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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535609/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharide-using-bifidobacterial-%C3%AE-galactosidase-purified-from-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#1
So Young Oh, So Youn Youn, Myung Soo Park, Hyoung Geun Kim, Nam In Baek, Zhi Peng Li, Geun Eog Ji
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are known to be selectively utilized by Bifidobacterium, which can bring about healthy changes of the composition of intestinal microflora. In this study, β-GOS are synthesized using bifidobacterial β-galactosidase(G1) purified from recombinant E. coli with a high GOS yield and with high productivity and enhanced bifidogenic activity. The purified recombinant G1 showed maximum production of β-GOS at pH 8.5 and 45°C. A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the major peaks of the produced β-GOS showed MW of 527 and 689, indicating the synthesis of β-GOS at degrees of polymerization (DP) of 3 and DP4, respectively...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514886/physiological-effects-of-prebiotics-and-its-role-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates
#2
Bhawan Deep Garg, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian, Nandkishor S Kabra
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious gastrointestinal emergencies in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates, affecting 7% to 14% of these neonates. Due to seriousness of disease, prevention of NEC is the most important goal. Current evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis revealed probiotics are the most promising intervention in reduction of the incidence of NEC in VLBW neonates. As per the evidence, prebiotics modulate the composition of human intestine microflora to the benefit of the host by suppression of colonization of harmful microorganism and/or the stimulation of bifidobacterial growth, decreased stool viscosity, reduced gastrointestinal transit time and better feed tolerance...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513564/tetrodotoxin-producing-bacteria-detection-distribution-and-migration-of-the-toxin-in-aquatic-systems
#3
REVIEW
Timur Yu Magarlamov, Daria I Melnikova, Alexey V Chernyshev
This review is devoted to the marine bacterial producers of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent non-protein neuroparalytic toxin. In addition to the issues of the ecology and distribution of TTX-producing bacteria, this review examines issues relating to toxin migration from bacteria to TTX-bearing animals. It is shown that the mechanism of TTX extraction from toxin-producing bacteria to the environment occur through cell death, passive/active toxin excretion, or spore germination of spore-forming bacteria. Data on TTX microdistribution in toxic organs of TTX-bearing animals indicate toxin migration from the digestive system to target organs through the transport system of the organism...
May 17, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495367/in-vivo-effects-of-allium-cepa-l-on-the-selected-gut-microflora-and-intestinal-histomorphology-in-broiler
#4
Sajid Ur Rahman, Sarzamin Khan, Naila Chand, Umar Sadique, Rifat Ullah Khan
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of onion (Allium cepa L.,) on the performance, gut microflora and intestinal histomorphology of broiler chicks. Three hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly divided into four groups as A, B, C and D. Group A served as control without any supplementation, group B, C and D was supplemented with onion powder at the rate of 1.5, 2 and 2.5g/kg of feed respectively. Supplementation of onion significantly (P<0.05) increased weight gain and feed consumption...
May 8, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493939/inhibition-of-nitric-oxide-production-reverses-diabetes-induced-kupffer-cell-activation-and-klebsiella-pneumonia-liver-translocation
#5
Shu-Han Lin, Pei-Hsuan Chung, Ying-Ying Wu, Chang-Phone Fung, Ching-Mei Hsu, Lee-Wei Chen
Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the most common pathogen of pyogenic liver abscess in East and Southeast Asia and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor. The effect and mechanism of diabetes on KP liver abscess was examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and Akita mice (C57BL/6J-Ins2Akita). KP translocation to liver and plasma alaine transaminase levels were increased and liver clearance of KP was decreased in DM mice. Diabetic mice exhibited overgrowth of Enterococcus as well as E.coli and decreased lactobacilli/bifidas growth in intestine, increased intestinal iNOS protein and nitrite levels in portal vein, and increased IL-1β and TNF-α expression of Kupffer cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482341/indigo-naturalis-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-dermatitis-but-aggravates-colitis-by-changing-the-composition-of-gut-microflora
#6
Soichiro Adachi, Namiko Hoshi, Jun Inoue, Eiichiro Yasutomi, Takafumi Otsuka, Ramesh Dhakhwa, Zi Wang, Yuna Koo, Toshihiro Takamatsu, Yuriko Matsumura, Haruka Yamairi, Daisuke Watanabe, Makoto Ooi, Toshihito Tanahashi, Shin Nishiumi, Masaru Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND: Indigo naturalis (IND) is an herbal medicine that has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat diseases including dermatitis and inflammatory bowel disease in China. However, the mechanism by which IND exerts its immunomodulatory effect is not well understood. METHODS: A murine model of dermatitis and inflammatory bowel disease, both induced by oxazolone (OXA), was treated with IND. The severity of dermatitis was evaluated based on ear thickness measurements and histological scoring...
