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3D cardiac

M Hirschvogel, M Bassilious, L Jagschies, S M Wildhirt, M W Gee
A model for patient-specific cardiac mechanics simulation is introduced, incorporating a 3-dimensional finite element model of the ventricular part of the heart which is coupled to a reduced-order 0-dimensional closed-loop vascular system, heart valve and atrial chamber model.The ventricles are modeled by a nonlinear orthotropic passive material law. The electrical activation is mimicked by a prescribed parametrized active stress acting along a generic muscle fiber orientation. Our activation function is constructed such that the start of ventricular contraction and relaxation as well as the active stress curve's slope are parameterized...
October 15, 2016: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Douglas Wildes, Warren Lee, Bruno Haider, Scott Cogan, Krishnakumar Sundaresan, David Mills, Christopher Yetter, Patrick Hart, Christopher Haun, Mikael Concepcion, Johan Kirkhorn, Marc Bitoun
We developed a 2.5 x 6.6 mm 2D array transducer with integrated transmit/receive ASIC for 4D ICE (real-time 3D IntraCardiac Echocardiography) applications. The ASIC and transducer design were optimized so that the high voltage transmit, low-voltage TGC (time-gain control) and preamp, subaperture beamformer, and digital control circuits for each transducer element all fit within the 0.019 mm2 area of the element. The transducer assembly was deployed in a 10 Fr (3.3 mm diameter) catheter, integrated with a GE Vivid1 E9 ultrasound imaging system, and evaluated in three pre-clinical studies...
October 12, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Roshanak R Markley, Asghar Ali, Jonathan Potfay, Walter Paulsen, Ion S Jovin
The appropriate use of echocardiography may reduce the need for invasive diagnostic cardiac procedures. The right side of the heart has recently gained interest among cardiologists as it became clear that abnormalities of the right heart morphology and function are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography is easy to perform, relatively cheap, readily available and do not pose the risk of ionizing radiation. Conventional 2D and, more recently, 3D echocardiography provides pertinent anatomic and physiologic information about the right side of the heart...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Anna Mallone, Benedikt Weber, Simon P Hoerstrup
In the effort of improving treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD), scientists struggle with the lack of the regenerative capacities of finally differentiated cardiovascular tissues. In this context, the advancements in regenerative medicine contributed to the development of cell-based therapies as well as macro- and micro-scale tissue-engineering technologies. The current experimental approaches focus on different regenerative strategies including a broad spectrum of techniques such as paracrine-based stimulation of autologous cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal cell injections, 3D microtissue culture techniques and vascular tissue-engineering methods...
July 2016: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Arnold C T Ng, Shi Yi Goo, Nicole Roche, Rob J van der Geest, William Y S Wang
BACKGROUND: Although epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is associated with increased incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), its role in myocardial systolic dysfunction is unclear. The present study aimed to identify independent determinants of EAT volume in patients without obstructive CAD, and to evaluate the association between EAT volume (vs other measures of obesity) and myocardial systolic strain analysis. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 130 patients without obstructive CAD on contrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography imaging and normal left ventricular ejection fraction on 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography...
June 23, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Johannes Scherr, Philip Jung, Tibor Schuster, Lars Pollmer, Gert Eisele, Franz Goss, Jens Schneider, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Increased left atrial (LA) dimensions are known to be a risk factor in predicting cardiovascular events and mortality and to be one key diagnostic tool to assess diastolic dysfunction. Currently, LA measurements are usually conducted using 2D-echocardiography, although there are well-known limitations. Real-time 3D-echocardiography is able to overcome these limitations, furthermore being a valid measurement tool compared to reference standards (e.g. cardiac magnetic resonance imaging)...
October 7, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Luciana Lastrucci, Simona Borghesi, Silvia Bertocci, Chiara Gasperi, Andrea Rampini, Giovanna Buonfrate, Paola Pernici, Roberta De Majo, Pietro Giovanni Gennari
PURPOSE: To compare 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) treatment plans based on free-breathing (FB) and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and investigated whether DIBH technique enables a decrease of cardiac left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) and lungs dose with respect to the FB. METHODS: Twenty-three left-sided breast cancer patients referred for breast radiotherapy were included. The planning target volume (PTV) encompassed the breast and organs at risk including heart, LADCA, lungs, and contralateral breast, which were contoured in FB and DIBH CT scans...
