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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738454/-development-of-markov-models-for-economics-evaluation-of-strategies-on-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-population-based-antiviral-treatment-in-china
#1
P C Yang, S X Zhang, P P Sun, Y L Cai, Y Lin, Y H Zou
Objective: To construct the Markov models to reflect the reality of prevention and treatment interventions against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, simulate the natural history of HBV infection in different age groups and provide evidence for the economics evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China. Methods: According to the theory and techniques of Markov chain, the Markov models of Chinese HBV epidemic were developed based on the national data and related literature both at home and abroad, including the settings of Markov model states, allowable transitions and initial and transition probabilities...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738017/distinct-oxysterol-requirements-for-positioning-na%C3%A3-ve-and-activated-dendritic-cells-in-the-spleen
#2
Erick Lu, Eric V Dang, Jeffrey G McDonald, Jason G Cyster
Correct positioning of dendritic cells (DCs) is critical for efficient pathogen encounter and antigen presentation. Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2) has been identified as a chemoattractant receptor required for naïve CD4(+)DCIR2(+) DC positioning in response to 7α,25-hydroxycholesterol (7α,25-HC). We now provide evidence that a second EBI2 ligand, 7α,27-HC, is involved in splenic DCIR2(+) DC positioning and homeostasis. Cyp27a1, the enzyme uniquely required for 7α,27-HC synthesis, is expressed by stromal cells in the region of naïve DC localization...
April 7, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737649/race-age-and-geography-impact-hepatitis-c-genotype-distribution-in-the-united-states
#3
Stuart C Gordon, Sheri Trudeau, Jia Li, Yueren Zhou, Loralee B Rupp, Scott D Holmberg, Anne C Moorman, Philip R Spradling, Eyasu Teshale, Joseph A Boscarino, Yihe G Daida, Mark A Schmidt, Mei Lu
GOALS: To determine the impact of geography and patient characteristics on hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and subtype distribution in a large sample of patients under routine clinical care BACKGROUND:: HCV genotype impacts disease course and response to treatment. Although several studies have reported genotype distribution within specific US populations, there are no comprehensive descriptions in large, geographically diverse cohorts. STUDY: Using data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study, we present the distribution of HCV genotypes (GT) and subtypes (ST) among a racially diverse cohort of over 8000 HCV-infected patients from four large US health systems...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737510/lymphocytes-transiently-expressing-virus-specific-t-cell-receptors-reduce-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#4
Janine Kah, Sarene Koh, Tassilo Volz, Erica Ceccarello, Lena Allweiss, Marc Lütgehetmann, Antonio Bertoletti, Maura Dandri
Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express a hepatitis B virus-specific (HBV-specific) T cell receptor (TCR) may supplement HBV-specific immune responses in chronic HBV patients and facilitate HBV control. However, the risk of triggering unrestrained proliferation of permanently engineered T cells raises safety concerns that have hampered testing of this approach in patients. The aim of the present study was to generate T cells that transiently express HBV-specific TCRs using mRNA electroporation and to assess their antiviral and pathogenetic activity in vitro and in HBV-infected human liver chimeric mice...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736948/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-hydrogen-peroxide-vapour-against-foot-mouth-disease-virus-within-a-bsl4-biosafety-facility
#5
B M Petit, F C Almeida, T R Uchiyama, F O C Lopes, K H Tino, J Chewins
An evaluation was made of the efficacy of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide Vapour (HPV) against FMDV in a biosafety facility. Biological indicators (BIs) were produced using three serotypes of FMDV, all with a titre of ≥10(6) TCID50 /ml. Fifteen BIs of each serotype were distributed across 5 locations, throughout a 30m(3) Air Lock chamber, producing a total of 45 BIs. 35% HPV was generated and applied using a Bioquell vaporisation module located in the centre of the chamber. After a dwell period of 40 minutes, the HPV was removed via the enclosures air handling system and the BIs were collected...
