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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444101/development-and-characterization-of-two-cell-lines-from-gills-of-atlantic-salmon
#1
Mona C Gjessing, Maria Aamelfot, William N Batts, Sylvie L Benestad, Ole B Dale, Even Thoen, Simon C Weli, James R Winton
Gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., causes big losses in the salmon farming industry. Until now, tools to cultivate microorganisms causing gill disease and models to study the gill responses have been lacking. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of two cell lines from the gills of Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon gill cell ASG-10 consisted of cells staining for cytokeratin and e-cadherin and with desmosomes as seen by transmission electron microscopy suggesting the cells to be of epithelial origin...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443938/the-microbial-zoo-in-the-c-elegans-intestine-bacteria-fungi-and-viruses
#2
REVIEW
Hongbing Jiang, David Wang
C. elegans is an invaluable model organism that has been a driving force in many fundamental biological discoveries. However, it is only in the past two decades that it has been applied to host-pathogen interaction studies. These studies have been facilitated by the discoveries of natural microbes that infect C. elegans , including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Notably, many of these microbes share a common site of infection, the C. elegans intestine. Furthermore, the recent descriptions of a natural gut microbiota in C...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443887/impact-of-mutations-in-the-hemagglutinin-of-h10n7-viruses-isolated-from-seals-on-virus-replication-in-avian-and-human-cells
#3
Anne Dittrich, David Scheibner, Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Marcel Gischke, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443655/is-interferon-based-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis-c-genotype-3-infection-still-of-value-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#4
Dorota Zarębska-Michaluk, Robert Flisiak, Jerzy Jaroszewicz, Ewa Janczewska, Agnieszka Czauż-Andrzejuk, Hanna Berak, Andrzej Horban, Agnieszka Staniaszek, Andrzej Gietka, Magdalena Tudrujek, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Dorota Dybowska, Waldemar Halota, Anna Piekarska, Marek Sitko, Aleksander Garlicki, Iwona Orłowska, Krzysztof Simon, Teresa Belica-Wdowik, Barbara Baka-Ćwierz, Włodzimierz Mazur, Jolanta Białkowska, Łukasz Socha, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, Łukasz Laurans, Zbigniew Deroń, Beata Lorenc, Beata Dobracka, Olga Tronina, Małgorzata Pawłowska
The aim of the study is to analyze treatments available for patients infected with genotype (G) 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Poland at the beginning of the interferon (IFN)-free era and evaluate the efficacy and safety of different therapeutic options administered in a real-world setting. We analyzed data of 198 patients who started antiviral therapy after July 1, 2015, and completed it before December 31, 2016; 57.6% of them had liver cirrhosis and 46% were treatment experienced. Fifty percent of patients were assigned to sofosbuvir (SOF)+pegylated IFN alfa (PegIFNa)+ribavirin (RBV), 9% to PegIFNa+RBV, 36% received SOF+RBV, and 5% SOF+daclatasvir (DCV)±RBV...
February 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443540/targeted-elimination-of-peroxisomes-during-viral-infection-lessons-from-hiv-and-other-viruses
#5
Cheung Pang Wong, Zaikun Xu, Christopher Power, Tom C Hobman
Peroxisomes are membrane-bound organelles that are best known for their roles in lipid metabolism. Mounting evidence indicates that they are also important nodes for antiviral signaling. While research over the past few decades has revealed effective viral strategies to block antiviral signalling pathways from the plasma membrane, mitochondria and/or the nucleus, until recently, very little was known about how viruses interfere with peroxisome-based antiviral signaling. In this essay, we review how viruses use a variety of strategies to interfere with peroxisome biogenesis, a phenomenon that has implications for evasion of the host immune system as well as pathogenesis...
February 14, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443378/hepatitis-c-virus-e2-envelope-glycoprotein-induces-an-immunoregulatory-phenotype-in-macrophages
#6
Young-Chan Kwon, Keith Meyer, Guangyong Peng, Soumya Chatterjee, Daniel F Hoft, Ranjit Ray
A comprehensive strategy to control HCV infection needs a vaccine. Our phase I study with recombinant HCV E1/E2 EnvGPs as a candidate vaccine did not induce a strong immune response in volunteers. We analyzed the interactions of HCV EnvGPs with human monocyte derived macrophages as antigen presenting cells. HCV E2 induced immune regulatory cytokine IL-10 and sCD163 protein expression in macrophages from 7 of 9 blood donors tested. Further, HCV E2 enhanced Stat3 and suppressed Stat1 activation, reflecting macrophage polarization towards M2 phenotype...
