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platelet releasate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922890/tolerability-and-biological-effects-of-long-acting-octreotide-in-patients-with-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-devices
#1
Rajiv Malhotra, Keyur B Shah, Raveen Chawla, Sammy Pedram, Melissa C Smallfield, Anna G Priday, Christine T DeWilde, Donald F Brophy
Patients with implanted continuous, non-pulsatile, left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have increased occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). While the pathophysiology is multifactorial, there are few treatments beyond supportive care. Octreotide acetate is a somatostatin analog that reduces GIB in various patient populations. However, there are sparse case-series that suggest octreotide acetate may reduce GIB in LVAD patients. This 10 patient, 28-week Phase I study evaluated the safety and tolerability of octreotide acetate long-acting release (LAR) 20 mg depot injection every four weeks until week 16 following LVAD placement...
December 2, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919911/in-vitro-activation-of-coagulation-by-human-neutrophil-dna-and-histone-proteins-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#2
Denis F Noubouossie, Matthew F Whelihan, Yuan-Bin Yu, Erica Sparkenbaugh, Rafal Pawlinski, Dougald M Monroe, Nigel S Key
NETosis is a physiological process in which neutrophils release their nuclear material in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been reported to directly promote thrombosis in animal models. Although the effects of purified NET components including DNA, histone proteins and neutrophil enzymes on coagulation have been characterized, the mechanism by which intact NETs promote thrombosis is largely unknown. In this study, human neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) or in buffer using PMA or calcium ionophore...
December 5, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917594/a-novel-two-nucleotide-deletion-in-hps6-affects-mepacrine-uptake-and-platelet-dense-granule-secretion-in-a-family-with-hermansky-pudlak-syndrome
#3
Oliver Andres, Verena Wiegering, Eva-Maria König, Anna Lena Schneider, Daniela Semeniak, Simon Stritt, Eva Klopocki, Harald Schulze
BACKGROUND: Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by oculocutaneous albinism and platelet dysfunction. We report on a novel HPS6 homozygous frameshift variant (c.1919_1920delTC; p.Val640Glyfs*29) in a nonconsanguineous Caucasian family with two affected siblings (index patients) who presented with oculocutaneous albinism at birth and a mild bleeding phenotype during childhood and adolescence. PROCEDURE: Genetic analysis was conducted by panel-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing...
December 4, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916002/long-term-effect-of-stents-eluting-6-mercaptopurine-in-porcine-coronary-arteries
#4
Matthijs S Ruiter, Albert Doornbos, Vivian de Waard, Robbert J de Winter, Nico J M Attevelt, Rob Steendam, Carlie J M de Vries
BACKGROUND: Drug-eluting stents (DES) have dramatically reduced restenosis rates compared to bare metal stents and are widely used in coronary artery angioplasty. The anti-proliferative nature of the drugs reduces smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation effectively, but unfortunately also negatively affects endothelialization of stent struts, necessitating prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy. Cell-type specific therapy may prevent this complication, giving rise to safer stents that do not require additional medication...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914933/differential-synthesis-and-release-of-il-18-and-il-18-binding-protein-from-human-platelets-and-their-implications-for-hiv-infection
#5
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cecile Tremblay, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family and is produced in the body from macrophages, epithelial and dendritic cells, keratinocytes, adrenal cortex etc. The cytokine is produced as an inactive precursor that is cleaved inside cells into its mature form by activated caspase 1, which exists as an inactive precursor in human cells and requires assembly of an inflammasomes for its activation. We show here for the first time that human platelets contain transcripts for the IL-18 gene. They synthesize the cytokine de novo, process and release it upon activation...
December 1, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914085/determining-platelet-activation-and-aggregation-in-response-to-bacteria
#6
Oonagh Shannon
Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to interact with human platelets to mediate platelet activation and aggregation. The importance of these interactions to the immune response or pathogenesis of bacterial infection has not been clarified. It may therefore be valuable to assess platelet responses mediated by diverse strains of bacteria. Here, I describe a method to study platelet integrin activation and granule release using flow cytometry, and a complementary method to study platelet aggregation using a dedicated platelet aggregometer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913753/neutrophil-derived-microparticles-are-released-into-the-coronary-circulation-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-in-acute-coronary-syndromes
#7
Gonzalo J Martinez, Jennifer Y Barraclough, Shirley Nakhla, Vivian Kienzle, Stacy Robertson, Ziad Mallat, David S Celermajer, Sanjay Patel
AIMS: To evaluate (i) local coronary and systemic levels of microparticles (MP) in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) and Stable Angina Pectoris (SAP) patients and (ii) their release after plaque disruption with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Microparticles are small vesicles originating from plasma membranes of cells after activation or apoptosis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Neutrophils play a role in plaque destabilisation and shed neutrophil-derived microparticles have the potential to drive significant pro-inflammatory and thrombotic downstream effects...
