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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213614/reproductive-dysfunction-and-associated-pathology-in-women-undergoing-military-training
#1
REVIEW
Robert M Gifford, R M Reynolds, J Greeves, R A Anderson, D R Woods
INTRODUCTION: Evidence from civilian athletes raises the question of whether reproductive dysfunction may be seen in female soldiers as a result of military training. Such reproductive dysfunction consists of impaired ovulation with or without long-term subfertility. METHODS: A critical review of pertinent evidence following an extensive literature search. RESULTS: The evidence points towards reduced energy availability as the most likely explanation for exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212067/the-treatment-of-severe-childhood-aggression-study-12-weeks-of-extended-blinded-treatment-in-clinical-responders
#2
Robert L Findling, Lisa Townsend, Nicole V Brown, L Eugene Arnold, Kenneth D Gadow, David J Kolko, Nora K McNamara, Devin S Gary, Dana B Kaplin, Cristan A Farmer, Heidi Kipp, Craig Williams, Eric M Butter, Oscar G Bukstein, Robert Rice, Kristin Buchan-Page, Brooke S G Molina, Michael G Aman
OBJECTIVES: Previous "Treatment of Severe Childhood Aggression" (TOSCA) reports demonstrated that many children with severe physical aggression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) responded well to two randomized treatments (parent training [PT]+stimulant+placebo = Basic vs. PT+stimulant+risperidone = Augmented) for 9 weeks. An important clinical question is whether these favorable outcomes are maintained over longer times. METHODS: Clinical responders to the 9-week trial (n = 103/168), defined as Clinical Global Impressions (CGI)-Improvement of much/very much improved plus substantial reduction in parent ratings of disruptiveness, were followed another 12 weeks (21 weeks total) while remaining on blinded treatment...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194410/acute-feasibility-of-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-in-severely-obese-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Isabelle Vivodtzev, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Anne-Laure Borel, Angélique Grangier, Bernard Wuyam, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Louis Pépin
Objective. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are closely interconnected conditions both leading to high cardiovascular risk. Inactivity is frequent and physical activity programs remain difficult in these patients. We investigated the acute feasibility of two neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) modalities in extremely inactive obese patients with OSA. Design. A randomized cross-over study, with two experimental sessions (one per condition: multipath NMES versus conventional NMES). Setting. Outpatient research hospital...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193194/the-objective-physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-disease-health-in-older-women-opach-study
#4
Andrea Z LaCroix, Eileen Rillamas-Sun, David Buchner, Kelly R Evenson, Chongzhi Di, I-Min Lee, Steve Marshall, Michael J LaMonte, Julie Hunt, Lesley Fels Tinker, Marcia Stefanick, Cora E Lewis, John Bellettiere, Amy H Herring
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists to inform physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior guidelines for older people, especially women. Rigorous evidence on the amounts, intensities, and movement patterns associated with better health in later life is needed. METHODS/DESIGN: The Objective PA and Cardiovascular Health (OPACH) Study is an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Program that examines associations of accelerometer-assessed PA and sedentary behavior with cardiovascular and fall events...
February 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181463/reproducibility-of-an-extensive-self-report-questionnaire-used-in-secondary-coronary-prevention
#5
Kari Peersen, John Munkhaugen, Lars Gullestad, Toril Dammen, Torbjorn Moum, Jan Erik Otterstad
AIMS: Self-reported information from questionnaires is frequently used in clinical epidemiological studies, but few provide information on the reproducibility of instruments applied in secondary coronary prevention studies. This study aims to assess the test-retest reproducibility of the questionnaire applied in the cross-sectional NORwegian CORonary (NOR-COR) Prevention Study. METHODS: In the NOR-COR study 1127 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of 249 questions, of which there are both validated instruments and de novo questions...
January 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164452/sleep-obesity-relation-underlying-mechanisms-and-consequences-for-treatment
#6
REVIEW
M-P St-Onge
Short sleep duration has been associated with obesity in numerous epidemiological studies. However, such association studies cannot establish evidence of causality. Clinical intervention studies, on the other hand, can provide information on a causal effect of sleep duration on markers of weight gain: energy intake and energy expenditure. Herein is an overview of the science related to the impact of sleep restriction, in the context of clinical intervention studies, on energy intake, energy expenditure and body weight...
