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intestinal microflora

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210521/regulatory-efficacy-of-brown-seaweed-lessonia-nigrescens-extract-on-the-gene-expression-profile-and-intestinal-microflora-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#1
Chao Zhao, Chengfeng Yang, Mingjun Chen, Xucong Lv, Bin Liu, Lunzhao Yi, Laura Cornara, Ming-Chi Wei, Yu-Chiao Yang, Rosa Tundis, Jianbo Xiao
SCOPE: In this study, the antidiabetic activity of Lessonia nigrescens ethanolic extract (LNE) was investigated in streptozotocin (SZT)-induced type 2 diabetic mice fed with a high-sucrose/high-fat diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array detector and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry was employed to analyze the major compounds in LNE. The components of the intestinal microflora in type 2 diabetic mice were analyzed by high-throughput next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
December 6, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207065/estrogen-inhibits-the-overgrowth-of-escherichia%C3%A2-coli-in-the-rat-intestine-under-simulated-microgravity
#2
Yongtao Yang, Changmin Qu, Shuwen Liang, Gang Wang, Haolun Han, Na Chen, Xiaoying Wang, Zhiwen Luo, Changqing Zhong, Yan Chen, Lianyong Li, Wei Wu
Microgravity can affect many aspects of intestinal homeostasis, leading to an increased risk of colitis. Estrogen, the most frequently affected hormone when under simulated microgravity, regulates the permeability of the colonic mucosa barrier. The associations between alterations in intestinal microbiota and increased susceptibility under microgravity have not been thoroughly elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in intestinal microbiota under simulated microgravity and to investigate the protective effect of estrogen against those changes...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180295/antimicrobial-and-bactericidal-impacts-of-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-cect-5940-on-fecal-shedding-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-dairy-calves-and-adult-dogs
#3
Paulina Vazquez-Mendoza, Mona M M Elghandour, Peter Adeniyi Alaba, Pedro Sánchez-Aparicio, María Uxúa Alonso-Fresán, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the bactericidal impacts of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940 on the shedding of faecal pathogenic bacteria in dairy calves (Experimnt 1) and in adults dogs (expeiriment 2). In the calves experiment, a completely randomized design was used to investigate the faecal bacteria profile of Holstein dairy calves fed with either pasteurized waste milk (PWM; n = 9) or a formulated non-medicated milk replacer (NMR; n = 9) for 60 d. The NMR containing sodium-butyrate and the active probiotic B...
November 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178568/hypoxia-induced-intestinal-barrier-changes-in-balloon-assisted-enteroscopy
#4
Tsung-Chun Lee, Yi-Chen Huang, Yen-Zhen Lu, Yu-Chang Yeh, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
Balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) is an emerging standard procedure by utilizing distensible balloons to facilitate deep endoscopy. Intestines are known to harbor abundant microflora. Whether balloon distension causes perturbation of blood flow and gut barrier dysfunction, and elicits risk of bacterial translocation remains unknown. Our aims were to 1) conduct a prospective study to gather microbiological and molecular evidence of bacterial translocation by BAE in patients, 2) establish a murine model of colonic balloon distension to investigate tissue hypoxia and intestinal barrier, and 3) assess the effect of short- and long-term hypoxia on epithelial permeability using cell lines...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161712/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-nephrology-ward
#5
Sylwia Dudzicz, Marcin Adamczak, Andrzej Więcek
Clostridium difficile is currently the most frequently identified pathogen causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea. In recent years, increases incidence of infection, severe infection, recurrent infection and mortality from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been observed. This may be a consequence of excessive antibiotic use and spread of the hypervirulent epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of Clostridium difficile. The main risk factors for CDI are: antibiotic therapy, previous hospitalizations and number of comorbid conditions...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151426/-effects-of-antibiotics-on-intestinal-microflora-and-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-and-its-mechanisms
#6
Yue Han, Yuxin Leng, Gaiqi Yao
Antibiotics are the cornerstone to cure infectious diseases, however, it also destroys the intestinal inherent microflora, and may cause serious gastrointestinal dysfunction, such as abdominal distension, diarrhea, mucosal barrier damage etc. In severe conditions, it may induce intestinal sepsis. With the development of the human microbiology group program and the popularity of microbial sequencing technology, people can comprehend the effects of antibiotics on intestinal flora deeply, meanwhile the traditional biomedical model (the basis of bacterial disease) is questioned...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147105/depletion-of-stercobilin-in-fecal-matter-from-a-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Emily R Sekera, Heather L Rudolph, Stephen D Carro, Michael J Morales, Glenna C L Bett, Randall L Rasmusson, Troy D Wood
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders lacking a clinical biomarker for diagnosis. Emerging evidence shows that intestinal microflora from ASD subjects can be distinguished from controls, suggesting metabolite differences due to the action of intestinal microbes may provide a means for identifying potential biomarkers for ASD. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if quantitative differences in levels of stercobilin and stercobilinogen, metabolites produced by biological action of intestinal microflora, exist in the fecal matter between an ASD mouse model population and controls...
