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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906032/infection-of-rhesus-macaques-with-a-pool-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-with-the-envelope-genes-from-acute-hiv-1-infections
#1
Kendall C Krebs, Meijuan Tian, Mohammed Asmal, Binhua Ling, Kenneth Nelson, Kenneth Henry, Richard Gibson, Yuejin Li, Weining Han, Robin J Shattock, Ronald S Veazey, Norman Letvin, Eric J Arts, Yong Gao
BACKGROUND: New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques...
November 25, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906011/prevalence-of-hiv-and-hepatitis-b-coinfection-in-ghana-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Akosua Adom Agyeman, Richard Ofori-Asenso
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality and may impact significantly on healthcare resource utilization. However, in Ghana, accurate estimates of the prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection needed to inform policy decisions and the design of public health interventions are currently lacking. In this study, our aim was to determine the HIV/HBV coinfection prevalence rate in Ghana. METHODS: Primary studies reporting prevalence of HIV/HBV coinfection in Ghana were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, science direct, Google scholar and Africa journals online (AJOL) databases...
May 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906008/sero-prevalence-of-hbv-and-associated-risk-factors-among-hiv-positive-individuals-attending-art-clinic-at-mekelle-hospital-tigray-northern-ethiopia
#4
Letebrhan Weldemhret, Tsehaye Asmelash, Rashmi Belodu, Dawit Gebreegziabiher
BACKGROUND: Because of the shared mean of transmission, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of an important cause of co-morbidity and mortality in peoples living with HIV/AIDS. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in HIV/AIDS positive individuals attending ART clinic at Mekelle hospital, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from August to October 2014 in HIV/AIDS positive adult individuals...
February 4, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905197/adult-hepatoblastoma-a-review-of-47-cases
#5
Xiao-Feng Duan, Qiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Adult hepatoblastoma is a very rare and aggressive neoplasm. The aim of this study was to review the cases of adult hepatoblastoma patients. METHODS: A search of all case reports about adult hepatoblastoma from 1958 to 2016 by medical database was performed. Data about demographic information, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory test and imaging examination, treatment and clinical outcomes were extracted and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 43 English articles including 47 cases of adult hepatoblastoma patients were collected...
November 30, 2016: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905175/racial-disparity-in-all-cause-mortality-among-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-individuals-in-a-general-us-population-nhanes-iii
#6
B Emmanuel, M D Shardell, L Tracy, S Kottilil, S S El-Kamary
There are few long-term nationally representative studies of all-cause mortality among those infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). When an additional 5 years of data were made publicly available in 2015, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File became the longest nationally representative study in the United States. Our objective was to update the estimated HCV-associated all-cause mortality in the general US population and determine any differences by sex, age and race/ethnicity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905140/herpes-simplex-infection-simulating-richter-transformation-a-series-of-four-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Alireza Salem, Sanam Loghavi, Joseph D Khoury, Rose Lou Marie C Agbay, Jeffrey L Jorgensen, Jeffrey L Medeiros
AIMS: Richter transformation (RT) occurs in 5-10% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and is associated with a poor outcome. Histologic manifestations of RT are variable and include an increase in the proportion of large cells including prolymphocytes, immunoblasts and other pleomorphic cells along with an increased proliferation rate and often necrosis. Rarely, superimposed Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection involving lymph nodes in patients with CLL/SLL may mimic RT clinically and histologically...