February 14, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442579/changes-in-cryphonectria-parasitica-populations-affects-natural-biological-control-of-chestnut-blight
#7
Marin Ježić, Jelena Mlinarec, Rosemary Vuković, Zorana Katanić, Ljiljana Krstin, Lucija Nuskern, Igor Poljak, Marilena Idžojtić, Mirta Tkalec, Mirna Curkovic-Perica
Invasive species, especially plant pathogens have a potential to completely eradicate native plant species and remodel landscapes. Tripartite interaction among sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa, chestnut blight-causing invasive fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and a hyperparasitic virus, Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) were studied in two populations. The number of different vegetative compatibility (vc) types of C. parasitica more than doubled over the ten years, while the hypovirulence incidence dropped in one population, and slightly increased in the other one...
February 14, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441719/azd1208-a-pan-pim-kinase-inhibitor-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-induces-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#8
Yu-Kyoung Park, Brice Wilfried Obiang-Obounou, Kyung-Bok Lee, Jong-Soon Choi, Byeong-Churl Jang
The proviral integration moloney murine leukaemia virus (Pim) kinases, consisting of Pim-1, Pim-2 and Pim-3, are involved in the control of cell growth, metabolism and differentiation. Pim kinases are emerging as important mediators of adipocyte differentiation. AZD1208 is a pan-Pim kinase inhibitor and is known for its anti-cancer activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of AZD1208 on adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells, a murine preadipocyte cell line. AZD1208 markedly suppressed lipid accumulation and reduced triglyceride contents in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting the drug's anti-adipogenic effect...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441589/dissecting-the-decline-of-hepatitis-c-in-first-time-donors-in-england-and-wales
#9
C A Reynolds, K L Davison, N Andrews, P Patel, A Kitchen, S R Brailsford
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The rate of confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases, in first-time donors, is much lower in 2015 than 20 years ago. We investigate reasons for the decline. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HCV rates were analysed by gender and birth cohort for 1996 to 2015 and ethnic group for 2006 to 2015. Variables for confirmed positive cases were compared for two ten-year periods (1996 to 2005 and 2006 to 2015) including genotyping data for 2006 to 2015. RESULTS: There were 2007 confirmed HCV cases identified between 1996 and 2015...
February 14, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441587/transfusion-transmitted-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection-from-an-individual-donation-nucleic-acid-id-nat-non-reactive-donor
#10
N O'Flaherty, I Ushiro-Lumb, L Pomeroy, S Ijaz, F Boland, C De Gascun, J Fitzgerald, J O'Riordan
Lookback was initiated upon notification of an acute HBV infection in a repeat Irish donor, 108 days post-donation. The donation screened non-reactive by individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) using the Procleix Ultrio Elite multiplex assay and again when the archived sample was retested, but the discriminatory assay for HBV was reactive. The immunocompromised recipient of the implicated red cell component was tested 110 days post-transfusion, revealing a HBV DNA viral load of 470 IU/ml. Genotype C2 sequences identical across two regions of the HBV genome were found in samples from the donor and recipient...
February 14, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441578/cell-type-specific-tracing-of-the-subcortical-input-to-primary-visual-cortex-from-the-basal-forebrain
#11
Georgina A Lean, Yong-Jun Liu, David C Lyon
The basal forebrain provides cholinergic inputs to primary visual cortex (V1) that play a key modulatory role on visual function. While basal forebrain afferents terminate in the infragranular layers of V1, acetylcholine is delivered to more superficial layers through volume transmission. Nevertheless, direct synaptic contact in deep layers 5 and 6 may provide a more immediate effect on V1 modulation. Using helper viruses with cell type specific promoters to target retrograde infection of pseudotyped and genetically modified rabies virus evidence was found for direct synaptic input onto V1 inhibitory neurons...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441107/c-reactive-protein-and-n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-discrepancy-a-differentiation-of-adenoviral-pharyngoconjunctival-fever-from-kawasaki-disease
#12
Jung Eun Choi, Hee Won Kang, Young Mi Hong, Sejung Sohn
Purpose: To differentiate adenoviral pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF) from acute Kawasaki disease (KD) using laboratory tests before results of virus-real time polymerase chain reaction and ophthalmologic examination are obtained. Methods: Baseline patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were compared between 40 patients with adenovirus infection and 123 patients with KD. Results: The patients with adenovirus infection were generally older than those with KD (median: 3...