November 2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126320/screening-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-manufacture-two-stage-fermented-feed-and-pelleting-to-investigate-the-feeding-effect-on-broilers
#8
Ruei Han Yeh, Chia Wen Hsieh, Kuo Lung Chen
Bacillus subtilis var. natto N21 (BS) and different lactic acid bacteria were applied to produce two-stage fermented feeds. Broilers were fed these feeds to select the best fermented feed. The selected fermented feed was pelleted and investigated for its effects on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal microflora, serum biochemical constituents, and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility. Trial 1 involved three hundred thirty-six 1-d-old broilers with equal numbers of each sex, randomly assigned into control, BS + Bacillus coagulans L12 (BBC), BS + Lactobacillus casei (BLC), BS + Lactobacillus acidophilus (BLA), BS + Lactobacillus acidophilus L15 (BLA15), BS + Lactobacillus delbruekckii (BLD), and BS + Lactobacillus reuteri P24 (BLR24) groups with 3 replicates per group...
November 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119618/effects-of-chestnut-tannins-on-intestinal-morphology-barrier-function-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-microflora-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-heat-stressed-broilers
#9
H W Liu, K Li, J S Zhao, W Deng
A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on intestinal morphology, barrier function, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, microflora and antioxidant capacity in heat-stressed broilers. Four hundred 28-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned into four groups, with 10 replicates per group and 10 broilers per replicate. The broilers in the normal (NOR) group were kept at 22 ± 1°C and fed the basal diet, and each of the other three groups were treated with cyclic heat (33 ± 1°C from 0800 to 1800 and 22 ± 1°C from 1800 to 0800) and fed the basal diet with 0 (HT), 1 (CT1) or 2 (CT2) g of CT/kg of diet...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119101/effect-of-dual-infection-with-eimeria-tenella-and-subgroup-j-avian-leukosis-virus-on-the-cecal-microbiome-in-specific-pathogen-free-chicks
#10
Ning Cui, Xiuzhen Wang, Qi Wang, Hongmei Li, Fangkun Wang, Xiaomin Zhao
Understanding gut microflora alterations associated with gut parasites and other pathogens that drive these alterations may help to promote the understanding of intestinal flora's role in multiple-infected individuals. This study examined the effects of dual infection with Eimeria tenella and subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) on the chick cecal microbiome. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were infected with either ALV-J strain NX0101 at 1 day of age or E. tenella at 14 days of age, another group was infected with both pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117187/the-green-tea-modulates-large-intestinal-microbiome-and-exo-endogenous-metabolome-altered-through-chronic-uvb-exposure
#11
Eun Sung Jung, Hye Min Park, Seung Min Hyun, Jong Cheol Shon, Digar Singh, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Tae Woong Whon, Jin-Woo Bae, Jae Sung Hwang, Choong Hwan Lee
The attenuating effects of green tea supplements (GTS) against the ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced skin damages are distinguished. However, the concomitant effects of GTS on the large intestinal microbiomes and associated metabolomes are largely unclear. Herein, we performed an integrated microbiome-metabolome analysis to uncover the esoteric links between gut microbiome and exo/endogenous metabolome maneuvered in the large intestine of UVB-exposed mice subjected to dietary GTS. In UVB-exposed mice groups (UVB), class Bacilli and order Bifidobacteriales were observed as discriminant taxa with decreased lysophospholipid levels compared to the unexposed mice groups subjected to normal diet (NOR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116533/effect-of-probiotics-on-the-basis-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-bifidobacterium-longum-on-the-biochemical-parameters-of-the-animal-organism
#12
Olga Vilorievna Kvan, Irina Aleksandrovna Gavrish, Svyatoslav Valeryevich Lebedev, Anastasia Mickhailovna Korotkova, Elena Petrovna Miroshnikova, Victoria Alekseevna Serdaeva, Artem Vladimirovich Bykov, Natalia Olegovna Davydova
For the purpose of safe modulation of the intestinal microflora, probiotics have been increasingly used in recent years. In the present work, the effect of the probiotic sporobacterin (Bacillus subtilis 534) (I group) and soybean-bifidum (Bifidobacterium longum) (II group) on male rats of the Wistar line was evaluated. In assessing nonspecific immunity in vitro, there was an increase in the level of baseline level in the first and second groups (by 8.3 and 12.2% more control). The influence of probiotic preparations on the intestinal normoflora was assessed using PCR...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113654/the-role-of-intestinal-bacteria-in-the-development-and-progression-of-gastrointestinal-tract-neoplasms
#13
REVIEW
Kosuke Mima, Shuji Ogino, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Koichi Kinoshita, Ryuichi Krashima, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Takatoshi Ishiko, Hideo Baba
More than 100 trillion microorganisms inhabit the human intestinal tract and play important roles in health conditions and diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that specific bacteria and bacterial dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract can potentiate the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract neoplasms by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, producing tumor-promoting metabolites such as secondary bile acids, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Other bacterial species have been shown to produce short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which can suppress inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113344/polysaccharides-from-chrysanthemum-morifolium-ramat-ameliorate-colitis-rats-by-modulating-the-intestinal-microbiota-community