February 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149363/chunk-concatenation-evolves-with-practice-and-sleep-related-enhancement-consolidation-in-a-complex-arm-movement-sequence
#7
Klaus Blischke, Andreas Malangré
This paper addresses the notion of chunk concatenation being associated with sleep-related enhancement consolidation of motor sequence memory, thereby essentially contributing to improvements in sequence execution speed. To this end, element movement times of a multi-joint arm movement sequence incorporated in a recent study by Malangré et al. (2014) were reanalyzed. As sequence elements differed with respect to movement distance, element movement times had to be purged from differences solely due to varying trajectory lengths...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145912/possible-opioid-shopping-and-its-correlates
#8
Alexander M Walker, Lisa B Weatherby, M Soledad Cepeda, Daniel Bradford, Yingli Yuan
BACKGROUND: We created an operational definition of possible opioid shopping in US commercial health insurance data and examined its correlates. METHODS: The population consisted of 264,204 treatment courses in persons with a fill for an opioid or diuretic prescription in 2012 and a second within 18 months. We examined counts of prescribers and pharmacies and the numbers of fills and overlaps for ability to discriminate courses of opioids from diuretics, which were a negative control...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139148/circadian-preferences-in-young-adults-psychometric-properties-and-factor-structure-of-the-portuguese-version-of-the-preferences-scale-ps-6
#9
Daniel Ruivo Marques, Ana Allen Gomes, Lee Di Milia, Maria Helena Pinto de Azevedo
Morningness is a trait-like variable which has been extensively studied within chronobiology. Despite the number of existing measures to assess morningness, there is a need for brief instruments that are psychometrically sound to be used in applied settings. Accordingly, the modified version of the Preferences Scale (PS-6) comprises six items and was reported to have adequate reliability and satisfactory validity indicators. In this article, the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the PS-6 are reported...
January 31, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138105/sleep-problems-as-predictors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-causal-mechanisms-consequences-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Yoo Hyun Um, Seung-Chul Hong, Jong-Hyun Jeong
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is notorious for its debilitating consequences and early age of onset. The need for early diagnosis and intervention has frequently been underscored. Previous studies have attempted to clarify the bidirectional relationship between ADHD and sleep problems, proposing a potential role for sleep problems as early predictors of ADHD. Sleep deprivation, sleep-disordered breathing, and circadian rhythm disturbances have been extensively studied, yielding evidence with regard to their induction of ADHD-like symptoms...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128457/words-to-sleep-on-naps-facilitate-verb-generalization-in-habitually-and-nonhabitually-napping-preschoolers
#11
Michelle Sandoval, Julia A Leclerc, Rebecca L Gómez
A nap soon after encoding leads to better learning in infancy. However, whether napping plays the same role in preschoolers' learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 (N = 39), 3-year-old habitual and nonhabitual nappers learned novel verbs before a nap or a period of wakefulness and received a generalization test examining word extension to novel actors after 24 hr. Only habitual and nonhabitual nappers who napped after learning generalized 24 hr later. In Experiment 2 (N = 40), children learned the same verbs but were tested within 2-3 min of training...
January 27, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125436/psychosocial-difficulties-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Silvia Schiavolin, Alberto Raggi, Rui Quintas, Milda Cerniauskaite, Ambra M Giovannetti, Venusia Covelli, Luigi Romito, Antonio E Elia, Francesco Carella, Paola Soliveri, Matilde Leonardi
The aim of this study was to report the most frequent psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), to explore the relationship between PSDs, disability and quality of life (QoL), and to address the predictors of PSDs. Patients with PD were interviewed using a protocol composed of a questionnaire investigating PSDs (PARADISE 24), QoL, disability, comorbidity, and social support questionnaires, scales on resilience, personality traits, and empathy in physician. Most frequent PSDs were reported...
January 25, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125305/a-systematic-literature-review-of-psychotherapeutic-treatment-of-prolonged-symptoms-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Kjersti Bergersen, Joar Øveraas Halvorsen, Einar Aagaard Tryti, Solveig Isabel Taylor, Alexander Olsen
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are the most common of traumatic brain injuries and patients often experience a wide range of symptoms such as headache, fatigue, dizziness, sleep problems and subjective cognitive deficits. While most symptomatic patients recover quickly, a sub-group of ~ 10-20% of patients experience prolonged symptoms. There is currently a lack of evidence-based treatment for these patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychotherapeutic interventions specifically for patients with prolonged symptoms (> 3 months after injury) after mTBI...
January 26, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125251/examining-the-relations-among-the-dsm-5-alternative-model-of-personality-the-five-factor-model-and-externalizing-and-internalizing-behavior
#14
Chelsea E Sleep, Courtland S Hyatt, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Joshua D Miller
Given long-standing criticisms of the DSM's reliance on categorical models of psychopathology, including the poor reliability and validity of personality-disorder diagnoses, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published an alternative model (AM) of personality disorders in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013), which, in part, comprises 5 pathological trait domains based on the 5-factor model (FFM). However, the empirical profiles and discriminant validity of the AM traits remain in question...