July 23, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736681/integrating-environmental-monitoring-and-mosquito-surveillance-to-predict-vector-borne-disease-prospective-forecasts-of-a-west-nile-virus-outbreak
#6
Justin K Davis, Geoffrey Vincent, Michael B Hildreth, Lon Kightlinger, Christopher Carlson, Michael C Wimberly
INTRODUCTION: Predicting the timing and locations of future mosquito-borne disease outbreaks has the potential to improve the targeting of mosquito control and disease prevention efforts. Here, we present and evaluate prospective forecasts made prior to and during the 2016 West Nile virus (WNV) season in South Dakota, a hotspot for human WNV transmission in the United States. METHODS: We used a county-level logistic regression model to predict the weekly probability of human WNV case occurrence as a function of temperature, precipitation, and an index of mosquito infection status...
May 23, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736196/serological-and-molecular-epidemiological-outcomes-after-two-decades-of-universal-infant-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-vaccination-in-nunavut-canada
#7
Chris Huynh, Gerald Y Minuk, Julia Uhanova, Maureen Baikie, Thomas Wong, Carla Osiowy
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection within the Canadian Arctic is considered endemic (>2% prevalence). Within the Arctic region of Nunavut, a vaccination program targeted at newborn infants was initiated approximately 20years ago, along with interim grade school catch-up programs, with the result that individuals born after 1980 are presumed vaccinated. This study investigates the effectiveness of these programs and is the first seroepidemiological survey to determine HBV prevalence in Nunavut in the post-vaccination era...
July 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736175/structural-basis-for-receptor-selectivity-by-the-whitewater-arroyo-mammarenavirus
#8
Amir Shimon, Orly Shani, Ron Diskin
Whitewater Arroyo Virus belongs to the 'New World' group of mammarenaviruses, which reside in rodent reservoirs and are prevalent in North and South Americas. Clades B and A/B of New World mammarenaviruses use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry. While all of these viruses use rodent-derived TfR1 orthologs, some can also use the human-TfR1 and thereby infect humans. Although we have structural information for TfR1 recognition by pathogenic virus, we do not know what the structural differences are between the receptor binding domains of pathogenic and non-pathogenic viruses that allow some but not all viruses to utilize the human receptor for entry...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736139/long-term-response-after-stopping-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-in-non-cirrhotic-hbeag-negative-patients-finite-study
#9
Thomas Berg, Karl-Georg Simon, Stefan Mauss, Eckart Schott, Renate Heyne, Dietmar M Klass, Christoph Eisenbach, Tania Mara Welzel, Reinhart Zachoval, Gisela Felten, Julian Schulze-Zur-Wiesch, Markus Cornberg, Marjoleine L Op den Brouw, Belinda Jump, Hans Reiser, Lothar Gallo, Tobias Warger, Jörg Petersen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is currently no virological cure for chronic hepatitis B but successful nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy can suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA replication and, in some cases, result in HBsAg loss. Stopping NA therapy often leads to viral relapse and therefore life-long therapy is usually required. This study investigated the potential to discontinue tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy in HBeAg-negative patients. METHODS: Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative patients who had received TDF for ≥4 years, with suppressed HBV DNA for ≥3...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736138/how-viral-genetic-variants-and-genotypes-influence-disease-and-treatment-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-time-for-an-individualized-approach
#10
REVIEW
Neil Rajoriya, Christophe Combet, Fabien Zoulim, Harry L A Janssen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global problem. Several HBV (sub)genotypes exist with different biology and geographical preponderances. While the future aim of HBV treatment remains virus eradication, current strategies of treatment aim to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of liver disease. Current strategies also involve identification of patients for treatment - those at risk of progressive liver disease. Identification of HBV genotype, HBV mutants and other predictive factors allow for tailored treatments, and also risk-surveillance pathways such as for hepatocellular cancer screening...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736015/fibrosing-cholestatic-hepatitis-c-after-liver-transplantation-therapeutic-options-before-and-after-introduction-of-direct-acting-antivirals-our-experience-and-literature-review
