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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050439/pathogenicity-and-immunosuppressive-potential-of-fowl-adenovirus-in-specific-pathogen-free-chickens
#1
Yujuan Niu, Qinqin Sun, Guihua Zhang, Wei Sun, Xingpo Liu, Yihong Xiao, Yingli Shang, Sidang Liu
To elucidate the effect of fowl adenovirus (FAdV)-C in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, we investigated the pathogenicity, body weights, enzymatic systems, and immune organs of chickens in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were divided randomly into four groups, which included injection groups (FAdV-C, vaccination, and FAdV-C plus vaccination) and a negative control group. The results indicated that FAdV-C was highly pathogenic in SPF chickens and led to a 40% mortality rate and growth retardation, compared with the control birds...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050429/isolation-and-genetic-characterization-of-a-novel-adeno-associated-virus-from-muscovy-ducks-in-china
#2
X N Su, J J Liu, Q F Zhou, X H Zhang, L C Zhao, Q M Xie, W G Chen, F Chen
Adeno-associated virus (AAV; genus Dependoparvovirus, family Parvoviridae) was first discovered in 1965 as a contaminant in adenovirus preparations. The AAVs are generally considered non-pathogenic, and they have the ability to attenuate the replication of other more pathogenic viruses, which makes them attractive as potential therapeutics or preventative measures. This study characterized a novel AAV isolated from Muscovy ducks in China. The novel virus (MHH-05-2015) was isolated after propagating a field isolate of the DAdV-3 virus (a type 3 duck adenovirus) in duck embryo fibroblasts...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050325/toll-like-receptor-3-pathway-restricts-marek-s-disease-virus-infection
#3
Haitao Zou, Ruixue Su, Jing Ruan, Hongxia Shao, Kun Qian, Jianqiang Ye, Aijian Qin
Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an α-herpesvirus that causes immune suppression and T lymphoma in chickens. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is critical for the host immune response against MDV infection. Previously, our team demonstrated that pre-treatment of TLR3 agonist poly (I:C) inhibited Marek's disease virus infection in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). However, whether TLR3 inhibits the aggravation of MDV infection is unknown. In the current study, we found that TLR3 activation in MDV-infected CEFs effectively inhibited virus spread...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050244/the-prognostic-impacts-of-tea-domain-tead-transcription-factor-polymorphisms-in-chinese-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#4
Haiyan Xia, Juan Wen, Weiyong Zhao, Dongying Gu, Zhibin Hu, Jinfei Chen, Zhi Xu
TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression by regulating the expression of a number of genes. However, the association of their genetic variations with HCC prognosis remains elusive. Seven potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in TEAD1-4 (rs2304733, rs10831923, rs12104362, rs3745305, rs11756089, rs2076173, rs7135838) were genotyped from 331 hepatitis B virus positive HCC patients using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050201/htlv-1-viral-oncogene-hbz-induces-osteolytic-bone-disease-in-transgenic-mice
#5
Alison K Esser, Daniel A Rauch, Jingyu Xiang, John C Harding, Nicole A Kohart, Michael H Ross, Xinming Su, Kevin Wu, Devra Huey, Yalin Xu, Kiran Vij, Patrick L Green, Thomas J Rosol, Stefan Niewiesk, Lee Ratner, Katherine N Weilbaecher
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive T cell malignancy that occurs in HTLV-1 infected patients. Most ATL patients develop osteolytic lesions and hypercalcemia of malignancy, causing severe skeletal related complications and reduced overall survival. The HTLV-1 virus encodes 2 viral oncogenes, Tax and HBZ. Tax, a transcriptional activator, is critical to ATL development, and has been implicated in pathologic osteolysis. HBZ, HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper transcription factor, promotes tumor cell proliferation and disrupts Wnt pathway modulators; however, its role in ATL induced osteolytic bone loss is unknown...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049288/seasonality-in-risk-of-pandemic-influenza-emergence
#6
Spencer J Fox, Joel C Miller, Lauren Ancel Meyers
Influenza pandemics can emerge unexpectedly and wreak global devastation. However, each of the six pandemics since 1889 emerged in the Northern Hemisphere just after the flu season, suggesting that pandemic timing may be predictable. Using a stochastic model fit to seasonal flu surveillance data from the United States, we find that seasonal flu leaves a transient wake of heterosubtypic immunity that impedes the emergence of novel flu viruses. This refractory period provides a simple explanation for not only the spring-summer timing of historical pandemics, but also early increases in pandemic severity and multiple waves of transmission...