May 9, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480860/-research-of-intestinal-microflora-in-the-rats-following-the-internal-and-external-irradiation
#7
Y Kairkhanova, N Chaizhunusоva, M Urazalin, V Stepanenko, M Hоshi
The aim of the research was comparative investigation of the quantitative and qualitative composition of large intestinal microflora following internal (by dispersed powdered 56Mn) and internal exposure of Wistar rats. Ten weeks-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into four groups: L-56Mn group with 12 rats, H-56Mn with ten rats, 60Co group with nine rats and control group with nine rats. L-56Mn and H-56Mn groups were exposed to two different doses of 56MnO2 powder. 60Co group received 2 Gy of external 60Co γ-ray whole body irradiation...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480652/obesity-is-inversely-related-to-hydrogen-producing-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-non-constipation-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Seung Eun Jung, Nam Seok Joo, Kyung Sun Han, Kyu Nam Kim
There have been inconsistent findings on the association of obesity and non-constipation irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) with hydrogen (H₂) gas forming-microflora causes non-constipation IBS. But, the effect of H₂ producing SIBO on obesity in non-constipation IBS patients has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and SIBO in non-constipation IBS patients. We reviewed the charts of patients who showed IBS symptoms along with the documented results of their lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) for SIBO...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476717/review-ulcerative-colitis-and-probiotics-an-overview
#9
Irfan Ahmad Rather, Rajib Majumder, Fanar Hamad Alshammari, Jae Gyu Park, Vivek Kumar Bajpai
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the large intestine whose effects are bloody diarrhea, cramping and bloating. The disease is usually relapsing and remitting. However, the cause of ulcerative colitis is not yet known. Due to this reason, finding an effective treatment has been a great challenge. The suggested medical treatment is usually composed of two portions; keeping the flare up from happening and treating the flare up when it has happened. Active flare ups are treated with corticosteroids...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466091/yeast-surface-display-of-escherichia-coli-enterotoxin-and-its-effects-of-intestinal-microflora-and-mucosal-immunity
#10
ShiYu Li, Zhou Sha, Xiaoxu Wang, Zhaoyang Bu, Li Wang, Xiaohui Guan, Xulong Lang, Xinglong Wang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant cause of infectious diarrhea in animals. In this study, yeast surface display technology was employed to investigate the effects of ETEC enterotoxin fusion protein on the intestinal flora and mucosal immunity of rats. ETEC estA, estB, and eltAB (heat-labile and heat-stable toxins) were expressed on the surface of yeast. Rats were divided into normal saline, yeast and display yeast groups. Fecal and jejunal content samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, and 21st days...
May 2, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434257/ratio-of-serum-levels-of-ages-to-soluble-rage-is-correlated-with-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-non-diabetic-subjects
#11
Atsuko Tahara, Nobuhiro Tahara, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Akihiro Honda, Sachiyo Igata, Yoshikazu Nitta, Munehisa Bekki, Tomohisa Nakamura, Yoichi Sugiyama, Jiahui Sun, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Kei Fukami, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Trimethylamine (TMA), an intestinal microflora-dependent metabolite formed from phosphatidylcholine- and L-carnitine-rich food, such as red meat, is further converted to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which could play a role in cardiometabolic disease. Red meat-derived products are one of the major environmental sources of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that may also contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders through the interaction with receptor for AGEs (RAGE). However, the relationship among AGEs, soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) and TMAO in humans remains unclear...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425301/development-of-a-novel-rationally-designed-antibiotic-to-inhibit-a-nontraditional-bacterial-target
#12
Pavel Dibrov, Elena Dibrov, Thane G Maddaford, Melissa Kenneth, Jordan Nelson, Craig Resch, Grant N Pierce
The search for new nontraditional targets is a high priority in antibiotic design today. Bacterial membrane energetics based on sodium ion circulation offers potential alternative targets. The present work identifies the Na(+)-translocating NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR), a key respiratory enzyme in many microbial pathogens, as indispensible for the Chlamydia trachomatis infectious process. Infection by Chlamydia trachomatis significantly increased first H(+) and then Na(+) levels within the host mammalian cell...
May 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419329/effects-of-the-inclusion-of-a-bacillus-direct-fed-microbial-on-performance-parameters-bone-quality-recovered-gut-microflora-and-intestinal-morphology-in-broilers-consuming-a-grower-diet-containing-corn-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles
#13
J D Latorre, X Hernandez-Velasco, J L Vicente, R Wolfenden, B M Hargis, G Tellez
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have increasingly been used in poultry diets as a consequence of rising grain costs. Some, but not all, sources of DDGS have a variable compositional value, and a high inclusion of this by-product could be considered a risk factor for presentation of enteric diseases. Presently, 2 experiments were conducted using a starter corn-soybean diet (zero to 7 d) and a corn-DDGS-soybean grower diet (8 to 28 d) with or without inclusion of a Bacillus-direct-fed microbial (DFM)...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411687/oral-administration-of-red-ginseng-powder-fermented-with-probiotic-alleviates-the-severity-of-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-in-a-mouse-model
#14
Sun-Hee Jang, Jisang Park, Sae-Hae Kim, Kyung-Min Choi, Eun-Sil Ko, Jeong-Dan Cha, Young-Ran Lee, Hyonseok Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
Red ginseng is a well-known alternative medicine with anti-inflammatory activity. It exerts pharmacological effects through the transformation of saponin into metabolites by intestinal microbiota. Given that intestinal microflora vary among individuals, the pharmacological effects of red ginseng likely vary among individuals. In order to produce homogeneously effective red ginseng, we prepared probiotic-fermented red ginseng and evaluated its activity using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model in mice...
