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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775919/effectiveness-of-a-flow-based-device-using-riboflavin-photochemistry-in-damaging-blood-borne-viral-nucleic-acids
#1
Liguo Zhu, Hongli Tong, Shufang Wang, Yang Yu, Zhong Liu, Changqing Li, Deqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Effectiveness of a flow-based treatment device using riboflavin photochemistry was demonstrated by cytopathic effect method using indicator viruses. However, inactivation efficacy against real blood-borne viruses needs to be evaluated, especially at nucleic acid level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Special plasma samples with varying concentrations of blood-borne virus were selected using a strict blood selection procedure and were treated with device treatment (DT)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775895/ozone-therapy-prevents-the-onset-of-dysplasia-in-hpv16-transgenic-mice-a-pre-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-analysis
#2
C Peirone, V F Mestre, B Medeiros-Fonseca, B Colaço, M J Pires, T Martins, R M Gil da Costa, M J Neuparth, R Medeiros, M M S M Bastos, J A Marques-Magallanes, P A Oliveira
Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), most often HPV16, is associated with the development of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Recently, ozone therapy was reported to have considerable efficacy against rabbit VX2 tumors, induced by the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. The present study aims to determine whether similar results can be obtained in HPV16-transgenic mice, possibly paving the way for new therapeutic options against HPV-induced cancers. HPV16-transgenic and wild-type, female, 20 weeks-old mice were injected intraperitoneally with medical O3 /O2 (80░mL/kg, at O3 50░μg/mL), once a day, for 5 consecutive days...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775812/virus-entry-and-its-inhibition-to-prevent-and-treat-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-infections
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Tu, Stephan Urban
While chronic infection with the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) inflict major health burdens worldwide, current therapies cannot cure patients. One possible novel approach is blocking virus entry to prevent the establishment of infection in naïve hepatocytes. As HBV and HDV use identical viral envelope proteins and the same entry mechanisms, such a strategy would target both viruses. Entry inhibitors (e.g. neutralizing antibodies) have been relegated to the limited role of prophylaxis...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775724/biological-activities-and-phytocompounds-of-northwest-algeria-ajuga-iva-l-extracts-partial-identification-of-the-antibacterial-fraction
#4
Saida Medjeldi, Lamjed Bouslama, Amina Benabdalla, Rim Essid, Soumaya Haou, Salem Elkahoui
The use of synthetic food additive and the appearance of antibiotic resistance are at the basis of important human health problems. The substitution of synthetic compounds with new natural substances extracted from plants or microorganisms is therefore the ideal solution to this scourge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins), and to test the biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral) of the Ajuga iva (L) aerial part extracts...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775471/host-directed-combinatorial-rnai-improves-inhibition-of-diverse-strains-of-influenza-a-virus-in-human-respiratory-epithelial-cells
#5
Michael A Estrin, Islam T M Hussein, Wendy B Puryear, Anne C Kuan, Stephen C Artim, Jonathan A Runstadler
Influenza A virus infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and currently available prevention and treatment methods are suboptimal. In recent years, genome-wide investigations have revealed numerous host factors that are required for influenza to successfully complete its life cycle. However, only a select, small number of influenza strains were evaluated using this platform, and there was considerable variation in the genes identified across different investigations. In an effort to develop a universally efficacious therapeutic strategy with limited potential for the emergence of resistance, this study was performed to investigate the effect of combinatorial RNA interference (RNAi) on inhibiting the replication of diverse influenza A virus subtypes and strains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774856/hepatitis-e-in-long-term-travelers-from-the-netherlands-to-subtropical-and-tropical-countries-2008-2011
#6
Floortje Elfrink, Femke W Overbosch, Janke Schinkel, Gerrit Koen, Gerard J B Sonder
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis. Virus genotypes 1 and 2 infect humans in developing countries by the fecal-oral route. To assess attack rates and disease incidence for travelers, we prospectively studied 604 long-term travelers to subtropical and tropical countries. Participants donated blood samples pretravel and posttravel and kept a diary. A total of 89/604 (15%) pretravel samples were positive for HEV IgG by ELISA, suggesting previous HEV infection. Seroconversion for HEV was found for 19/515 travelers (attack rate 3...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774496/correction-to-molecular-characterization-of-a-human-group-c-rotavirus-detected-first-in-turkey
#7
Marcelo Takahiro Mitui, Gulendam Bozdayi, Buket Dalgic, Ilknur Bostanci, Akira Nishizono, Kamruddin Ahmed
This article was unintentionally published twice in this journal, by the same authors. Following should be considered the version of record and used for citation purposes: "Mitui, M.T., Bozdayi, G., Dalgic, B. et al. Molecular characterization of a human group C rotavirus detected first in Turkey, Virus Genes (2009) 39, 2, 157-164, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11262-009-0420-8 ". The duplicate "Mitui, M.T., Bozdayi, G., Dalgic, B. et al. Molecular characterization of a human group C rotavirus detected first in Turkey, Virus Genes (2009), https://doi...
