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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659957/dietary-fermentable-fibers-attenuate-chronic-kidney-disease-in-mice-by-protecting-the-intestinal-barrier
#1
Tran Van Hung, Takuya Suzuki
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. Although the pathogenesis of CKD is still unclear, recent studies suggest that systemic inflammation caused by a dysregulated microflora and an impaired intestinal barrier is involved in CKD development. Objective: We investigated the effects of the fermentable dietary fibers (DFs), unmodified guar gum (GG), and partially hydrolyzed GG (PHGG) (i.e., substances with distinct viscosity characteristics) on CKD development, with a particular focus on colonic tight junction (TJ) barriers in mice...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651158/effect-of-dietary-probiotics-on-the-semen-traits-and-antioxidative-activity-of-male-broiler-breeders
#2
Takio Inatomi, Konosuke Otomaru
This study aimed to investigate the effect of probiotics on the intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, oxidative activity (biological antioxidant potential), and semen quality of male broiler breeders. For this, 180 Cobb male broiler breeders (60 weeks of age) were randomly distributed into two groups. The control group was fed a basal diet, and the probiotics group was fed basal diet supplemented with probiotics for 6 weeks. Probiotics containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TOA5001 improved the above mentioned characteristics of the male broiler breeders...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649517/effect-of-nisin-on-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-neurochemicals-by-escherichia-coli-induced-diarrhea-in-mice
#3
Zhifeng Jia, Aorigele Chen, Fuxiang Bao, Meiling He, Siming Gao, Jin Xu, Xin Zhang, Puchun Niu, Chunjie Wang
The effects of nisin on the neurochemicals, Aquaporin-3 (AQP-3) and intestinal microorganisms in the brain-gut axis of mice were analyzed by using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and high throughput sequencing in this investigation, to further revealed the relationship between intestinal flora abundance in mice and neurochemicals in the brain-gut axis. Using HE staining found damage of structure of small intestine villi in the model group (Escherichia coli O1 , E. coli O1 ). Compared with normal control and ciprofloxacin groups, using ELISA showed that nisin increased the highest norepinephrine (NE) expression in the brain, expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the duodenum, and increased the expression of AQP-3 in jejunum...
April 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648971/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-a-mixture-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-sodium-butyrate-in-atopic-dermatitis-murine-model
#4
Jeong A Kim, Sung-Hak Kim, In Sung Kim, Da Yoon Yu, Sung Chan Kim, Seung Ho Lee, Sang Suk Lee, Cheol-Heui Yun, In Soon Choi, Kwang Keun Cho
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Recently, probiotics have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms through immunomodulatory responses. In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate. Following sensitization with whey protein, the mice were challenged and divided into two groups: (1) mice administered with phosphate-buffered saline as a control and (2) mice administered with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643283/analysis-of-microbial-abundance-and-community-composition-in-esophagus-and-intestinal-tract-of-wild-veined-rapa-whelk-rapana-venosa-by-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#5
Hao Song, Zheng-Lin Yu, Mei-Jie Yang, Tao Zhang, Hai-Yan Wang
The rapa whelk Rapana venosa is a commercially important gastropod in China, but a major invader worldwide. There is little information on the bacterial community composition in the digestive system of this species, despite the microflora has important roles in digestion, nutrition, disease resistance, and immune response. The present study investigated the bacterial flora community in the esophagus and intestinal tract of wild R. venosa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The esophagus and intestine had 1175 and 526 unique operational taxonomic units, respectively, with 616 common to both tissues...
April 11, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629422/can-diet-influence-our-health-by-altering-intestinal-microbiota-derived-fecal-metabolites
#6
Qiang Lyu, Cheng-Chih Hsu
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora which could produce a myriad of specialized metabolites. These specialized metabolites are the chemical cellphones that gut microflora use to communicate with their human host and could potentially be used to cure diseases. Chemical compounds in diet also shape the gut flora. In order to understand which and how the gut microbe-derived specialized metabolites affect human health, the "gut microbiome-metabolomic-human health axis" is thus proposed...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620417/body-growth-intestinal-morphology-and-microflora-of-quail-on-diets-supplemented-with-micronised-wheat-fibre
#7
Mehdi Rezaei, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Helena Wall, Emma Ivarsson
Particle size reduction of fibre rich materials alter structure, functional and digestive properties. To determine the effects of using fibre as an additive in Japanese quail rations on performance and gut physiology, a trial using micronised wheat fibre (MWF) at levels of 0.0, 5, 10 and 15 g/kg in feed was conducted. Growth rate and feed efficiency were significantly improved when diets contained MWF while feed intake was not affected by levels of the fibre. As MWF content increased, the relative weight of gizzard and GIT significantly increased whereas liver relative weight significantly decreased...
