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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789952/carotid-body-ablation-a-new-target-to-address-central-autonomic-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Rodrigo Iturriaga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An abnormal heightened carotid body (CB) chemoreflex, which produces autonomic dysfunction and sympathetic overactivation, is the common hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), resistant hypertension, systolic heart failure (HF), and cardiometabolic diseases. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the elimination of the CB chemosensory input to the brainstem may reduce the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations in sympathetic-associated diseases in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: A growing body of evidence obtained in preclinical animal models support that an enhanced CB discharge produces sympathetic hyperactivity, baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability impairment, breathing instability, hypertension, and insulin resistance...
May 22, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789705/the-short-term-effect-of-ultrasound-and-peripheral-nerve-stimulator-guided-femoral-nerve-block-with-phenol-on-the-outcomes-of-patients-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Yasin Demir, Ayça Uran Şan, Serdar Kesikburun, Evren Yaşar, Bilge Yılmaz
STUDY DESIGN: A pre-post descriptive study. OBJECTIVES: To examine the immediate effects of ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block with phenol (UGFNBwP) in managing the lower limb spasticity of individuals with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Ankara, Turkey. METHODS: Nineteen patients with traumatic SCI presenting with lower extremity spasticity were treated with UGFNBwP. Modified Ashworth Scale of hip flexion and knee extension, functional independence measure motor subscale, difficulty of catheterization, hygiene score, spasm frequency, sleep quality, and patient satisfaction (PS) were measured in all patients prior to treatment, in the first week and second month...
May 22, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781380/finally-a-regimen-to-extend-human-life-expectancy
#3
James Larrick, Andrew R Mendelsohn
The US has the most expensive healthcare system worldwide. Yet measures of healthspan and life expectancy are well below the major industrialized nations. With the US population aged 65 and older projected to double by mid-century a healthcare crisis is looming. Within this context huge interest and investment has emerged in technologies and drugs to address aging with an expected benefit to healthspan. The thesis being that such basic interventions will reduce morbidity caused by many chronic diseases where biological age itself is the major risk factor...
May 21, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773357/acute-transverse-myelitis-following-an-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-an-unusual-presentation
#4
Thomas Simon, Emmanuel Cheuret, Léa Fiedler, Catherine Mengelle, Eloïse Baudou, Kumaran Deiva
Opso-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a very rare and severe condition. Ataxia, opsoclonus, myoclonus and/or behavioral and sleeping disturbances define that autoimmune disorder syndrome which is paraneoplastic or triggered by an infection. Here, we report a 3 year-old immunocompetent boy who developed an atypical OMS which was later complicated by an acute transverse myelitis. Screening for neuroblastoma was negative and extensive infectious screening revealed an active HHV-6 infection confirmed by blood and cerebrospinal fluid PCR...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771039/-clinical-study-on-the-relations-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea%C3%AE-syndrome-and-the-degree-and-prognosis-of-coronary-lesions
#5
M J Cheng, M J Cheng, Q M Wei, L H Yang, R T Liu, S T Li
Objective: The aim of this study is to discuss the relations between obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and severity and prognosis of coronary artery disease. Method: The OSAHS patients were divided into mild, moderate and severe groups according to Results of sleep monitoring. The severity of coronary artery lesion in each group was compared by counting the numbers of the lesion extension of coronary artery, calculating the Gensin score and evaluating the Thromblysis in myocardial infarction...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770222/recurrent-vertebral-fractures-in-a-young-adult-a-closer-look-at-bone-health-in-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Eleanor P Thong, Sarah Catford, Julie Fletcher, Phillip Wong, Peter J Fuller, Helena Teede, Frances Milat
The association between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and bone health has garnered interest over the years. Fracture risk is known to be increased in individuals with T1DM, although bone health assessment is not often performed in the clinical setting. We describe the case of a 21-year-old male with longstanding T1DM with multilevel vertebral fractures on imaging, after presenting with acute back pain without apparent trauma. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) revealed significantly reduced bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766217/involvement-of-extrasynaptic-glutamate-in-physiological-and-pathophysiological-changes-of-neuronal-excitability
#7
REVIEW
Balázs Pál
Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, as the majority of neurons use glutamate as neurotransmitter. It is also well known that this neurotransmitter is not restricted to synaptic clefts, but found in the extrasynaptic regions as ambient glutamate. Extrasynaptic glutamate originates from spillover of synaptic release, as well as from astrocytes and microglia. Its concentration is magnitudes lower than in the synaptic cleft, but receptors responding to it have higher affinity for it...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753033/nemolizumab-in-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis-randomized-phase-ii-long-term-extension-study
#8
Kenji Kabashima, Masutaka Furue, Jon M Hanifin, Grazyna Pulka, Andreas Wollenberg, Ryszard Galus, Takafumi Etoh, Ryosuke Mihara, Miwa Nakano, Thomas Ruzicka
BACKGROUND: Nemolizumab, an anti-interleukin-31 receptor A monoclonal antibody, improved pruritus, dermatitis, and sleep in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments in a phase II, 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Part A) (NCT01986933). OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term efficacy and safety of nemolizumab injected subcutaneously every 4 weeks (Q4W) or every 8 weeks (Q8W) in a 52-week double-blind extension (Part B)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742118/sleep-habits-and-strategies-of-ultramarathon-runners
#9
Tristan Martin, Pierrick J Arnal, Martin D Hoffman, Guillaume Y Millet
Among factors impacting performance during an ultramarathon, sleep is an underappreciated factor that has received little attention. The aims of this study were to characterize habitual sleep behaviors in ultramarathon runners and to examine strategies they use to manage sleep before and during ultramarathons. Responses from 636 participants to a questionnaire were considered. This population was found to sleep more on weekends and holidays (7-8 h to 8-9 h) than during weekdays (6-7 h to 7-8 h; p < 0.001)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737884/the-impact-of-shift-work-on-eating-patterns-and-self-care-strategies-utilised-by-experienced-and-inexperienced-nurses
#10
Jane Gifkins, Amy Johnston, Rebecca Loudoun
For nurses, shift work is a necessity, required to provide 24-h continuous care for patients. Research posits that fatigue amongst shift-working nurses is associated with inadequate and poorly timed sleep and also strongly influenced by the timing, quality and quantity of food consumed. The aim of this investigation was to examine differences and similarities in the food choices and eating patterns of nurses exposed to different lengths of time in shift work, as a means of understanding how nurses can adapt their eating patterns to better manage fatigue and sleep loss...
May 8, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722893/response-to-chronic-sleep-restriction-extension-and-total-sleep-deprivation-in-humans-adaptation-or-preserved-sleep-homeostasis
#11
Jelena Skorucak, Emma Arbon, Derk-Jan Dijk, Peter Achermann
Sleep is regulated by a homeostatic process which in the two-process model of human sleep regulation is represented by EEG slow-wave activity (SWA). Many studies of acute manipulation of wake duration have confirmed the precise homeostatic regulation of SWA in rodents and humans. However, some chronic sleep restriction studies in rodents show that the sleep homeostatic response, as indexed by SWA, is absent or diminishes suggesting adaptation occurs. Here, we investigate the response to 7 days of sleep restriction (6 h time in bed) and extension (10 h time in bed) as well as the response to subsequent total sleep deprivation in 35 healthy participants in a cross-over design...
May 2, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700071/defining-the-human-envirome-an-omics-approach-for-assessing-the-environmental-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Daniel W Riggs, Ray A Yeager, Aruni Bhatnagar
Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, but in comparison with genetics, environmental factors have received less attention. Evaluation of environmental determinants of cardiovascular disease is limited by the lack of comprehensive omics approaches for integrating multiple environmental exposures. Hence, to understand the effects of the environment as a whole (envirome), it is important to delineate specific domains of the environment and to assess how, individually and collectively; these domains affect cardiovascular health...
April 27, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698642/obesity-and-ventricular-repolarization-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Jad Omran, Brian P Bostick, Albert K Chan, Martin A Alpert
Obesity is known to be a strong predictor of sudden cardiac death. For this reason, concern exists that this association may be related to delayed ventricular repolarization (VR), which has been extensively studied in overweight and obese patients. The corrected QT interval (QTc) and QT or QTc dispersion have been the most commonly-used electrocardiographic methods for assessing VR. Multiple controlled studies demonstrated that QTc and QT or QTc dispersion were significantly longer/greater in overweight and obese subjects than in normal weight controls...
April 23, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689760/joint-regression-and-classification-via-relational-regularization-for-parkinson-s-disease-diagnosis
#14
Haijun Lei, Zhongwei Huang, Tao Han, Qiuming Luo, Ye Cai, Gang Liu, Baiying Lei
It is known that the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) progress successively, early and accurate diagnosis of the disease is of great importance, which slows the disease deterioration further and alleviates mental and physical suffering. In this paper, we propose a joint regression and classification scheme for PD diagnosis using baseline multi-modal neuroimaging data. Specifically, we devise a new feature selection method via relational learning in a unified multi-task feature selection model. Three kinds of relationships (e...