#14
Jin-Hua Tao, Jin-Ao Duan, Shu Jiang, Nan-Nan Feng, Wen-Qian Qiu, Yong Ling
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078174/studies-on-the-chemical-and-intestinal-metabolic-profiles-of-polygalae-radix-by-using-uhplc-it-ms-n-and-uhplc-q-tof-ms-method-coupled-with-intestinal-bacteria-incubation-model-in-vitro
#15
Gui-Fang Feng, Shu Liu, Zi-Feng Pi, Feng-Rui Song, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Polygala Radix (PR) is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), but its effective materials are still not very clear. In order to solve the existing problems, the chemical and intestinal metabolic profiles of PR were analyzed via intestinal bacteria incubation model. An integrated analysis method combined ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS) method and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ion-trap multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IT-MS(n)) method was established...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071862/-review-on-anxiolytic-effect-of-natural-small-molecule-phenols
#16
REVIEW
Xiao-Hong Wang, Chan-Xi Zhang, Gui-Yun Li, Jian-Mei Huang, Hai-Feng Zhai
Phenolic compounds have multiple bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent literatures have demonstrated that flavonoids have a significant anti-anxiety effect on the central nervous system. In addition, studies showed that flavonoids acted as pro-drugs, which were transformed into smaller phenols through intestinal microflora. The small phenolic metabolites were crucial for the anxiolytic effects of these flavonoids, indicating that natural small-molecule phenols(NSMP) generally have anxiolytic activities...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068000/%C3%AE-glucans-in-food-modify-colonic-microflora-by-inducing-antimicrobial-protein-calprotectin-in-a-dectin-1-induced-il-17f-dependent-manner
#17
T Kamiya, C Tang, M Kadoki, K Oshima, M Hattori, S Saijo, Y Adachi, N Ohno, Y Iwakura
Dectin-1 (gene symbol: Clec7a) is a receptor for β-glucans that play an important role for the host defense against fungi. Recently, we showed that Clec7a(-/-) mice are resistant against dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis because of regulatory T-cell population expansion in the colon. The regulatory T-cell expansion is caused by expansion of commensal Lactobacillus murinus whose growth is suppressed by an antimicrobial protein, calprotectin S100A8/A9. In this report, we showed that S100A8 was mainly produced by mouse colonic epithelial cells...
October 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063341/involvement-of-microflora-metabolites-in-up-regulation-of-electrical-activity-in-rat-small-intestine
#18
N S Tropskaya, E A Kislyakova, T S Popova
The study examined implication of tributyrin, a metabolic precursor in small intestinal microflora, in stimulation of electrical activity of duodenum and jejunum. Enteral administration of tributyrin enhanced electrical activity of both examined structures in small intestine with elimination of the rest periods. The stimulatory effect was manifested in a prolongation of the periods of irregular activity. The up-regulating effects of tributyrin on electrical activity in upper segments of small intestine are mediated via the cholecystokinin receptors being also associated with activation of cholinergic and blockade of nitrinergic signal transduction pathways...
October 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058462/the-effect-of-eubiotic-feed-additives-on-the-performance-of-growing-pigs-and-the-activity-of-intestinal-microflora
#19
Piotr Nowak, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Anita Zaworska, Włodzimierz Nowak, Barbara Stefańska, Anna Sip, Włodzimierz Grajek, Wojciech Juzwa, Marcin Taciak, Marcin Barszcz, Anna Tuśnio, Katarzyna Grajek, Joanna Foksowicz-Flaczyk, Andrzej Frankiewicz
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of probiotic bacteria, prebiotics, phytobiotics and their combinations on performance and microbial activity in the digestive tract of growing pigs. The experiment was conducted over 28 d on 48 male pigs of about 12 kg body weight (BW), which were allocated to following treatments.: (1) Control Group (Con) without additive, (2) Group I, addition of a prebiotic (inulin), (3) Group Ph, a phytobiotic (herbal water extracts), (4) Group P, a probiotic composed of four strains of lactic acid bacteria, (5) Group PhP, phytobiotic and probiotic bacteria and (6) Group PhPI, a phytobiotic, probiotic bacteria and a prebiotic...
October 23, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055986/-host-factors-influencing-the-clinical-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#20
H C Xing
The clinical outcomes of chronic HBV infection are influenced by the interaction between virus, host and environmental factors. Several factors of host include age, sex, individual behavior, host genetic polymorphism and intestinal microflora, directly or indirectly affect the clinical outcome of chronic HBV infection. Therefore, in the management of chronic HBV infection, more attention need to be paid not only to antiviral therapy, but also to the impact of host factors in order to maximally improve the prognosis of patients...
July 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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