December 1, 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905089/novel-paradigm-for-immunotherapy-of-ovarian-cancer-by-engaging-prophylactic-immunity-against-hepatitis-b-virus
#8
Marek Malecki, Emily Putzer, Caroline Quach, Chaitanya Dodivenaka, Xenia Tombokan
BACKGROUND: Only eight women out of one hundred diagnosed with ovarian epithelial cancers, which progressed to the clinical stage IV, survive 10 years. First line therapies: surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy inflict very serious iatrogenic consequences. Passive immunotherapy of ovarian cancers offers only low efficacy. Prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for ovarian cancers are not available. Interestingly, prophylactic vaccines for Hepatitis B Viruses (HBV) are very effective...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904290/a-case-of-cutaneous-epstein-barr-virus-associated-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-an-angioimmunoblastic-t-cell-lymphoma
#9
Mi-Hye Lee, Ik-Jun Moon, Woo-Jin Lee, Chong-Hyun Won, Sung-Eun Chang, Jee-Ho Choi, Mi-Woo Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904181/comparative-evaluation-of-topical-10-potassium-hydroxide-and-30-trichloroacetic-acid-in-the-treatment-of-plane-warts
#10
Sandhaya Jayaprasad, Radhakrishnan Subramaniyan, Shalini Devgan
BACKGROUND: Warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Plane warts are caused by HPV types 3, 10, 28, and 41, occurring mostly in children and young adults. Among the treatment modalities, topical application of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is age old. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) has a keratolytic effect on virus-infected cells. It is less irritating, less painful, less scar forming, and can be safely used in children too. Hence, it could be a better topical agent in the treatment of plane warts...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904177/a-clinicopathological-analysis-of-primary-cutaneous-lymphomas-a-6-year-observational-study-at-a-tertiary-care-center-of-south-india
#11
Anza Khader, Shiny Padinjarayil Manakkad, Mohammed Shaan, Sarita Sasidharan Pillai, Najeeba Riyaz, P Binitha Manikoth, Muhammed Kunnummel, Sunitha Balakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Little data are available concerning clinical and pathological patterns of cutaneous lymphomas in India. AIM: To analyze the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous lymphomas in Indian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-center, prospective, observational study carried out from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015. The patients underwent clinical examination, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) screening, skin biopsy with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903901/core-binding-factor-cbf-is-required-for-epstein-barr-virus-ebna3-proteins-to-regulate-target-gene-expression
#12
Kostas Paschos, Quentin Bazot, Guiyi Ho, Gillian A Parker, Jonathan Lees, Geraint Barton, Martin J Allday
ChIP-seq performed on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), expressing epitope-tagged EBNA3A, EBNA3B or EBNA3C from EBV-recombinants, revealed important principles of EBNA3 binding to chromatin. When combined with global chromatin looping data, EBNA3-bound loci were found to have a singular character, each directly associating with either EBNA3-repressed or EBNA3-activated genes, but not with both. EBNA3A and EBNA3C showed significant association with repressed and activated genes. Significant direct association for EBNA3B loci could only be shown with EBNA3B-repressed genes...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903797/accumulation-of-pol-mutations-selected-by-hla-b-52-01-c-12-02-protective-haplotype-restricted-ctls-causes-low-plasma-viral-load-due-to-low-viral-fitness-of-mutant-viruses
#13
Hayato Murakoshi, Madoka Koyanagi, Takayuki Chikata, Mohammad Arif Rahman, Nozomi Kuse, Keiko Sakai, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Shinichi Oka, Masafumi Takiguchi
: HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02, which is the most abundant haplotype in Japan, has a protective effect on disease progression in HIV-1-infected Japanese individuals, whereas HLA-B*57 and -B*27 protective alleles are very rare in Japan. A previous study on HLA-associated polymorphisms demonstrated that the number of HLA-B*52:01-associated mutations at four Pol positions was inversely correlated with plasma viral load (pVL) in HLA-B*52:01-negative individuals, suggesting that the transmission of HIV-1 with these mutations could modulate the pVL in the population...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903772/diverse-activities-of-viral-cis-acting-rna-regulatory-elements-revealed-using-multi-color-long-term-single-cell-imaging
#14
Ginger M Pocock, Laraine L Zimdars, Ming Yuan, Kevin W Eliceiri, Paul Ahlquist, Nathan M Sherer
Cis-acting RNA structural elements govern crucial aspects of viral gene expression. How these structures and other post-transcriptional signals affect RNA trafficking and translation in the context of single cells is poorly understood. Herein we describe a multi-color, long-term (>24 h) imaging strategy for measuring integrated aspects of viral RNA regulatory control in individual cells. We apply this strategy to demonstrate differential mRNA trafficking behaviors governed by RNA elements derived from three retroviruses (HIV-1, murine leukemia virus, and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus), two hepadnaviruses (hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus) and an intron-retaining transcript encoded by the cellular NXF1 gene...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903358/-comparison-of-genotypes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-between-chinese-and-burmese-drug-users-living-in-dehong-prefecture-yunnan-province
#15
Y K Wang, K D Feng, J B Wang, Z M Zhang, R H Tang, R H Ye, J N Zhang, Y C Yang, M F Qiu, S Duan
Objective: To analyze the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes among Chinese and Burmese drug users in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods: Plasma specimens and relevant epidemiological data were collected from 7 545 drug users attending rehabilitation centers and methadone clinics in Dehong Prefecture from January to September in 2015, of which 752 were positive for HCV antibodies. HCV RNA was then extracted from 139 random specimens (64 Burmese and 75 Chinese) and the CE1 and NS5B regions were amplified by nested PCR...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903274/breadth-and-magnitude-of-antigen-specific-antibody-responses-in-the-control-of-plasma-viremia-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques
#16
Bapi Pahar, Carys S Kenway-Lynch, Preston Marx, Sudesh K Srivastav, Celia LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Arpita Das
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for developing preventative and therapeutic strategies. We therefore explored the role of antigen-specific immune responses in controlling plasma viremia in SIV infected rhesus macaques. METHODS: Thirteen rhesus macaques were inoculated either intravaginally or intrarectally with SIVMAC251...