April 10, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688857/less-invasive-treatment-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-with-syndromic-craniosynostosis
#15
Silvia Müller-Hagedorn, Cornelia Wiechers, Jörg Arand, Wolfgang Buchenau, Margit Bacher, Michael Krimmel, Siegmar Reinert, Christian F Poets
BACKGROUND: Infants and children with syndromic craniosynostosis (SCS), such as Apert-, Crouzon- or Pfeiffer syndrome, are prone to sleep disordered breathing (SDB) including obstructive sleep apnea and upper airway resistance syndrome (OSAS, UARS), potentially leading to tracheostomy. We modified the Tübingen Palatal Plate (TPP), an oral appliance with a velar extension effectively treating airway obstruction in Robin sequence, by attaching a tube to its velar extension to bridge the narrow pharyngeal airway in SCS patients...
April 23, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669906/cortical-and-subcortical-gray-matter-bases-of-cognitive-deficits-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#16
Shady Rahayel, Ronald B Postuma, Jacques Montplaisir, Daphné Génier Marchand, Frédérique Escudier, Malo Gaubert, Pierre-Alexandre Bourgouin, Julie Carrier, Oury Monchi, Sven Joubert, Frédéric Blanc, Jean-François Gagnon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities underlying cognitive impairment in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with or without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Fifty-two patients with RBD, including 17 patients with MCI, were recruited and compared to 41 controls. All participants underwent extensive clinical assessments, neuropsychological examination, and 3-tesla MRI acquisition of T1 anatomical images...
April 18, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663852/decreased-sleep-quality-in-parkinson-s-patients-is-associated-with-higher-anxiety-and-depression-prevalence-and-severity-and-correlates-with-pain-intensity-and-quality
#17
Abdul Qayyum Rana, Abdul Rehman M Qureshi, Yazan Shamli Oghli, Yosuf Saqib, Bilal Mohammed, Zainab Sarfraz, Ruqqiyah Rana
OBJECTIVE: Pain, poor sleep quality, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and other symptoms are frequently reported by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact that pain severity and interference has on non-motor symptoms (NMS) has not been extensively studied. The objective of the present study is to explore the relationship between sleep quality in PD to pain and other NMS that affect quality of life. METHODS: The study included 100 PD patients and 100 age and gender-matched controls assessed for pain severity and pain interference using the Brief Pain Inventory and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index...
April 17, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613997/neuromuscular-dysfunction-and-cortical-impairment-in-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#18
Mathieu Marillier, Mathieu Gruet, Sébastien Baillieul, Thibault Le Roux Mallouf, Bernard Wuyam, Renaud Tamisier, Patrick Levy, Jean-Louis Pepin, Samuel Verges
PURPOSE: Lower muscle strength and endurance have been reported in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Increased intracortical inhibition previously reported at rest in OSA suggests central neuromuscular impairments in these patients. We hypothesized that (i) OSA patients demonstrate reduced knee extensor strength and endurance due to central impairments and (ii) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment improves neuromuscular function in these patients. METHODS: Twelve OSA patients and 11 healthy controls performed intermittent knee extensions until task failure before and after 8 weeks of CPAP treatment or control period...
April 27, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607497/low-dose-naltrexone-for-induction-of-remission-in-crohn-s-disease
#19
REVIEW
Claire E Parker, Tran M Nguyen, Dan Segal, John K MacDonald, Nilesh Chande
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a transmural, relapsing inflammatory condition afflicting the digestive tract. Opioid signalling, long known to affect secretion and motility in the gut, has been implicated in the inflammatory cascade of Crohn's disease. Low dose naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, has garnered interest as a potential therapy. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low dose naltrexone for induction of remission in Crohn's disease...
April 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599851/potential-mechanisms-of-mindfulness-in-improving-sleep-and-distress
#20
Way K W Lau, Mei-Kei Leung, Yun-Kwok Wing, Tatia M C Lee
The mechanisms of mindfulness-improved sleep quality are not extensively studied. Recently, attention monitoring/awareness and acceptance in mindfulness have been proposed to be the underlying mechanisms that tackle distress and related disorders. The current study tested if acceptance moderated the relationship of awareness with psychological distress and sleep quality, and verified that psychological distress mediated the relationship between mindfulness and sleep quality in a group of community-dwelling healthy adults...
2018: Mindfulness
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