March 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406692/effect-of-pre-and-post-weaning-high-fat-dietary-manipulation-on-intestinal-microflora-and-alkaline-phosphatase-activity-in-male-rats
#15
Z Šefčíková, D Bujňáková
We investigated the impact of a high-fat (HF) diet during pre- and post-weaning periods on the intestinal microbiota and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in male rats. Nutrition from birth was influenced by feeding rat dams with either a standard or HF diet. After weaning male pups nursed by control dams continued on a standard diet (CC) or HF diet (C->HF), while offspring nursed by HF dams continued on HF diet (HF) or standard diet (HF->C). The numbers of Bacteriodes/Prevotella (BAC) and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus (LAB) in the gut were determined by FISH technique...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398869/the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effect-of-carvacrol-in-preventing-campylobacter-infection-colonization-and-in-improving-productivity-of-chicken-broilers
#16
Carmel Kelly, Ozan Gundogdu, Gratiela Pircalabioru, Ada Cean, Pam Scates, Mark Linton, Laurette Pinkerton, Elizabeth Magowan, Lavinia Stef, Eliza Simiz, Ioan Pet, Sharon Stewart, Richard Stabler, Brendan Wren, Nick Dorrell, Nicolae Corcionivoschi
The current trend in reducing the antibiotic usage in animal production imposes urgency in the identification of novel biocides. The essential oil carvacrol, for example, changes the morphology of the cell and acts against a variety of targets within the bacterial membranes and cytoplasm, and our in vitro results show that it reduces adhesion and invasion of chicken intestinal primary cells and also biofilm formation. A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of carvacrol at four concentrations (0, 120, 200, and 300 mg/kg of diet) on the performance of Lactobacillus spp...
February 27, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398088/effects-of-fermented-cottonseed-meal-on-the-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-microflora-population-and-small-intestinal-morphology-in-broiler-chickens
#17
V Jazi, F Boldaji, B Dastar, S R Hashemi, A Ashayerizadeh
1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing dietary cottonseed meal (CSM) or fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) for soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, gastrointestinal microbial populations, and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. 2. CSM was fermented with Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae for 7 days. A total of 300 one-d-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in a 42-d experiment in which the birds were randomly allotted to one of 5 dietary treatments (containing 0, 10 and 20 percent CSM or FCSM) in a completely randomised design...
April 11, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380608/performance-intestinal-microflora-and-amino-acid-digestibility-altered-by-exogenous-enzymes-in-broilers-fed-wheat-or-sorghum-based-diets
#18
D Wu, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of dietary enzymes and nutrient restriction on performance and bone mineralization in birds fed wheat- or sorghum-based diets. A total of 720 d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 8 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. Birds were reared in floor pens from 0 to 35 d. The study used a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 2 grains (sorghum or wheat) and 4 diets: positive control (no enzyme and ME, digestible Lys, Ca, and P sufficient, negative control (NC; no enzyme and reduced ME [-100 kcal/kg], digestible AA [-2%], Ca [-0...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361036/a-salmonella-regulator-modulates-intestinal-colonization-and-use-of-phosphonoacetic-acid
#19
Johanna R Elfenbein, Leigh A Knodler, Allison R Schaeffer, Franziska Faber, Andreas J Bäumler, Helene L Andrews-Polymenis
Many microorganisms produce phosphonates, molecules characterized by stable carbon-phosphorus bonds that store phosphorus or act as antimicrobials. The role of phosphonates in the marine biosphere is well characterized but the role of these molecules in the intestine is poorly understood. Salmonella enterica uses its virulence factors to influence the host immune response to compete with the host and normal microflora for nutrients. Salmonella cannot produce phosphonates but encodes the enzymes to use them suggesting that it is exposed to phosphonates during its life cycle...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357027/exercise-modifies-the-gut-microbiota-with-positive-health-effects
#20
REVIEW
Vincenzo Monda, Ines Villano, Antonietta Messina, Anna Valenzano, Teresa Esposito, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Andrea Viggiano, Giuseppe Cibelli, Sergio Chieffi, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is inhabited by a wide cluster of microorganisms that play protective, structural, and metabolic functions for the intestinal mucosa. Gut microbiota is involved in the barrier functions and in the maintenance of its homeostasis. It provides nutrients, participates in the signaling network, regulates the epithelial development, and affects the immune system. Considering the microbiota ability to respond to homeostatic and physiological changes, some researchers proposed that it can be seen as an endocrine organ...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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