October 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049206/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-attacks-a-single-center-observational-study-in-japan
#7
Takeshi Saraya, Hirokazu Kimura, Daisuke Kurai, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
Few reports have described the significance of viral respiratory infections (VRIs) in exacerbation of asthma in adult patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the profiles of VRIs in adult patients with asthma along with their molecular epidemiology.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Kyorin University Hospital from August 2012 to May 2015. To identify respiratory pathogens in inpatients and outpatients suffering from asthma attacks, RT-PCR/sequencing/phylogenetic analysis methods were applied alongside conventional microbiological methods...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049127/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-risk-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Supavit Chesdachai, Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Patompong Ungprasert
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common infections worldwide. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that patients with HCV infection might be at an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. However, the data on this relationship remain inconclusive. This meta-analysis was conducted with the aim to summarize all available evidence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE and EMBASE database from inception to May 2017...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049126/shear-wave-elastography-for-the-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-in-liver-transplant-recipients-treated-for-hepatitis-c-virus-recurrence
#9
David Korda, Zsuzsanna M Lenard, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Zsuzsanna Jakab, Anita Haboub-Sandil, Laszlo Wagner, Marina Varga, Orsolya Cseprekal, Adrienn Marton, Denes Horvathy, Szabolcs Takacs, Attila Doros, Zoltan Mathe
OBJECTIVES: Direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized hepatitis C therapy, and are also found to be effective in the liver transplant setting. The extent of liver fibrosis influences patient management and is used to monitor therapeutic effects. Shear-wave elastography (SWE) is a relatively new imaging-based method that has not yet been studied extensively in liver transplant patients. Our aim was to study the effect of direct-acting antivirals in heaptitis C recurrence on liver stiffness determined by SWE...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048798/-comparison-of-cim-%C3%A2-c4-hld-monolithic-column-with-sartobind-phenyl-membrane-column-for-pidke2-purification
#10
Limonta Miladys, ZumalacÁRregui Lourdes, Vidic Urska, Lendero Krajnc Nika
The main component of the Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB) candidate vaccine against Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the pIDKE2 plasmid.The current designed downstream process for the production of pIDKE2 fulfils all regulatory requirements and renders the required quantities of pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA (pDNA) with 95% purity.The advantages of this procedure include high plasmid purity and the elimination of undesirable additives,such as toxic organic extractants and animal-derived enzymes...
October 8, 2017: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048611/human-cytomegalovirus-infection-enhances-cell-proliferation-migration-and-upregulation-of-emt-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-derived-stem-cell-like-cells
#11
Wan Huai Teo, Hsin-Pai Chen, Jason C Huang, Yu-Jiun Chan
Increasing evidence suggests a link between persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and cancer. Although the role of HCMV in cancer is still elusive, recent studies revealed the presence of HCMV nucleic acids and proteins in different cancer types such as glioblastoma, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers, and neuroblastoma. Although HCMV may not be directly associated with the neoplastic transformation, the presence of HCMV DNA in the tumorous tissue has been associated with altered clinical outcomes in cancer patients...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048558/modeling-neuro-immune-interactions-during-zika-virus-infection
#12
Pinar Mesci, Angela Macia, Christopher N LaRock, Leon Tejwani, Isabella R Fernandes, Nicole A Suarez, Paolo M de A Zanotto, Patricia C B Beltrão-Braga, Victor Nizet, Alysson R Muotri
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is often asymptomatic, in some cases it can lead to birth defects in newborns or serious neurologic complications in adults. However, little is known about the interplay between immune and neural cells that could contribute to the ZIKV pathology. To understand the mechanisms at play during infection and the antiviral immune response, we focused on neural precursor cells (NPC)-microglia interactions. Our data indicate that human microglia infected with the current circulating Brazilian ZIKV induces a similar pro-inflammatory response found in ZIKV-infected human tissues...