May 17, 2018: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774053/postherpes-simplex-encephalitis-a-case-series-of-viral-triggered-autoimmunity-synaptic-autoantibodies-and-response-to-therapy
#8
Harry Alexopoulos, Sofia Akrivou, Sotiria Mastroyanni, Maria Antonopoulou, Argirios Dinopoulos, Melpo Giorgi, Kostas Konstantinou, Evangelos Kouremenos, Maria Lariou, Dimitrios Naoumis, Efterpi Pavlidou, Evaggelos Pavlou, Konstantinos Voudris, Panayotis Vlachoyiannopoulos, Marinos C Dalakas
Background: Recent evidence suggests that patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis may relapse because of autoimmunity against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). We present a case series of post-HSV relapsing encephalopathy associated with antibodies to central nervous system (CNS) synaptic antigens. Patient/Methods: Sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from five patients with HSV encephalitis who relapsed after antiviral therapy were tested for anti-NMDAR, gamma-aminobutyric acid b receptor (GABAbR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti -contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DDPX) antibodies using cell-based assays...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773829/sequential-immunizations-with-a-panel-of-hiv-1-env-virus-like-particles-coach-immune-system-to-make-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#9
Teena Mohan, Zachary Berman, Sang-Moo Kang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are correlated with passive HIV/SHIV protection and are desirable components of a HIV protective immunity. In the current study, we have designed a sequential-immunization strategy with a panel of envelope glycoprotein (Env)-enriched virus-like particles (VLPs) from various HIV-1 clades (A-E) to elicit bnAbs with high breadth and potency of neutralization in rabbits. We have compared this regimen with repetitive immunizations of individual Env (subtype B) VLPs or a mixture of various Env VLPs...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773792/mxb-is-an-interferon-induced-restriction-factor-of-human-herpesviruses
#10
Michel Crameri, Michael Bauer, Nicole Caduff, Raphael Walker, Fiona Steiner, Francesca D Franzoso, Cornelia Gujer, Karin Boucke, Talissa Kucera, Andrea Zbinden, Christian Münz, Cornel Fraefel, Urs F Greber, Jovan Pavlovic
The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections, but it is unclear which IFN-mediated effectors interfere with herpesvirus replication. Here we report that human myxovirus resistance protein B (MxB, also designated Mx2) is a potent human herpesvirus restriction factor in the context of IFN. We demonstrate that ectopic MxB expression restricts a range of herpesviruses from the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae, including herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773122/cost-effectiveness-of-the-controlled-temperature-chain-for-the-hepatitis-b-virus-birth-dose-vaccine-in-various-global-settings-a-modelling-study
#11
Nick Scott, Anna Palmer, Christopher Morgan, Olufunmilayo Lesi, C Wendy Spearman, Mark Sonderup, Margaret Hellard
BACKGROUND: The controlled temperature chain (CTC) strategy allows vaccines to be kept outside the cold chain for a short period of time. In remote rural areas, the CTC strategy for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) birth dose vaccination could improve its geographical coverage and timeliness of delivery, but with additional outreach costs. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of the CTC strategy for the HBV birth dose across six world regions and 72 countries according to their HBV prevalence, delivery costs, and birth dose coverage and timing...
June 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772941/recent-advances-in-the-discovery-and-development-of-tlr-ligands-as-novel-therapeutics-for-chronic-hbv-and-hiv-infections
#12
Keye Du, Jia Liu, Ruth Broering, Xiaoyong Zhang, Dongliang Yang, Ulf Dittmer, Mengji Lu
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands remain as promising antiviral drug candidates for the treatment of chronic viral infections. Basic research on the mechanisms of antiviral activity of TLR ligands in preclinical animal models and clinical testing of drug candidates have been carried out in recent years. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical testing of TLR ligands in two major viral infections: hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent results have further demonstrated the potent antiviral activity of various TLR ligands ...
May 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772892/risk-areas-for-hepatitis-a-b-and-c-in-the-municipality-of-maring%C3%A3-paran%C3%A3-state-brazil-2007-2010
#13
Valéria Miranda Avanzi, Udelysses Janete Veltrini Fonzar, Eraldo Schunk Silva, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Dennis Armando Bertolini
Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. We retrospectively analyzed 338 cases of hepatitis A, B and C in Maringá, Paraná State from 2007 through 2010. The hepatitis A virus was present in 5.6% of the cases, hepatitis B in 44.7% and hepatitis C in 49.7%. Most of the patients affected were male (55.3%), white (79.6%) and had some primary education (42.9%). Of the 338 cases analyzed, 13.0% had comorbidities. The cases were concentrated in large-population census zones, but it was concluded that the spatial distribution of viral hepatitis in Maringá occurred randomly rather than show any regular pattern...
