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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320050/the-practice-pattern-of-hepatitis-b-testing-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-cross-national-comparison-between-us-and-taiwan
#1
Tzu-Chieh Lin, Nikroo Hashemi, Seoyoung C Kim, Yea-Huei Kao Yang, Kazuki Yoshida, Sara Tedeschi, Rishi Desai, Daniel H Solomon
OBJECTIVE: The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) testing rates and patterns in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients starting disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have not been well studied. We describe and compare the practice patterns of HBV testing among RA patients in U.S. and Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including RA patients starting first DMARD in U.S. or Taiwan. The first date patients newly received any DMARD was defined as the index date, and the 1-year period before the index date was the baseline period...
March 20, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319996/oral-direct-acting-agent-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#2
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, David R Nelson, Michael W Fried, Jodi B Segal, Mark S Sulkowski
Background: Rapid improvements in hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy have led to the approval of multiple oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of chronic HCV infection. Purpose: To summarize published literature on the efficacy and safety of oral DAAs for treatment of persons with chronic HCV infection. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception through 1 November 2016. Study Selection: 42 English-language studies from controlled and single-group registered clinical trials of adults with HCV infection that evaluated at least 8 weeks of an FDA-approved interferon-free HCV regimen that included at least 2 DAAs...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319021/engineering-a-growth-sensor-to-select-intracellular-antibodies-in-the-cytosol-of-mammalian-cells
#3
Thuy Duong Nguyen, Hitoshi Takasuka, Yoshihiro Kaku, Satoshi Inoue, Teruyuki Nagamune, Masahiro Kawahara
Intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) are expected to function as therapeutics as well as tools for elucidating in vivo function of proteins. In this study, we propose a novel intrabody selection method in the cytosol of mammalian cells by utilizing a growth signal, induced by the interaction of the target antigen and an scFv-c-kit growth sensor. Here, we challenge this method to select specific intrabodies against rabies virus nucleoprotein (RV-N) for the first time. As a result, we successfully select antigen-specific intrabodies from a naïve synthetic library using phage panning followed by our growth sensor-based intracellular selection method, demonstrating the feasibility of the method...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318782/role-of-the-microbiome-in-swine-respiratory-disease
#4
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Microbiome is a term used to describe the community of microorganisms that live on the skin and mucosal surfaces of animals. The gastrointestinal microbiome is essential for proper nutrition and immunity. How the gastrointestinal microbiome impacts primary respiratory or systemic infections is an emerging area of study. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by a systemic virus infection with primary lung pathology and continues to be the most costly disease of swine worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that improved outcome after experimental infection with PRRS virus and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with increased fecal microbiome diversity and the presence of non-pathogenic Escherichia coli...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318208/elbasvir-grazoprevir-zepatier-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#5
Jessica Early, George Maxted
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318148/barriers-to-innovation-in-human-rabies-prophylaxis-and-treatment-a-causal-analysis-of-insights-from-key-opinion-leaders-and-literature
#6
L H M van de Burgwal, A M G Neevel, C A C M Pittens, A D M E Osterhaus, C E Rupprecht, E Claassen
Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs)...
March 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318053/statins-decrease-the-risk-of-decompensation-in-hbv-and-hcv-related-cirrhosis-a-population-based-study
#7
Fu-Ming Chang, Yen-Po Wang, Hui-Chu Lang, Chia-Fen Tsai, Ming-Chih Hou, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ching-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND & AIM: Statin decreased the risk of decompensation and mortality in veteran patients with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Whether this beneficial effect can be extended to cirrhosis in general population or cirrhosis with other causes, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and alcohol, remains unknown. Statin also decreased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic HBV and HCV infection. It is unclear whether the effect can be observed in patients already with cirrhosis...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318046/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-ccl5-secretion-from-macrophages-activates-hepatic-stellate-cells
#8
Reina Sasaki, Pradip B Devhare, Robert Steele, Ranjit Ray, Ratna B Ray
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mediated chronic liver disease is a serious health problem around the world, and often causes fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mechanism of liver disease progression during HCV infection is still unclear, although inflammation is believed to be an important player in disease pathogenesis. We previously reported that macrophages including Kupffer cells exposed to HCV induce proinflammatory cytokines. These secreted cytokines may activate hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) towards fibrosis...