December 2, 2016: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913545/what-have-we-learned-from-large-population-studies-of-von-willebrand-disease
#8
Robert R Montgomery, Veronica H Flood
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a critical regulator of hemostatic processes, including collagen binding, platelet adhesion, and platelet aggregation. It also serves as a carrier protein to normalize plasma factor VIII synthesis, release, and survival. While VWF protein measurements by immunoassay are reasonably comparable between institutions, the measurement of VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) has significant variability. Other tests of VWF function, including collagen binding or platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa binding, are not universally available, yet these functional defects may cause major bleeding even with normal VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and VWF:RCo assays...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911367/a-simple-fluorescence-assay-for-quantification-of-canine-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release
#9
Unity Jeffery, Robert D Gray, Dana N LeVine
Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA, histones and neutrophil proteins released in response to infectious and inflammatory stimuli. Although a component of the innate immune response, NETs are implicated in a range of disease processes including autoimmunity and thrombosis. This protocol describes a simple method for canine neutrophil isolation and quantification of NETs using a microplate fluorescence assay. Blood is collected using conventional venipuncture techniques. Neutrophils are isolated using dextran sedimentation and a density gradient using conditions optimized for dog blood...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908798/platelets-are-responsible-for-the-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-in-blood-clots-inside-and-around-blood-vessels-in-mouse-brain-after-thrombosis
#10
Lilia Y Kucheryavykh, Josué Dávila-Rodríguez, David E Rivera-Aponte, Lidia V Zueva, A Valance Washington, Priscilla Sanabria, Mikhail Y Inyushin
INTRODUCTION: Platelets contain beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as Aβ peptide (Aβ) that can be released upon activation. During thrombosis, platelets are concentrated in clots and activated. METHODS: We used in vivo fluorescent analysis and electron microscopy in mice to determine to what degree platelets are concentrated in clots. We used immunostaining to visualize Aβ after photothrombosis in mouse brains. RESULTS: Both in vivo results and electron microscopy revealed that platelets were 300-500 times more concentrated in clots than in non-clotted blood...
November 28, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905868/short-term-effects-of-low-let-radiation-on-the-endothelial-barrier-uncoupling-of-pecam-1-and-the-production-of-endothelial-microparticles
#11
Thomas Templin, Preety Sharma, Peter Guida, Peter Grabham
A significant target for radiation-induced effects is the microvascular system, which is critical to healthy tissue function and its pathology is linked to disrupted endothelial barrier function. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation is a source of noncancer pathologies in humans and little is known about the early events that could initiate subsequent diseases. However, it is well known that gamma radiation causes a very early disruption of the endothelial barrier at doses below those required for cytotoxic effects...
December 1, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901390/effects-of-various-antiplatelet-drugs-on-ex-vivo-platelet-activation-induced-by-equine-herpesvirus-type-1
#12
Daniela Hernandez, Wee Ming Yeo, Marjory B Brooks, Sally L Ness, Thomas J Divers, Tracy Stokol
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of treatment of horses with standard platelet inhibitors on ex vivo inhibition of platelet activation by equine herpesvirus type I (EHV-I). ANIMALS II healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, horses were treated orally for 5 days with theophylline (5 mg/kg, q 12 h), pentoxifylline (10 mg/kg, q 12 h), clopidogrel bisulfate (4 mg/kg, q 24 h), acetylsalicylic acid (20 mg/kg, q 24 h), or placebo. Horses received all treatments, each separated by a 3-week washout period...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900452/microparticles-from-splenectomized-%C3%AE-thalassemia-hbe-patients-play-roles-on-procoagulant-activities-with-thrombotic-potential
#13
Phatchanat Klaihmon, Kunwadee Phongpao, Wasinee Kheansaard, Egarit Noulsri, Archrob Khuhapinant, Suthat Fucharoen, Noppawan Phumala Morales, Saovaros Svasti, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Pornthip Chaichompoo
Thromboembolic events including cerebral thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are major complications in β-thalassemia. Damaged red blood cells and chronic platelet activation in splenectomized β-thalassemia/HbE patients were associated with increased microparticles (MPs) releases into blood circulation. MPs are small membrane vesicles, which play important roles on coagulation. However, the role of MP in thalassemia is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of splenectomized-MPs on platelet activation and aggregation were investigated...
