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Huanhuan Luo, Fang Zhao, Fengxue Zhang, Ni Liu
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism of amygdalin treatment on reducing liver fibrosis by investigating its role in regulating the expression level of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and PDGF receptor (PDGFR) in the hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-T6 line. HSC-T6 cells were used as an in vitro model and randomly assigned into four groups: control, high-dose amygdalin, mid-dose amygdalin and low-dose amygdalin. Following amygdalin treatment, compared with the control, a high dose of amygdalin significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of PDGF and IGF (each P<0...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Michel Lagarde, Michel Guichardant, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac, Catherine Calzada, Evelyne Véricel
The oxygenation metabolism of arachidonic acid (ArA) has been early described in blood platelets, in particular with its conversion into the potent labile thromboxane A2 that induces platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cells contraction. In addition, the primary prostaglandins D2 and E2 have been mainly reported as inhibitors of platelet function. The platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) product, i.e. the hydroperoxide 12-HpETE, appears to stimulate platelet ArA metabolism at the level of its release from membrane phospholipids through phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1) activities, the first enzymes in prostanoid production cascade...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Caroline J Reddel, Gabrielle J Pennings, Jennifer L Curnow, Vivien M Chen, Leonard Kritharides
Platelets play an important role in diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, especially through their release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and role in thrombosis. The effects of the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine on platelets are not well understood. We investigated the effect of colchicine on the release of pro-coagulant EVs from platelets under low-level activation. Citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from healthy donors was incubated with 2 mM colchicine or vehicle at 37°C for 30 minutes with gentle rotation...
March 19, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Ying Su, Jingli Chen, Zengxiang Dong, Yan Zhang, Ruishuang Ma, Junjie Kou, Feng Wang, Jialan Shi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanisms for thrombosis in diabetic retinopathy (DR) are complex and need to be further elucidated. The purpose of this study was to test phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on microparticles (MPs) and MP-origin cells from the circulation and to analyze cell-/MP-associated procoagulant activity (PCA) in DR patients. METHODS: PS-positive MPs and cells from healthy controls (n = 20) and diabetic patients (n = 60) were analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Carla Dessels, Chrisna Durandt, Michael S Pepper
Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) has been used to expand adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and can be formulated using fresh or expired buffy coats (BCs) which are then resuspended in either plasma or an additive solution. Not much is known about the effects that expired products and additive solutions have on ASC expansion, and the need for quality control and release criteria has been expressed. This pilot study compared proliferation, cell size, morphology and immunophenotype of ASCs expanded in the different pHPL alternatives versus foetal bovine serum (FBS)...
March 19, 2018: Platelets
Saki Yamaura, Shin-Ichi Sakasegawa, Emisa Koguma, Shigeru Ueda, Yuzo Kayamori, Daisuke Sugimori, Ken Karasawa
BACKGROUND: Measurement of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) can be used as an adjunct to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for identifying individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular events. This can be performed by quantification of the protein concentration using an ELISA platform or by measuring Lp-PLA2 activity using platelet-activating factor (PAF) analog as substrate. Here, an enzymatic Lp-PLA2 activity assay method using 1-O-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (rac C16 PAF) was developed...
March 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Tony G Walsh, Alastair W Poole
Our understanding of platelet function has traditionally focused on their roles in physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, the latter being causative of vessel occlusion and subsequent ischemic damage to various tissues. In particular, numerous in vivo studies have implicated causative roles for platelets in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury to the myocardium. However, platelets clearly have more complex pathophysiological roles particularly as a result of the heterogeneous nature of biologically active cargo secreted from their granules, or contained within released microparticles or exosomes...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Natalia Papadopoulos, Johan Lennartsson, Carl-Henrik Heldin
Translocation of full-length or fragments of receptors to the nucleus has been reported for several tyrosine kinase receptors. In this paper, we show that a fraction of full-length cell surface platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor β (PDGFRβ) accumulates in the nucleus at the chromatin and the nuclear matrix after ligand stimulation. Nuclear translocation of PDGFRβ was dependent on PDGF-BB-induced receptor dimerization, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, β-importin, and intact Golgi, occurring in both normal and cancer cells...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Danuta Jarocha, Karen K Vo, Randolph B Lyde, Vincent Hayes, Rodney M Camire, Mortimer Poncz
In vitro-grown megakaryocytes for generating platelets may have value in meeting the increasing demand for platelet transfusions. Remaining challenges have included the poor yield and quality of in vitro-generated platelets. We have shown that infusing megakaryocytes leads to intrapulmonary release of functional platelets. A Src kinase inhibitor (SU6656), a Rho-associated kinase inhibitor (Y27632), and an aurora B kinase inhibitor (AZD1152) have been shown to increase megakaryocyte ploidy and in vitro proplatelet release...