May 8, 2018: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772814/chronic-and-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-botswana
#14
Tshepiso Mbangiwa, Ishmael Kasvosve, Motswedi Anderson, Prisca K Thami, Wonderful T Choga, Austen Needleman, Bonolo B Phinius, Sikhulile Moyo, Melvin Leteane, Jean Leidner, Jason T Blackard, Gloria Mayondi, Betsy Kammerer, Rosemary M Musonda, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Simani Gaseitsiwe
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana. Samples from 752 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBsAg-positive samples were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA load. Samples that were HBsAg negative were screened for occult HBV infection by determining the HBV DNA load...
May 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772771/a-novel-hepadnavirus-identified-in-an-immunocompromised-domestic-cat-in-australia
#15
Mahdis Aghazadeh, Mang Shi, Vanessa R Barrs, Alicia J McLuckie, Scott A Lindsay, Barbara Jameson, Bronte Hampson, Edward C Holmes, Julia A Beatty
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic cats we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of tissues from cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). A novel member of the Hepadnaviridae , tentatively named domestic cat hepadnavirus, was discovered in a lymphoma sample and its complete 3187 bp genome characterized...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772748/drug-delivery-strategies-for-antivirals-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#16
REVIEW
Latavia Singh, Sunaina Indermun, Mershen Govender, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772718/ectromelia-virus-affects-mitochondrial-network-morphology-distribution-and-physiology-in-murine-fibroblasts-and-macrophage-cell-line
#17
Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski, Joanna Szczepanowska, Felix N Toka, Matylda B Mielcarska, Magdalena Bossowska-Nowicka, Małgorzata Gieryńska, Anna Boratyńska-Jasińska, Justyna Struzik, Marek G Niemiałtowski, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska
Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles that participate in numerous processes in response to viral infection, but they are also a target for viruses. The aim of this study was to define subcellular events leading to alterations in mitochondrial morphology and function during infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV). We used two different cell lines and a combination of immunofluorescence techniques, confocal and electron microscopy, and flow cytometry to address subcellular changes following infection. Early in infection of L929 fibroblasts and RAW 264...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772680/the-crosstalk-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-pathways-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-complex-mechanisms-relevant-for-cancer-inflammation-and-infection
#18
REVIEW
M Lienhard Schmitz, M Samer Shaban, B Vincent Albert, Anke Gökçen, Michael Kracht
Stressful conditions occuring during cancer, inflammation or infection activate adaptive responses that are controlled by the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These systems can be triggered by chemical compounds but also by cytokines, toll-like receptor ligands, nucleic acids, lipids, bacteria and viruses. Despite representing unique signaling cascades, new data indicate that the UPR and NF-κB pathways converge within the nucleus through ten major transcription factors (TFs), namely activating transcription factor (ATF)4, ATF3, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (CEBP) homologous protein (CHOP), X-box-binding protein (XBP)1, ATF6α and the five NF-κB subunits...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772546/gpcr-autoantibodies-in-chronic-heart-failure
#19
Valerie Boivin-Jahns, Roland Jahns
Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a syndrome characterized by shortness of breath, fluid retention, and a progressive reduction in cardiac function. More than 60% of the cases are ischemic in origin (i.e., due to myo-cardial infarction) and about 30% are caused by non-ischemic myocardial damage (i.e., due to genetic or non-genetic causes like myocardial inflammation). Because of alterations in both cellular and humoral immunity patients with non-ischemic CHF often develop abnormal or misled immune responses, including cross-reacting antibodies and/or autoantibodies to various cardiac anti-gens...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772523/mhc-b-haplotypes-impact-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-rsv-a-infection
#20
Vishwa Mohini Khare, Vishesh Kumar Saxena, Alka Tomar, Karam Pal Singh, Kunwar Bahadur Singh, Amit Kumar Tiwari
We investigated the impact of haplotype of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-B on the outcome of infection of Synthetic Dam Line (SDL) broiler strain with Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV). Genomic analysis of MHC-B haplotypes, revealed a total of 12 known standard haplotypes that constituted to twenty-five different genotypes and one new haplotype of 217 bp size, designated BX . The inoculation of RSV-A in SDL chicks resulted in the development of tumors of progressive or regressive phenotypes with varying tumor profile index (TPI)...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
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