October 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048512/excellent-treatment-outcomes-in-children-treated-for-tuberculosis-under-routine-operational-conditions-in-cape-town-south-africa
#13
Muhammad Osman, Kevin Lee, Karen Du Preez, Rory Dunbar, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children globally. It is recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of developing TB, but our understanding of the impact of HIV on risk of mortality for children treated for TB is limited. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality in children treated for drug-susceptible TB. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children (<15 years of age) routinely treated between 2005 and 2012 for drug-susceptible TB in Cape Town was conducted using the programmatic electronic TB treatment database...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048509/plasma-but-not-cerebrospinal-fluid-interleukin-7-and-interleukin-5-levels-pre-antiretroviral-therapy-commencement-predict-cryptococcosis-associated-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#14
Ngomu Akeem Akilimali, Christina C Chang, Daniel M Muema, Tarylee Reddy, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
Background: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) frequently experience clinical deterioration, known as cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS), upon initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunological mechanisms underlying C-IRIS are incompletely defined and no reliable predictive biomarkers exist. We investigated whether plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and chemokines predicted C-IRIS and are potential predictive biomarkers...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048459/an-efficient-large-scale-survey-of-hepatitis-c-viremia-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-using-dried-blood-spots
#15
Jonathan B Parr, Evans K Lodge, Vera Holzmayer, Jacques Pepin, Eric H Frost, Michael W Fried, David R McGivern, Stanley M Lemon, Corinna Keeler, Michael Emch, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Franck Fwamba, Jérémie Muwonga, Steven R Meshnick, Gavin Cloherty
Background: Efficient viral load testing is needed for hepatitis C (HCV) surveillance and diagnosis. HCV viral load testing using dried blood spots (DBSs), made with a single drop of finger-prick whole blood on filter paper, is a promising alternative to traditional serum- or plasma-based approaches. Methods: We adapted the Abbott Molecular m2000 instrument for high-throughput HCV viremia testing using DBSs with simple specimen processing and applied these methods to estimate the national burden of infection in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)...
October 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047340/occupational-blood-exposures-in-health-care-workers-incidence-characteristics-and-transmission-of-bloodborne-pathogens-in-south-korea
#16
Ju Hyun Lee, Junhyeon Cho, Yung Jung Kim, Sang Hyuk Im, Eun Sun Jang, Jin-Wook Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Sook-Hyang Jeong
BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are at high risk for occupational blood exposures (OBEs) and transmission of bloodborne pathogens. This study elucidated the incidence rate and epidemiological characteristics of OBEs among HCWs and investigated the pathogen transmission rate for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Self-reported OBEs from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 were obtained from the electronic recording system...
October 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047108/clinicopathologic-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-transformed-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-patients
#17
Jeff Hosry, Roberto N Miranda, Felipe Samaniego, Minas P Economides, Harrys A Torres
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a chronic but curable infection associated with the development of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Preliminary data have shown frequent transformation of indolent lymphoma to DLBCL in HCV-infected patients. To compare their clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes, we reviewed the medical records and pathology reports of HCV-infected and uninfected patients with DLBCL that transformed from indolent lymphoma seen at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (June 2004-May 2015)...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046459/hepatitis-c-virus-replication-depends-on-endosomal-cholesterol-homeostasis
#18
Ina Karen Stoeck, Ji-Young Lee, Keisuke Tabata, Inés Romero-Brey, David Paul, Philipp Schult, Volker Lohmann, Lars Kaderali, Ralf Bartenschlager
Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes massive rearrangements of intracellular membranes, resulting in a membranous web (MW) composed of predominantly double membrane vesicles (DMVs), the presumed sites of RNA replication. DMVs are enriched for cholesterol, but mechanistic details on the source and recruitment of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle are only partially known. Here we focused on selected lipid transfer proteins implicated in direct lipid transfer at various endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - membrane contact sites...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046458/a-tyrosine-based-trafficking-motif-of-the-tegument-protein-pul71-is-crucial-for-human-cytomegalovirus-secondary-envelopment
#19
Andrea N Dietz, Clarissa Villinger, Stefan Becker, Manfred Frick, Jens von Einem
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL71 is required for efficient secondary envelopment and accumulates at the Golgi-derived viral assembly complex (vAC) during infection. Analysis of various C-terminally truncated pUL71 fused to eGFP identified amino acids 23-34 as important determinants for its Golgi localization. Sequence analysis and mutational verification revealed the presence of an N-terminal tyrosine-based trafficking motif (YxxΦ) in pUL71. This led us to hypothesize a requirement of the YxxΦ motif for the function of pUL71 in infection...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046457/hiv-1-infection-of-primary-cd4-t-cells-regulates-the-expression-of-specific-herv-k-hml-2-elements
#20
George R Young, Sandra N Terry, Lara Manganaro, Alvaro Cuesta-Dominguez, Gintaras Deikus, Dabeiba Bernal-Rubio, Laura Campisi, Ana Fernandez-Sesma, Robert Sebra, Viviana Simon, Lubbertus C F Mulder
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) occupy extensive regions of the human genome. Although many of these retroviral elements have lost their ability to replicate, those whose insertion took place more recently, such as the HML-2 group of HERV-K elements, still retain intact open reading frames and the capacity to produce certain viral RNA and/or proteins. Transcription of these ERVs is, however, tightly regulated by dedicated epigenetic control mechanisms. Nonetheless, it has been reported that some pathologic states, such as viral infections and certain cancers, coincide with ERV expression suggesting transcriptional reawakening is possible...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
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