#11
O Tronina, K Ślubowska, N Mikołajczyk-Korniak, E Komuda-Leszek, R Wieczorek-Godlewska, B Łągiewska, M Pacholczyk, W Lisik, M Kosieradzki, M Durlik
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplantation. The most aggressive form of hepatitis C virus (HCV) relapse after liver transplantation is fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis C, which can be observed in 2% to 15% of recipients. METHODS: Double therapy with peg-interferon and ribavirin was characterized by low antiviral response, rapid fibrosis, and frequent graft failure within 1 year after surgery. RESULTS: Introduction of direct-acting antivirals for HCV treatment allows for more efficient therapy with less adverse reactions, including patients with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis C...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735997/feasibility-of-bk-virus-real-time-pcr-testing-in-renal-graft-biopsies-with-negative-sv40-staining
#12
R Morace, T Kumar, E Tantisattamo, J Gibson, S Britton, W Li, H D Kanaan, S R Cohn, D Samarapungavan, P L Zhang, B L Boyanton
BACKGROUND: BK virus (BKV)-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is often associated with renal graft dysfunction. When renal transplant recipients present with high clinical suspicion for BKVAN (high serum and urine BKV titer with graft dysfunction) but their graft biopsies stain negatively for BKV, non-correlated situations between the two tests often lead to a dilemma about how to treat them. METHODS: This retrospective investigation was conducted to determine how real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for BKV, routinely applied to serum and urine, could be helpful in identifying the existing BKV in biopsy tissue stained negatively for BKV...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735964/bovine-a20-gene-overexpression-during-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-1-infection-blocks-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-mdbk-cells
#13
Melina Villalba, Nivia Canales, Nicolas Maldonado, Carola Otth, Fernanda Fredericksen, Pablo Garcés, Cristopher Stepke, Valentina Arriagada, Víctor H Olavarría
Viruses have developed cellular strategies to ensure progeny survival. One of the most interesting is immune camouflage, where the virus triggers a controlled-intensity immune response that prevents total destruction of the infected cell, thus "winning time" for the virus. This study explored the regulatory contexts of the bovine A20 gene during bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 infection, using IL-8 as an immune-response sentinel molecule. Assessments were conducted through RT-qPCR, Western blotting, gene silencing/overexpression, luciferase assays, and the use of pharmacological inhibitors, among other approaches...
July 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735865/rps27a-enhances-ebv-encoded-lmp1-mediated-proliferation-and-invasion-by-stabilizing-of-lmp1
#14
Seung-Woo Hong, Seung-Mi Kim, Dong-Hoon Jin, Yeong Seok Kim, Dae Young Hur
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an oncoviral protein that plays a pivotal role in EBV-induced oncogenic transformation. The function of LMP1 in EBV-induced oncogenesis has been well studied. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LMP1 protein stability remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that ribosomal protein s27a (RPS27a) regulates LMP1 stability by a tandem affinity purification analysis. RPS27a interacts directly with LMP1 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, overexpression of RPS27a increases the half-life of LMP1 in 293T cells, whereas downregulation of RPS27a using lentiviral shRNA technology accelerates the decrease in LMP1 protein level in EBV-transformed B cells...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735348/analysis-of-the-cd8-t-cell-anti-hiv-activity-in-heterologous-cell-co-cultures-reveals-the-benefit-of-multiple-hla-class-i-matches
#15
M Scott Killian, Fernando Teque, Ramu Sudhagoni
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can reduce the production of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) by CD4(+) T cells by cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic mechanisms. To investigate the involvement of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I compatibility in anti-HIV responses, we co-cultured primary CD8(+) T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals, with panels of autologous and heterologous acutely HIV-1-infected primary CD4(+) T cells. Altogether, CD8(+) T cell anti-HIV activity was evaluated in more than 200 co-cultures...