November 29, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900155/normal-platelet-function-in-platelet-concentrates-requires-non-platelet-cells-a-comparative-in-vitro-evaluation-of-leucocyte-rich-type-1a-and-leucocyte-poor-type-3b-platelet-concentrates
#14
William R Parrish, Breana Roides, Julia Hwang, Michael Mafilios, Brooks Story, Samir Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic success of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may vary based on the composition and preparation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular components of platelet concentrates produced by a leucocyte-rich (LR-PRP) and a leucocyte-poor PRP systems (LP-PRP). METHODS: Parameters evaluated included platelet recovery, platelet concentration, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) composition, platelet growth factor release and stimulation of human tendon cell proliferation in vitro...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897101/platelets-from-glioblastoma-patients-promote-angiogenesis-of-tumor-endothelial-cells-and-exhibit-increased-vegf-content-and-release
#15
Clara Di Vito, Stefania Elena Navone, Giovanni Marfia, Loubna Abdel Hadi, Maria Elisa Mancuso, Alessandro Pecci, Francesco Maria Crisà, Valeria Berno, Paolo Rampini, Rolando Campanella, Laura Riboni
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and fatal intracranial cancer in humans and exhibits intense and aberrant angiogenesis that sustains its malignancy and involves several angiogenic signals. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role and is overexpressed in GBM. Different cells appear to act as triggers of the aberrant angiogenesis, and, among them, platelets act as key participants. In order to provide further insights into the platelet features and angiogenic role in GBM, this study investigated the effects of platelet releasate on GBM-derived endothelial cells (GECs) and the levels of VEGF and endostatin, as pro- and anti-angiogenic components of platelet releasate from GBM patients...
November 29, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895638/intercellular-interactions-as-regulators-of-netosis
#16
REVIEW
Nayef M Kazzaz, Gautam Sule, Jason S Knight
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are chromatin-derived webs extruded from neutrophils in response to either infection or sterile stimulation with chemicals, cytokines, or microbial products. The vast majority of studies have characterized NET release (also called NETosis) in pure neutrophil cultures in vitro. The situation is surely more complex in vivo as neutrophils constantly sample not only pathogens and soluble mediators but also signals from cellular partners, including platelets and endothelial cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895175/platelets-mediate-host-defense-against-staphylococcus-aureus-through-direct-bactericidal-activity-and-by-enhancing-macrophage-activities
#17
Ramadan A Ali, Leah M Wuescher, Keith R Dona, Randall G Worth
Platelets are the chief effector cells in hemostasis. However, recent evidence suggests they have multiple roles in host defense against infection. Reports by us and others showed that platelets functionally contribute to protection against Staphylococcus aureus infection. In the current study, the capacity of mouse platelets to participate in host defense against S. aureus infection was determined by assessing two possibilities. First, we determined the ability of platelets to kill S. aureus directly; and, second, we tested the possibility that platelets enhance macrophage phagocytosis and intracellular killing of S...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890405/platelets-inhibit-migration-of-canine-osteosarcoma-cells
#18
S C Bulla, P R Badial, R C Silva, K Lunsford, C Bulla
The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889498/bloc-2-subunit-hps6-deficiency-affects-the-tubulation-and-secretion-of-von-willebrand-factor-from-mouse-endothelial-cells
#19
Jing Ma, Zhe Zhang, Lin Yang, Janos Kriston-Vizi, Daniel F Cutler, Wei Li
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a recessive disorder with bleeding diathesis, which has been linked to platelet granule defects. Both platelet granules and endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are members of lysosome-related organelles (LROs) whose formation is regulated by HPS protein associated complexes such as BLOC (biogenesis of lysosome organelles complex) -1, -2, -3, AP-3 (adaptor protein complex-3) and HOPS (homotypic fusion and protein sorting complex). Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is critical to hemostasis, which is stored in a highly-multimerized form as tubules in the WPBs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886001/strategy-for-the-hemocompatibility-testing-of-microparticles
#20
S Braune, S Basu, K Kratz, J Bäckemo Johansson, M Reinthaler, A Lendlein, F Jung
Polymer-based microparticles are applied as non-thrombogenic or thrombogenic materials in a wide variety of intra- or extra-corporeal medical devices. As demanded by the regulatory agencies, the hemocompatibility of these blood contacting biomaterials has to be evaluated in vitro to ensure that the particle systems appropriately fulfill the envisioned function without causing undesired events such as thrombosis or inflammation. Currently described in vitro assays for hemocompatibility testing of particles comprise tests with different single cell types (e...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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