September 27, 2016: Tumori
Daniel Romero, Oscar Camara, Frank Sachse, Rafael Sebastian
The specialised conducting tissues present in the ventricles are responsible for the fast distribution of the electrical impulse from the atrio-ventricular node to regions in the subendocardial myocardium. Characterisation of anatomical features of the specialised conducting tissues in the ventricles is highly challenging, in particular its most distal section, which is connected to the working myocardium via Purkinje-myocardial junctions. The goal of this work is to characterise the architecture of the distal section of the Purkinje network by differentiating Purkinje cells from surrounding tissue, performing a segmentation of Purkinje fibres at cellular scale, and mathematically describing its morphology and interconnections...
2016: PloS One
Ziyad O Knio, Mario Montealegre-Gallegos, Lu Yeh, Bilal Chaudary, Jelliffe Jeganathan, Robina Matyal, Kamal R Khabbaz, David C Liu, Venkatachalam Senthilnathan, Feroze Mahmood
BACKGROUND: Traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid annulus (TA) dilation is based on single-frame measurements of the septolateral (S-L) dimension. This may not represent either the axis or the extent of dynamism through the entire cardiac cycle. In this study, we used real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to analyze geometric changes in multiple axes of the TA throughout the cardiac cycle in patients without right ventricular abnormalities...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Animesh Tandon, Lorraine James, Markus Henningsson, René M Botnar, Amanda Potersnak, Gerald F Greil, Tarique Hussain
BACKGROUND: The use of gadolinium contrast agents in cardiovascular magnetic resonance is well-established and serves to improve both vascular imaging as well as enable late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for tissue characterization. Currently, gadofosveset trisodium, an intravascular contrast agent, combined with a three-dimensional inversion recovery balanced steady state free precession (3D IR bSSFP) sequence, is commonly used in pediatric cardiac imaging and yields excellent vascular imaging, but cannot be used for late gadolinium enhancement...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Krzysztof Wróbel, Katarzyna Kurnicka, Marcin Zygier, Wojciech Dyk, Ryszard Wojdyga, Dariusz Zieliński, Małgorzata Jarzębska, Zbigniew Juraszyński, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Piotr Pruszczyk, Andrzej Biederman, Giovanni Speziali, Uwe Kasten
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Artificial chordal implantation in order to repair flail or prolapse mitral valve leaflet requires open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Transapical off-pump implantation of neochordae is a new surgical technique proposed to treat degenerative mitral valve regurgitation. The procedure is performed using the NeoChord DS1000 system (NeoChord, Inc., Eden Praire, MN), which facilitates both implantation and tension adjustment of the neochordae under transesophageal echocardiographic 2D and 3D guidance...
October 7, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
Yu Shrike Zhang, Andrea Arneri, Simone Bersini, Su-Ryon Shin, Kai Zhu, Zahra Goli-Malekabadi, Julio Aleman, Cristina Colosi, Fabio Busignani, Valeria Dell'Erba, Colin Bishop, Thomas Shupe, Danilo Demarchi, Matteo Moretti, Marco Rasponi, Mehmet Remzi Dokmeci, Anthony Atala, Ali Khademhosseini
Engineering cardiac tissues and organ models remains a great challenge due to the hierarchical structure of the native myocardium. The need of integrating blood vessels brings additional complexity, limiting the available approaches that are suitable to produce integrated cardiovascular organoids. In this work we propose a novel hybrid strategy based on 3D bioprinting, to fabricate endothelialized myocardium. Enabled by the use of our composite bioink, endothelial cells directly bioprinted within microfibrous hydrogel scaffolds gradually migrated towards the peripheries of the microfibers to form a layer of confluent endothelium...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Alejandra Ortega, Jean Provost, Ling Tong, Pedro Santos, Brecht Heyde, Mathieu Pernot, Jan D'hooge
It was previously demonstrated in 2D echocardiography that a proper multi-line transmit (MLT) implementation can be used to increase frame rate while preserving image quality. Initial findings for extending MLT to 3D showed that it might address the low spatiotemporal resolution of current volumetric ultrasound systems. However, to date, it remains unclear how much transmit/receive parallelization would be possible using a 3D MLT system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to contrast different MLT setups for 3D imaging by computer simulation in order to determine an optimal trade-off between the amount of parallelization of a MLT system and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio of the resulting images...
