long duration of urinary catheter drainage...
December 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371757/daily-intake-of-broccoli-sprouts-normalizes-bowel-habits-in-human-healthy-subjects
#10
Akinori Yanaka
Chronic oxidative stress impairs regular defecation. Sulforaphane (SFN) enhances anti-oxidant systems, ameliorating oxidative injury. SFN inhibits overgrowth of anaerobic microflora and protects small intestine from oxidative injury. We assessed whether daily intake of SFN-rich broccoli sprouts (BS) improves defecation in humans. Forty-eight subjects, with a constipation scoring system (CSS) >2 points, were assigned to either the BS group ( n = 24) or the alfalfa sprouts (AS) group ( n = 24), and were requested to eat 20 g daily of raw BS or AS, respectively, for 4 weeks...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369531/enterohaemorrhagic-and-other-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-where-are-we-now-regarding-diagnostics-and-control-strategies
#11
D G Newell, R M La Ragione
Escherichia coli comprises a highly diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria and is a common member of the intestinal microflora of humans and animals. Generally, such colonization is asymptomatic; however, some E. coli strains have evolved to become pathogenic and thus cause clinical disease in susceptible hosts. One pathotype, the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) comprising strains expressing a Shiga-like toxin is an important foodborne pathogen. A subset of STEC are the enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which can cause serious human disease, including haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS)...
January 25, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358878/updated-review-on-immune-factors-in-pathogenesis-of-crohn-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Na Li, Rui-Hua Shi
Although the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) in China is not as high as that in European and American countries, there has been a clear increasing trend in recent years. Little is known about its pathogenesis, cause of deferment, and the range of complications associated with the disease. Local and international scholars have presented many hypotheses about CD pathogenesis based on experimental and clinical studies, including genetic susceptibility, immune function defects, intestinal microflora disorders, delayed hypersensitivity, and food antigen stimulation...
January 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322463/selection-of-esbl-producing-e-coli-in-a-mouse-intestinal-colonization-model
#13
Frederik Boëtius Hertz, Karen Leth Nielsen, Niels Frimodt-Møller
Asymptomatic human carriage of antimicrobially drug-resistant pathogens prior to infection is increasing worldwide. Further investigation into the role of this fecal reservoir is important for combatting the increasing antimicrobial resistance problems. Additionally, the damage on the intestinal microflora due to antimicrobial treatment is still not fully understood. Animal models are powerful tools to investigate bacterial colonization subsequent to antibiotic treatment. In this chapter we present a mouse-intestinal colonization model designed to investigate how antibiotics select for an ESBL-producing E...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320746/sada-expressing-staphylococci-in-the-human-gut-show-increased-cell-adherence-and-internalization
#14
Arif Luqman, Mulugeta Nega, Minh-Thu Nguyen, Patrick Ebner, Friedrich Götz
A subgroup of biogenic amines, the so-called trace amines (TAs), are produced by mammals and bacteria and can act as neuromodulators. In the genus Staphylococcus, certain species are capable of producing TAs through the activity of staphylococcal aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (SadA). SadA decarboxylates aromatic amino acids to produce TAs, as well as dihydroxy phenylalanine and 5-hydroxytryptophan to thus produce the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. SadA-expressing staphylococci were prevalent in the gut of most probands, where they are part of the human intestinal microflora...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319525/physiological-effects-of-whey-and-milk-based-probiotic-yogurt-in-rats
#15
Judit Szabó-Fodor, András Bónai, Brigitta Bóta, Linda Szommerné Egyed, Ferenc Lakatos, Gréta Pápai, Attila Zsolnai, Róbert Glávits, Katalin Horvatovich, Melinda Kovács
In an in vitro experiment commercially available probiotic products were tested for the survival of bacteria under conditions of simulated human digestion either when used alone or mixed into yogurt. In the in vivo experiment the effects of feeding a whey- and milk-based yogurt prepared with the probiotic strain showing adequate survival in the in vitro experiment, was measured on body weight, feed con¬sumption and immune response of rats (IgG and IgA level after immunisation), on the composition and volatile fatty acid production of the intestinal microbiota and on the structure of intestinal villi...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#16
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305949/primary-study-on-the-toxic-mechanism-of-vanadyl-trehalose-in-kunming-mice
#17
Pingzhe Jiang, Qiqi Liu, Zaizhong Ni, Qian Wei, Xiaodan Li, Shuguang Xing, Deling Kong, Minggang Li
It has been shown that vanadyl trehalose could lower blood glucose but show mild toxicity to the stomach and intestine in diabetic Kunming mice. We analysed antioxidant levels, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis factors and intestinal microflora alteration to explore the mechanism of vanadyl trehalose toxicity in Kunming mice. The results revealed that oral administration of vanadyl trehalose at tested dose caused significant changes in oxidative stress factor (MDA levels elevated but SOD and T-AOC decreased), expression of inflammatory factor (IL-1β, COX-2, TNF-α and iNOS increased), and apoptosis factor (Bcl-2/Bax decreased and caspase-3 increased), and intestinal microflora dysbiosis (the number of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus increased and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium decreased) relative to the control of Kunming mice...
January 3, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276981/comparative-metabolism-of-two-major-compounds-in-fructus-corni-extracts-by-gut-microflora-from-normal-and-chronic-nephropathy-rats-in-vitro-by-uplc-q-tof-ms
#18
Jin-Hua Tao, Min Zhao, Shu Jiang, Xue-Lian Pu, Xiao-Yan Wei
Herbal medicines are widely used as therapeutic products in many countries. Fructus Corni, a traditional herb medicine, has been clinically used to cure chronic nephropathy for thousands of years. It could be converted by gut microflora in vivo to shape its pharmacological profiles. Thus, metabolic profiles of major active constituents in Fructus Corni extracts by gut microflora from rats in healthy and nephropathy state were firstly investigated in vitro by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) in this study...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273328/elevation-of-serum-pyruvate-kinase-m2-pkm2-in-ibd-and-its-relationship-to-ibd-indices
#19
Ahmed A Almousa, Marc Morris, Sharyle Fowler, Jennifer Jones, Jane Alcorn
OBJECTIVES: Endoscopy remains the gold standard to diagnose and evaluate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. Current biomarkers or their combinations cannot adequately predict IBD risk, diagnosis, progression or relapse, and response to therapy. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is emerging as a significant mediator of the inflammatory process. We aimed to assess levels of serum PKM2 in healthy and newly diagnosed IBD patients and its relationship with IBD indices and microbiota changes...
December 19, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250860/effect-of-organic-acids-or-probiotics-alone-or-in-combination-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-enzyme-activities-intestinal-morphology-and-gut-microflora-in-broiler-chickens
#20
P Rodjan, K Soisuwan, K Thongprajukaew, Y Theapparat, S Khongthong, J Jeenkeawpieam, T Salaeharae
A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids or probiotics alone or in combination on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, enzyme activity, intestinal morphology and gut microflora in broiler chickens (Ross308). A completely randomized design was used, with 1,440 broiler chicks across four treatments and five replications of 72 chicks each. The chicks in the control treatment were fed on a control diet (CD), whereas for the other treatment groups, the CD was supplemented with 0...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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