April 5, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614575/-an-analysis-of-the-hypothesis-of-newborn-s-intestinal-microflora-origin
#8
X T Fu, L Zhang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610998/a-modified-method-for-genomic-dna-extraction-from-the-fish-intestinal-microflora
#9
Zhuoran Han, Jingfeng Sun, Aijun Lv, YeongYik Sung, Xueliang Sun, Hongyue Shi, Xiucai Hu, Anli Wang, Kezhi Xing
A modified genomic DNA extraction method named the combination of lysozyme and ultrasonic lysis (CLU) method was used to analyze the fish intestinal microflora. In this method, the physical disruption and chemical lysis steps were combined, and some parameters in the key steps were adjusted. In addition, the results obtained by this method were compared with the results obtained by the Zirmil-beating cell disruption method and the QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit. The OD260 /OD280 ratio and concentration of the DNA extracted using the CLU method were 2...
April 2, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605414/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-primer-for-the-internists
#10
REVIEW
Gaurav Syal, Amir Kashani, David Q Shih
Inflammatory bowel disease consists of disorders characterized by chronic idiopathic bowel inflammation. The concept of host-gut-microbiome interaction in pathogenesis of various complex immune-mediated chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease has recently generated immense interest. Mounting evidence confirms alteration of intestinal microflora in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, restoration of normal gut microbiota has become a focus of basic and clinical research in the recent years...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602775/canonical-wnt-signaling-in-cd11c-apcs-regulates-microbiota-induced-inflammation-and-immune-cell-homeostasis-in-the-colon
#11
Daniel Swafford, Arulkumaran Shanmugam, Punithavathi Ranganathan, Mohamed S Hussein, Pandelakis A Koni, Puttur D Prasad, Muthusamy Thangaraju, Santhakumar Manicassamy
Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurs in several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and inflammatory bowel disease-associated colon carcinogenesis. However, its role in shaping mucosal immune responses to commensals in the gut remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the importance of canonical Wnt signaling in CD11c+ APCs in controlling intestinal inflammation. Using a mouse model of ulcerative colitis, we demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling in intestinal CD11c+ APCs controls intestinal inflammation by imparting an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587241/butyrate-a-dietary-fiber-derivative-that-improves-irinotecan-effect-in-colon-cancer-cells
#12
João Crispim Encarnação, Ana Salomé Pires, Renata Alexandra Amaral, Telmo José Gonçalves, Mafalda Laranjo, João Eduardo Casalta-Lopes, Ana Cristina Gonçalves, Ana Bela Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Margarida Abrantes, Maria Filomena Botelho
A diet rich in fiber is associated with a low risk of developing colorectal cancer. Dietary fiber fermentation by intestinal microflora results in the production of butyrate, which has been reported as a chemopreventive agent and a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Irinotecan is used as second-line treatment and induces adverse effects with serious life-threatening toxicities in at least 36% of patients. Our study intends to find a synergy that could improve the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of chemotherapy...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584932/structure-dependent-modulation-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mediated-activities-by-flavones
#13
Un-Ho Jin, Hyejin Park, Xi Li, Laurie A Davidson, Clinton Allred, Bhimanagouda Patil, Guddadarangavva Jayaprakasha, Asuka A Orr, Leevin Mao, Robert S Chapkin, Arul Jayaraman, Phanourios Tamamis, Stephen Safe
Dietary flavonoids are used in treatment of multiple diseases, and their antiinflammatory effects in the intestine are due, in part, to interactions with gut microflora and possibly due to modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling. In this study, we investigated the structure-dependent AhR activity of 14 flavonoids in Caco2 colon cancer cells using induction of CYP1A1 and UGT1A1 gene expression as endpoints. A major structural determinant for AhR activation was the number of hydroxyl groups where pentahydroxyflavonoids (with the exception of morin) > hexahydroxyflavonoids > tetra-/trihydroxyflavonoids, and some of the latter compounds such as apigenin exhibited AhR antagonist activity for induction of CYP1A1...