December 1, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902915/characterization-of-chicken-splenic-derived-dendritic-cells-following-vaccine-and-very-virulent-strains-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-infection
#17
A R Yasmin, S K Yeap, M Hair-Bejo, A R Omar
Studies have shown that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infects lymphoid cells, mainly B cells and macrophages. This study was aimed to examine the involvement of chicken splenic-derived dendritic cells (ch-sDCs) in specific-pathogen-free chickens following inoculation with IBDV vaccine strain (D78) and a very virulent (vv) strain (UPM0081). Following IBDV infection, enriched activated ch-sDCs were collected by using the negative selection method and were examined based on morphology and immunophenotyping to confirm the isolation method for dendritic cells (DCs)...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902909/marek-s-disease-in-backyard-chickens-a-study-of-pathologic-findings-and-viral-loads-in-tumorous-and-nontumorous-birds
#18
Aslı Mete, Radhika Gharpure, Maurice E Pitesky, Dan Famini, Karen Sverlow, John Dunn
Marek's disease (MD) is a major cause of mortality in backyard chickens. The diagnosis of MD is complex, however, and knowledge of Marek's disease virus (MDV) in spontaneous field cases such as in backyard chickens is largely unknown. In this study, 40 backyard chickens with a presumptive MD diagnosis based on histologic lymphoid infiltrations in peripheral nerves with and without lymphomas were investigated. Twenty-eight of the birds were submitted to the diagnostic laboratory for disease explorations, and 12 chickens were from a flock in which some members demonstrated anisocoria and pupil irregularities compatible with ocular MD...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902905/pathogenicity-of-genome-reassortant-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-in-chickens-and-turkeys
#19
Daral J Jackwood, Simone T Stoute, Beate M Crossley
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) contains two genome segments (segment A/segment B) that can reassort among the viruses. Reassortant IBDVs have been identified in several countries including the United States. These reassortant viruses usually include at least one genome segment from a very virulent (vv)IBDV strain. In vivo virulence of six reassortant IBDV from the United States was assessed relative to the virulence of three frequently described IBDV pathotypes: vvIBDV (rB strain), classic virulent (cv)IBDV (STC strain), and subclinical (sc)IBDV (Del-E strain)...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902899/endemic-variation-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-china
#20
Yu-Fu Liu, Han-Zhang Lai, Lin Li, Yu-Peng Liu, Wen-Yan Zhang, Ren Gao, Wen-Ke Huang, Qin-Fang Luo, Yan Gao, Qiong Luo, Xiao-Yu Xie, Jia-Hua Xu, Rui-Ai Chen
Forty-two H9N2 subtype AIV strains were isolated from vaccinated commercial chickens in China from 2012 to 2015. Their HA genes had nucleotide sequence homology from 86.7% to 99.7%, and similarity to the classic vaccine strain was 88.6%-92.6%. A comparison was carried out with published HA genes (410 H9 strains) and whole genomes (306 strains) isolated in China during 2012-2015. Interestingly, 99.1% (448/452) of Chinese H9N2 AIV belonged to lineage h9.4.2, and 98.5% (445/452) of the viruses belonged to h9.4...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
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