March 27, 2018: Blood Advances
A Sionis, R Suades, J Sans-Roselló, M Sánchez-Martínez, J Crespo, T Padró, J Cubedo, A Ferrero-Gregori, M Vila-Perales, A Duran-Cambra, L Badimon
BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is the leading cause of death in patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction (MI). Despite the recent advances in reperfusion and medical treatment mortality remains unacceptably high. Whether cells of the blood compartment in CS-patients are activated and release microparticles (cMPs) that may be both messengers and biomarkers of cell damage is not known. We aimed to investigate the cMP subtypes and parental activated cells of ST-elevation MI (STEMI)-patients complicated by CS and that of non-CS STEMI-patients (non-CS) in order to identify a cMP signature that could aid CS patient's risk stratification...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Kentaro Imamura, Keita Tachi, Tadahiro Takayama, Ryutaro Shohara, Hironori Kasai, Jisen Dai, Seiichi Yamano
We have developed a unique delivery system of growth factors using collagen membranes (CMs) to induce bone regeneration. We hypothesized that fibroblast growth factor18 (FGF-18), a pleiotropic protein that stimulates proliferation in several tissues, can be a good candidate to use our delivery system for bone regeneration. Cell viability, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and marker gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation were evaluated after mouse preosteoblasts were cultured with a CM containing FGF-18, a CM containing platelet-derived growth factor, or a CM alone...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
Haruhiko Tokuda, Gen Kuroyanagi, Takashi Onuma, Yukiko Enomoto, Tomoaki Doi, Hiroki Iida, Takanobu Otsuka, Shinji Ogura, Toru Iwama, Kumi Kojima, Osamu Kozawa
It has been previously reported that HSP27 is released from platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients according to phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ristocetin, a glycoprotein (GP)Ib/IX/V activator, on the release of HSP27 and the effect of anti-platelet agents, such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), on this release. Forty-six patients with type 2 DM were recruited, and classified into two groups depending on administration of anti-platelet agents, resulting in 31 patients without these agents (control group) and 15 patients with them (anti-platelet group)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Amirhossein Mafi, Srinivas Abbina, Manu Thomas Kalathottukaren, James H Morrissey, Charles Haynes, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Jim Pfaendtner, Keng C Chou
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) released by human platelets has recently been shown to activate blood clotting and identified as a potential target for the development of novel antithrombotics. Recent studies have shown that polymers with cationic binding groups (CBGs) inhibit polyP and attenuate thrombosis. However, a good molecular-level understanding of the binding mechanism is lacking for further drug development. While molecular dynamics (MD) simulation can provide molecule-level information, the time scale required to simulate these large biomacromolecules makes classical MD simulation impractical...
March 14, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Caroline Sut, Sofiane Tariket, Cécile Aubron, Chaker Aloui, Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Philippe Berthelot, Sandrine Laradi, Andreas Greinacher, Olivier Garraud, Fabrice Cognasse
Platelets transfusion is a safe process, but during or after the process, the recipient may experience an adverse reaction and occasionally a serious adverse reaction (SAR). In this review, we focus on the inflammatory potential of platelet components (PCs) and their involvement in SARs. Recent evidence has highlighted a central role for platelets in the host inflammatory and immune responses. Blood platelets are involved in inflammation and various other aspects of innate immunity through the release of a plethora of immunomodulatory cytokines, chemokines, and associated molecules, collectively termed biological response modifiers that behave like ligands for endothelial and leukocyte receptors and for platelets themselves...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Victor J Drew, Ching-Li Tseng, Jerard Seghatchian, Thierry Burnouf
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial, frequent, pathology characterized by deficient tear production or increased evaporation of tears and associated with ocular surface alteration and inflammation. It mostly affects, but not exclusively, older individuals and leads to varying degrees of discomfort and decreased quality of life. Although the typical treatments of DES rely on using artificial tears, polyunsaturated fatty acids, integrin antagonists, anti-inflammatory agents, or on performing punctal occlusion, recently, standardized blood-derived serum eye drops (SED) are generating much interest as a new physiological treatment option...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Jeremy J Walsh
Participation in regular exercise is important for the maintenance and improvement of brain health across the lifespan. These beneficial effects are realized almost immediately, as a single bout of exercise transiently improves cognitive function after cessation from exercise. This postexercise time period represents an opportunity to strategically prescribe cognitively stimulating activities for enhancing brain plasticity and function. Mechanistically, acute exercise is proposed to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and increase regional activation and arousal of brain areas involved in cognitive control; however, the specific mechanisms underlying this facilitation are poorly understood...
March 9, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Kyoung Ha Cha, Xuewei Wang, Mark E Meyerhoff
Over the last three decades, there has been extensive interest in developing in vivo chemical sensors that can provide real-time measurements of blood gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH), glucose/lactate, and potentially other critical care analytes in the blood of hospitalized patients. However, clot formation with intravascular sensors and foreign body response toward sensors implanted subcutaneously can cause inaccurate analytical results. Further, the risk of bacterial infection from any sensor implanted in the human body is another major concern...
December 2017: Applied Materials Today
Jianhui Wu, Haimei Zhu, Guodong Yang, Jianhong He, Yuji Wang, Shurui Zhao, Xiaoyi Zhang, Lin Gui, Ming Zhao, Shiqi Peng
Background: Arterial thrombosis has been associated with a series of pathological conditions, and the discovery of arterial thrombosis inhibitor is of clinical importance. Methods: By analyzing the pharmacophores of anti-platelet agents, thrombus targeting peptide and anti-thrombotic nano-systems 3S-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquino-line-3-carbonyl-Thr-Ala-Arg-Gly-Asp(Val)-Val (IQCA-TAVV) was designed and prepared as a nano-scaled arterial thrombosis inhibitor. Results: In vitro the nanoparticles of IQCA-TAVV were able to adhere onto the surface of activated platelets, attenuate activated platelets to extend pseudopodia and inhibit activated platelets to form aggregators...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sonia Jaśkaniec, Christopher Hobbs, Andrés Seral-Ascaso, João Coelho, Michelle P Browne, Daire Tyndall, Takayoshi Sasaki, Valeria Nicolosi
This paper describes the wet-chemistry synthesis of highly crystalline hexagonal flakes of Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) produced at temperature as low as 100 °C. The flakes with diameter in the range of 0.5-1.5 μm and the thickness between 15 and 20 nm were obtained by homogeneous precipitation method with the use of triethanolamine (TEA) and urea. By analyzing the intermediate products, it is suggested that, differently from previous reports, a thermodynamically metastable iron oxyhydroxide and Ni-TEA complex are firstly formed at room temperature...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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