March 23, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574331/butyrate-from-pectin-fermentation-inhibits-intestinal-cholesterol-absorption-and-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#14
Ying Chen, Chengfang Xu, Rong Huang, Jiayi Song, Di Li, Min Xia
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the major products of dietary fiber fermentation by intestinal microflora, exert beneficial effects on pathogenesis of multiple metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether SCFAs from fermentation of pectin (PE), a soluble dietary fiber, prevent the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/- ) mice. Male apoE-/- mice (8-week-old) were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HCD; 21% wt/wt fat, 0.15% wt/wt cholesterol) or HCD supplemented with 20% wt/wt PE (HCD+PE) alone or with antibiotics (HCD+PE + A) in drinking water for 12 weeks...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558223/absorption-disposition-metabolism-and-excretion-of-14-c-mizagliflozin-a-novel-selective-sglt1-inhibitor-in-rats
#15
Hitoshi Ono, Yasunari Kojima, Hiroshi Harada, Yoshikazu Abe, Takuro Endo, Mamoru Kobayashi
1. The pharmacokinetic and metabolite profiles of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 inhibitor designed to act only in the intestine, were investigated in rats. 2. Mizagliflozin administrated intravenously (0.3 mg/kg) and orally (3 mg/kg) declined with a short half-life (0.23 and 1.14 h, respectively). The absolute bioavailability was only 0.02%. Following intravenous administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (0.3 mg/kg), radioactivity in plasma was also rapidly declined. Up to 24 h after oral administration of [14 C]mizagliflozin (1 mg/kg), radioactivity was recovered in the faeces (98...
March 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554907/prenatal-and-postnatal-antibiotic-exposure-influences-the-gut-microbiota-of-preterm-infants-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#16
Zhi-Hui Zou, Dong Liu, Hong-Dong Li, Dan-Ping Zhu, Yu He, Ting Hou, Jia-Lin Yu
BACKGROUND: To explore the influences of prenatal antibiotic exposure, the intensity of prenatal and postnatal antibiotic exposure on gut microbiota of preterm infants and whether gut microbiota and drug resistant strains in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over a defined period are related. METHODS: Among 28 preterm infants, there were two groups, the PAT (prenatal antibiotic therapy) group (12 cases), and the PAF (prenatal antibiotic free) group (12 cases)...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546356/clonal-emergence-of-invasive-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-deconvoluted-via-a-combination-of-whole-genome-sequencing-and-microbiome-analyses
#17
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526619/improving-in-vivo-conversion-of-oleuropein-into-hydroxytyrosol-by-oral-granules-containing-probiotic-lactobacillus-plantarum-299v-and-an-olea-europaea-standardized-extract
#18
Maria Aponte, Francesca Ungaro, Ivana d'Angelo, Carmen De Caro, Roberto Russo, Giuseppe Blaiotta, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Antonio Calignano, Agnese Miro
This study reports novel food-grade granules for co-delivery of L. plantarum 299v and a standardized extract of Olea europaea leaves (Phenolea®) as oral carrier of probiotics and hydroxytyrosol. Different granule formulations containing either L. plantarum 299v (Lac), or the olive leave extract (Phe) or their combination (Lac-Phe) have been successfully produced through wet granulation employing excipients generally regarded as safe as granulating/binding agents. L. plantarum cells withstood the manufacturing process and were stable upon storage at 4°C for more than 6 months...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515975/triclosan-enhances-the-clearing-of-pathogenic-intracellular-salmonella-or-candida-albicans-but-disturbs-the-intestinal-microbiota-through-mtor-independent-autophagy
#19
Chao Wang, Zhongyang Yu, Xiaochen Shi, Xudong Tang, Yang Wang, Xueyan Wang, Yanan An, Shulin Li, Yan Li, Xuefei Wang, Wenjing Luan, Zhaobin Chen, Mingyuan Liu, Lu Yu
Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, whose well-known antibacterial mechanism is inhibiting lipid synthesis. Autophagy, an innate immune response, is an intracellular process that delivers the cargo including pathogens to lysosomes for degradation. In this study, we first demonstrated that TCS induced autophagy in a dose-dependent manner in non-phagocytic cells (HeLa) and in macrophages (Raw264.7) and in vivo . The western blot results also revealed that TCS induced autophagy via the AMPK/ULK1 and JNK/ERK/p38 pathways independent of mTOR...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514667/bacillus-subtilis-spore-with-surface-display-of-paramyosin-from-clonorchis-sinensis-potentializes-a-promising-oral-vaccine-candidate
#20
Hengchang Sun, Zhipeng Lin, Lu Zhao, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Hongye Jiang, Zeli Tang, Xinyi Zhou, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Pengli Ren, Honglin Qu, Jinsi Lin, Xuerong Li, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Effective prevention strategies are urgently needed to control this food-borne infectious disease. Previous studies indicated that paramyosin of C. sinensis (CsPmy) is a potential vaccine candidate. METHODS: We constructed a recombinant plasmid of PEB03-CotC-CsPmy, transformed it into Bacillus subtilis WB600 strain (B.s-CotC-CsPmy), and confirmed CsPmy expression on the spore surface by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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