March 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318044/pathomechanisms-of-anti-cn1a-autoantibodies-in-sporadic-inclusion-body-myositis
#9
Nozomu Tawara, Satoshi Yamashita, Xiao Zhang, Mai Korogi, Ziwei Zhang, Tsukasa Doki, Yoshimasa Matsuo, Shunya Nakane, Yasushi Maeda, Kazuma Sugie, Naoki Suzuki, Masashi Aoki, Yukio Ando
OBJECTIVE: Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), an intractable progressive muscle disease, frequently occurs in older persons. sIBM pathogenesis may involve protein degradation dysfunction and immune abnormalities. Autoantibodies recognizing cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1A (cN1A) were found in plasma and serum from sIBM patients. Whether anti-cN1A autoantibodies play a pathogenic role in sIBM is controversial, however. This study investigated the pathogenic properties of anti-cN1A autoantibodies in sIBM pathogenesis...
March 20, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317943/functional-conservation-and-coherence-of-hiv-1-subtype-a-vpu-alleles
#10
Bizhan Romani, Amirarsalan Kavyanifard, Elham Allahbakhshi
Functional studies of HIV-1 proteins are normally conducted using lab adapted strains of HIV-1. The extent of those functions in clinical strains is sometimes unknown. In this study, we amplified and sequenced HIV-1 Vpu from 10 Iranian patients infected with HIV-1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Vpu alleles were closely related to the CRF35_AD from Iran and subtype A Vpu. We addressed some of the well-established functions of the HIV-1 Vpu, as well as some of its recently reported functions. Ability of the clinical strains of subtype A Vpu alleles for downregulation of CD4 was similar to that of the lab adapted NL4...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317866/cyclooxygenase-2-facilitates-dengue-virus-replication-and-serves-as-a-potential-target-for-developing-antiviral-agents
#11
Chun-Kuang Lin, Chin-Kai Tseng, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Chun-Yu Lin, Chung-Hao Huang, Yen-Hsu Chen, Jin-Ching Lee
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the important mediators of inflammation in response to viral infection, and it contributes to viral replication, for example, cytomegalovirus or hepatitis C virus replication. The role of COX-2 in dengue virus (DENV) replication remains unclear. In the present study, we observed an increased level of COX-2 in patients with dengue fever compared with healthy donors. Consistent with the clinical data, an elevated level of COX-2 expression was also observed in DENV-infected ICR suckling mice...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317804/a-survey-on-undiagnosed-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-pregnant-mothers-in-mekelle-and-surrounding-districts-in-tigray-ethiopia
#12
Dawit Gebreegziabiher, Kelemework Adane, Markos Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of symptom combinations for undiagnosed TB infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) clinics. Mycobacterium TB and HIV are the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age worldwide. Symptom screening is the first step in the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended TB intensified case finding algorithm for people living with HIV...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317380/systems-biology-reveals-ns4b-cyclophilin-a-interaction-a-new-target-to-inhibit-yfv-replication
#13
Alessandra Vidotto, Ana T S Morais, Milene Rocha Ribeiro, Carolina C Pacca, Ana C B Terzian, Laura H V G Gil, Ronaldo Mohana-Borges, Philippe Gallay, Mauricio L Nogueira
Yellow fever virus (YFV) replication is highly dependent upon host cell factors. YFV NS4B is reported to be involved in viral replication and immune evasion. Here, interactions between NS4B and human proteins were determined using a GST pull-down assay and analyzed using 1- DE and LC-MS/MS. We present a total of 207 proteins confirmed using Scaffold 3 Software. Cyclophilin A (CypA), a protein which has been shown to be necessary for the positive regulation of flavivirus replication, was identified as a possible NS4B partner...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317161/eosinophilic-pustular-folliculitis-in-children-after-stem-cell-transplantation-an-eruption-distinct-from-graft-versus-host-disease
#14
Martin Theiler, Vikash S Oza, Erin F Mathes, Christopher C Dvorak, Timothy H McCalmont, Iwei Yeh, Robert Sidbury, Kelly M Cordoro
Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) is a rare cutaneous disorder that typically occurs in three clinical contexts: men, individuals who are immunosuppressed or have human immunodeficiency virus, and infants. A fourth subtype occurring 2 to 3 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has recently been described in several adults. We report two cases of EPF arising in children after HSCT. It is important to recognize this form of EPF after HSCT and differentiate it from graft-versus-host disease since it responds readily to topical steroids and appears to have an excellent prognosis...