July 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734831/effects-of-all-oral-anti-viral-therapy-on-hvpg-and-systemic-hemodynamics-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-cirrhosis
#16
Sabela Lens, Edilmar Alvarado, Zoe Mariño, María-Carlota Londoño, Elba LLop, Javier Martinez, Jose Ignacio Fortea, Luís Ibañez, Xavier Ariza, Anna Baiges, Adolfo Gallego, Rafael Bañares, Angela Puente, Agustín Albillos, Jose Luís Calleja, Xavier Torras, Virginia Hernández-Gea, Jaume Bosch, Cándid Villanueva, Xavier Forns, Juan Carlos García-Pagán
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated cirrhosis and clinical significant portal hypertension (CSPH, hepatic venous pressure gradient [HVPG] 10 mmHg or greater), despite achieving sustained virological response (SVR) to therapy, remain at risk of liver decompensation. We investigated hemodynamic changes following SVR in patients with CSPH and whether liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) can rule out the presence of CSPH. METHODS: We performed a multicenter prospective study of 226 patients with HCV-associated cirrhosis and CSPH who had SVR to interferon-free therapy at 6 Liver Units in Spain...
July 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734743/adjuvantation-of-inactivated-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-vaccine-with-il-15-expressing-plasmid-improves-the-immune-response-in-guinea-pigs
#17
Vijay Nagaraj, Lijo John, Singaram Bharatiraja, Hosur Joyappa Dechamma, Golla Ramalinga Reddy
Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven footed animals. Vaccination using inactivated virus is followed to control the disease. As the immune response conferred by the inactivated vaccine is short lived, there is a need for an alternate vaccine with increased duration of immunity. Inclusion of adjuvant which enhances B and T cell responses is one of the strategies to increase the duration of immune responses of the vaccine. Interleukin 15 is one such a cytokine which improves the cell mediated immune response and also involved in the maintenance of memory T and B cells...
July 19, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734074/association-of-clinical-and-serological-parameters-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-with-epstein-barr-virus-antibody-profile
#18
Chougule D, Nadkar M, Rajadhyaksha A, Pandit P, Surve P, Dawkar N, Khadilkar P, Patwardhan M, Kaveri Sv, Ghosh K, Pradhan V
Epstein-Barr viral infection is one of the known environmental factors involved in development of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE). Though not much is known about the exact role of EBV in SLE pathogenesis, the theory of switching of lytic and lysogenic cycles of Epstein-Barr virus in memory B-cells fits well with the periods of waning disease activity and intermittent flares in SLE patients. In this study, we investigate the association of EBV antibody profile with clinical and serological parameters in SLE...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734069/pathogen-richness-and-abundance-predict-patterns-of-adaptive-mhc-variation-in-insular-amphibians
#19
Supen Wang, Conghui Liu, Anthony B Wilson, Na Zhao, Xianping Li, Wei Zhu, Xu Gao, Xuan Liu, Yiming Li
The identification of the factors responsible for genetic variation and differentiation at adaptive loci can provide important insights into the evolutionary process, and is crucial for the effective management of threatened species. We studied the impact of environmental viral richness and abundance on functional diversity and differentiation of the MHC class Ia locus in populations of the black-spotted pond frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus), an IUCN-listed species, on 24 land-bridge islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago and 3 nearby mainland sites...
July 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733665/human-intrahepatic-cd69%C3%A2-%C3%A2-cd8-t-cells-have-a-tissue-resident-memory-t-cell-phenotype-with-reduced-cytolytic-capacity
#20
Femke Stelma, Annikki de Niet, Marjan J Sinnige, Karel A van Dort, Klaas P J M van Gisbergen, Joanne Verheij, Ester M M van Leeuwen, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
Tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) have been identified in various tissues, however human liver TRM to date remain unidentified. TRM can be recognized by CD69 and/or CD103 expression and may play a role in the pathology of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatitis C virus infection (CHC). Liver and paired blood mononuclear cells from 17 patients (including 4 CHB and 6 CHC patients) were isolated and CD8+ T cells were comprehensively analysed by flowcytometry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. The majority of intrahepatic CD8+ T cells expressed CD69, a marker used to identify TRM, of which a subset co-expressed CD103...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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