January 26, 2017: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103894/impacts-of-caring-for-a-child-with-the-cdkl5-disorder-on-parental-wellbeing-and-family-quality-of-life
#15
Yuka Mori, Jenny Downs, Kingsley Wong, Barbara Anderson, Amy Epstein, Helen Leonard
BACKGROUND: Although research in this area remains sparse, raising a child with some genetic disorders has been shown to adversely impact maternal health and family quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate such impacts in families with a child with the CDKL5 disorder, a newly recognised genetic disorder causing severe neurodevelopmental impairments and refractory epilepsy. METHODS: Data were sourced from the International CDKL5 Disorder Database to which 192 families with a child with a pathogenic CDKL5 mutation had provided data by January 2016...
January 19, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102229/the-neurosteroidogenic-enzyme-5%C3%AE-reductase-mediates-psychotic-like-complications-of-sleep-deprivation
#16
Roberto Frau, Valentina Bini, Alessio Soggiu, Simona Scheggi, Alessandra Pardu, Silvia Fanni, Paola Roncada, Monica Puligheddu, Francesco Marrosu, Donatella Caruso, Paola Devoto, Marco Bortolato
Acute sleep deprivation (SD) can trigger or exacerbate psychosis- and mania-related symptoms; the neurobiological basis of these complications, however, remains elusive. Given the extensive involvement of neuroactive steroids in psychopathology, we hypothesized that the behavioral complications of SD may be contributed by 5α-reductase (5αR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of progesterone into the neurosteroid allopregnanolone. We first tested whether rats exposed to SD may exhibit brain-regional alterations in 5αR isoenzymes and neuroactive steroid levels; then, we assessed whether the behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations induced by SD may be differentially modulated by the administration of the 5αR inhibitor finasteride, as well as progesterone and allopregnanolone...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095943/sleep-disturbances-in-caregivers-of-patients-with-advanced-cancer-a-systematic-review
#17
Kirstin F Maltby, Christine R Sanderson, Elizabeth A Lobb, Jane L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances are a common issue for those who provide informal care to someone with a life-limiting condition. The negative consequences of poor sleep are well documented. The purpose of the present study was to determine the sleep patterns of caregivers of patients with advanced cancer. METHOD: An extensive systematic review of studies reporting empirical sleep data was undertaken in 2015 in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. A total of eight electronic databases were searched, with no date restrictions imposed...
February 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092114/sleep-disordered-breathing-in-pediatric-head-and-neck-vascular-malformations
#18
Megan L Durr, Anna K Meyer, Eric J Kezirian, Mark D Mamlouk, Ilona J Frieden, Kristina W Rosbe
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms among children with head and neck vascular malformations and to compare obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-18 scores between children with head and neck vascular malformations and children with non-head and neck vascular malformations. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective cross-sectional studies METHODS: Forty-three pediatric subjects with head and neck vascular malformations evaluated at a tertiary-care multidisciplinary vascular anomalies center were included in a retrospective cohort study...
January 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079877/genome-wide-transposon-screening-and-quantitative-insertion-site-sequencing-for-cancer-gene-discovery-in-mice
#19
Mathias J Friedrich, Lena Rad, Iraad F Bronner, Alexander Strong, Wei Wang, Julia Weber, Matthew Mayho, Hannes Ponstingl, Thomas Engleitner, Carolyn Grove, Anja Pfaus, Dieter Saur, Juan Cadiñanos, Michael A Quail, George S Vassiliou, Pentao Liu, Allan Bradley, Roland Rad
Transposon-mediated forward genetics screening in mice has emerged as a powerful tool for cancer gene discovery. It pinpoints cancer drivers that are difficult to find with other approaches, thus complementing the sequencing-based census of human cancer genes. We describe here a large series of mouse lines for insertional mutagenesis that are compatible with two transposon systems, PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty, and give guidance on the use of different engineered transposon variants for constitutive or tissue-specific cancer gene discovery screening...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078487/the-role-of-the-nox4-derived-ros-mediated-rhoa-rho-kinase-pathway-in-rat-hypertension-induced-by-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#20
Wen Lu, Jing Kang, Ke Hu, Si Tang, Xiufang Zhou, Lifang Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Shuhui Yu
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, which is a risk factor for resistant hypertension, is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and is associated with many cardiovascular diseases. CIH elicits systemic oxidative stress and sympathetic hyperactivity, which lead to hypertension. Rho kinases (ROCKs) are considered to be major effectors of the small GTPase RhoA and have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular field. Upregulation of the RhoA/ROCK signaling cascade is observed in various cardiovascular disorders, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and stroke...
January 11, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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