March 20, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317093/non-neutralizing-epitopes-induce-robust-hcv-specific-antibody-dependent-cd56-nk-cell-responses-in-chronic-hcv-infected-patients
#15
Lu Long, Manxue Jia, Xueying Fan, Hua Liang, Jiahua Wang, Liyan Zhu, Zhe Xie, Tao Shen
NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (NK-ADCC) is of considerable interest in viral infection. However, little is known about NK-ADCC responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, impaired nonspecific antibody-dependent CD56(+) NK cell responses were observed in chronic HCV infection, as shown by decreased degranulation (extracellular CD107a expression) and IFN-γ production in response to antibody-bound P815 cells. A peptide pool composed of epitopes recognized by anti-HCV-E1/E2 antibodies could induce pronounced HCV-specific antibody-dependent NK cell responses in sera from approximately half of the chronic HCV carriers...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317045/fibrolamellar-variant-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-presenting-during-pregnancy-management-dilemmas
#16
Nagalapuram Vishnu, Aditya V Kulkarni, Sreenivasan Vidhyalakshmi, Swaminathan Sambandam, Prerna Garg, Venkatakrishnan LeelaKrishnan, Krishnaveni Janarthan, Gursharan Singh, Maninder Kaur, T V Chitra, Biku Joseph John
The Fibrolamellar variant of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare form of liver cancer that presents in the 3(rd) decade of life, is rarely associated with cirrhosis or chronic Hepatitis B/C virus infection, and usually presents with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. FLHCC presenting during pregnancy is extremely rare, with only 4 cases reported. We present a case of FLHCC in pregnancy and discuss the dilemmas in management. A 26 year-old primigravida, 26 weeks of gestation presented with a month's history of obstructive jaundice secondary...
February 2017: Ann Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316109/airway-inflammation-and-symptoms-in-children-following-liver-and-heart-transplantation
#17
Andrew J Redmann, John C Bucuvalas, Robert E Wood, Clifford Chin, Catherine K Hart
OBJECTIVES: Describe the upper airway endoscopic findings of children with upper airway symptoms after liver transplantation (LT) or heart transplantation (HT). METHODS: Review of children undergoing airway endoscopy after LT or HT from 2011 to 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Airway findings, biopsy results, immunosuppression and Ebstein Barr virus (EBV) levels were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-three of 158 LT (111) and HT (47) recipients underwent endoscopy...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315983/retreatment-with-sofosbuvir-ledipasvir-and-add-on-ribavirin-for-patients-who-failed-daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-combination-therapy
#18
Goki Suda, Koji Ogawa, Yoshiya Yamamoto, Masaki Katagiri, Ken Furuya, Kenichi Kumagai, Jun Konno, Megumi Kimura, Naoki Kawagishi, Masatsugu Ohara, Machiko Umemura, Jun Ito, Takaaki Izumi, Masato Nakai, Takuya Sho, Mitsuteru Natsuizaka, Kenichi Morikawa, Akihito Tsubota, Noritomo Shimada, Etsuko Iio, Yasuhito Tanaka, Naoya Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: The optimal retreatment regimen for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who failed interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy is undetermined. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 12-week retreatment with ledipasvir (LDV) and sofosbuvir (SOF) with add-on ribavirin (RBV) for patients who previously failed to respond to HCV-NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir (DCV), and HCV-NS3 inhibitor, asunaprevir (ASV), therapy. METHODS: This multicenter, prospective study enrolled 15 patients with genotype-1 HCV infection who failed DCV/ASV combination therapy...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#19
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasagawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315490/neutralization-of-both-il-1%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-plays-a-major-role-in-suppressing-combined-cigarette-smoke-virus-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#20
Hannes Bucher, Samuel Mang, Martina Keck, Michèl Przibilla, David Lamb, Felix Schiele, Mareike Wittenbrink, Klaus Fuchs, Birgit Jung, Klaus J Erb, Daniel Peter
Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and viral infections are believed to be major triggers of exacerbations, which periodically lead to a worsening of symptoms. The pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members IL-1α and IL-1β are increased in COPD patients and might contribute to disease pathology. We investigated whether individual or combined inhibition of these cytokines reduced lung inflammation in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed and H1N1-infected BALB/c mice...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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