September 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Gang Yang, Zhenghua Xiao, Xiaomei Ren, Haiyan Long, Hong Qian, Kunlong Ma, Yingqiang Guo
Gelatin hydrogel crosslinked by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) exhibits excellent performance in cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. We examined the gelation time and gel strength of gelatin/mTG hydrogels in various proportions to investigate their physical properties and tested their degradation performances in vitro. Cell morphology and viability of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) cultured on the 2D gel surface or in 3D hydrogel encapsulation were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining...
2016: PeerJ
Joonho Jung, Young-Hak Kim, Namkug Kim, Dong Hyun Yang
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate cardiac computed tomog-raphy (CT) quantitative analysis software with a patient-specific, 17-segment myocardial model that uses electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiac CT images to differentiate between normal controls and severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients. ECG-gated cardiac CT images from 35 normal controls and 144 AS patients were semiautomatically segmented to create a patient-specific, 17-segment myocardial model. Two experts then manually determined the anterior and posterior interven-tricular grooves to be boundaries between the 1st and 2nd segments and between the 3rd and 4th segments, respectively, to correct the model...
2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Zekun Cai, Jianwei Dai, Dan Wu, Jian Qiu, Jun Ma, Guoying Li, Wei Zhu, Hongqiang Lei, Wenhua Huang, Heye Zhang, Lin Xu
The aim of this study is to investigate the value of 3-dimensional global peak longitudinal strain (GPLS) derived from the 3-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the diagnosis of the complex non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) by comparing GPLS to the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score.A total of 59 inpatients with NSTE-ACS in our hospital between October 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled into our study...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Choukri Mekkaoui, Timothy G Reese, Marcel P Jackowski, Stephen F Cauley, Kawin Setsompop, Himanshu Bhat, David E Sosnovik
Purpose To develop a clinically feasible whole-heart free-breathing diffusion-tensor (DT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach with an imaging time of approximately 15 minutes to enable three-dimensional (3D) tractography. Materials and Methods The study was compliant with HIPAA and the institutional review board and required written consent from the participants. DT imaging was performed in seven healthy volunteers and three patients with pulmonary hypertension by using a stimulated echo sequence. Twelve contiguous short-axis sections and six four-chamber sections that covered the entire left ventricle were acquired by using simultaneous multisection (SMS) excitation with a blipped-controlled aliasing in parallel imaging readout...
September 28, 2016: Radiology
Massimiliano Cantinotti, Israel Valverde, Shelby Kutty
The purpose of this article is to discuss technical considerations and current applications of three-dimensional (3D) printing in congenital heart disease (CHD). CHD represent an attractive field for the application of 3D printed models, with consistent progress made in the past decade. Current 3D models are able to reproduce complex cardiac and extra-cardiac anatomy including small details with very limited range of errors (<1 mm), so this tool could be of value in the planning of surgical or percutaneous treatments for selected cases of CHD...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Wendy Keung, Lihuan Ren, Sen Li, Andy On-Tik Wong, Anant Chopra, Chi-Wing Kong, Gordon F Tomaselli, Christopher S Chen, Ronald A Li
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a potential unlimited ex vivo source of ventricular (V) cardiomyocytes (CMs), but hESC-VCMs and their engineered tissues display immature traits. In adult VCMs, sarcolemmal (sarc) and mitochondrial (mito) ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play crucial roles in excitability and cardioprotection. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological roles and use of sarcKATP and mitoKATP in hESC-VCM. We showed that SarcIK, ATP in single hESC-VCMs was dormant under baseline conditions, but became markedly activated by cyanide (CN) or the known opener P1075 with a current density that was ~8-fold smaller than adult; These effects were reversible upon washout or the addition of GLI or HMR1098...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Giovanni Biglino, Claudio Capelli, Despina Koniordou, Di Robertshaw, Lindsay-Kay Leaver, Silvia Schievano, Andrew M Taylor, Jo Wray
BACKGROUND: Nurse education and training are key to providing congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with consistent high standards of care as well as enabling career progression. One approach for improving educational experience is the use of 3D patient-specific models. OBJECTIVES: To gather pilot data to assess the feasibility of using 3D models of CHD during a training course for cardiac nurses; to evaluate the potential of 3D models in this context, from the nurses' perspective; and to identify possible improvements to optimise their use for teaching...
September 26, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
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