January 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440426/sting-dependent-translation-inhibition-restricts-rna-virus-replication
#13
Kate M Franz, William J Neidermyer, Yee-Joo Tan, Sean P J Whelan, Jonathan C Kagan
In mammalian cells, IFN responses that occur during RNA and DNA virus infections are activated by distinct signaling pathways. The RIG-I-like-receptors (RLRs) bind viral RNA and engage the adaptor MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling) to promote IFN expression, whereas cGAS (cGMP-AMP synthase) binds viral DNA and activates an analogous pathway via the protein STING (stimulator of IFN genes). In this study, we confirm that STING is not necessary to induce IFN expression during RNA virus infection but also find that STING is required to restrict the replication of diverse RNA viruses...
February 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439971/sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-liver-pharmacokinetics-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus
#14
Darius Babusis, Michael P Curry, Brian Kirby, Yeojin Park, Eisuke Murakami, Ting Wang, Anita Mathias, Nezam Afdhal, John G McHutchison, Adrian S Ray
Sofosbuvir and ribavirin exert their anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity following metabolic activation in the liver. However, intrahepatic concentrations of the pharmacologically active nucleotide metabolites in humans are poorly characterized due to the inaccessibility of tissue and technical challenges with measuring nucleotide levels. A clinical study assessing the efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin administered prior to liver transplant to prevent HCV reoccurrence provided a unique opportunity to quantify nucleotide concentrations in human liver...
February 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439868/in-depth-genome-analyses-of-viruses-from-vaccine-derived-rabies-cases-and-corresponding-live-attenuated-oral-rabies-vaccines
#15
Florian Pfaff, Thomas Müller, Conrad M Freuling, Christine Fehlner-Gardiner, Susan Nadin-Davis, Emmanuelle Robardet, Florence Cliquet, Vlad Vuta, Peter Hostnik, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Martin Beer, Dirk Höper
Live-attenuated rabies virus strains such as those derived from the field isolate Street Alabama Dufferin (SAD) have been used extensively and very effectively as oral rabies vaccines for the control of fox rabies in both Europe and Canada. Although these vaccines are safe, some cases of vaccine-derived rabies have been detected during rabies surveillance accompanying these campaigns. In recent analysis it was shown that some commercial SAD vaccines consist of diverse viral populations, rather than clonal genotypes...
February 10, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439726/a-novel-cav-derived-cell-penetrating-peptide-efficiently-delivers-exogenous-molecules-through-caveolae-mediated-endocytosis
#16
Gaowei Hu, Wenlv Zheng, Ao Li, Yaru Mu, Mingyu Shi, Tuofan Li, Haitao Zou, Hongxia Shao, Aijian Qin, Jianqiang Ye
Cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is a promising cargo for delivering bioactive molecules. In this study, the N terminus of VP1 from chicken anemia virus, designated as CVP1, was found to carry enriched arginine residues with α-helix. By confocal imaging, flow cytometry and MTT assay, we identified CVP1 as a novel, safe and efficient CPP. CVP1-FITC peptide could entry different types of cells tested with dose dependence, but without cytotoxic effects. Compared with TAT-FITC peptide, the CVP1-FITC peptide showed much higher cell-penetrating activity...
February 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439721/real-time-fluorescence-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-for-direct-detection-of-egg-drop-syndrome-virus
#17
Makay Zheney, Zhambul Kaziyev, Gulmira Kassenova, Lingna Zhao, Wei Liu, Lin Liang, Gang Li
BACKGROUND: Egg drop syndrome (EDS), caused by the adenovirus "egg drop syndrome virus" (EDSV) causes severe economic losses through reduced egg production in breeder and layer flocks. The diagnosis of EDSV has been done by molecular tools since its complete genome sequence was identified. In order to enhance the capabilities of the real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay, we aimed to apply the method for direct detection of the EDSV without viral DNA extraction...
February 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439720/plant-derived-antivirals-against-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#18
REVIEW
Ana Carolina Gomes Jardim, Jacqueline Farinha Shimizu, Paula Rahal, Mark Harris
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide public health burden and it is estimated that 185 million people are or have previously been infected worldwide. There is no effective vaccine for prevention of HCV infection; however, a number of drugs are available for the treatment of infection. The availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has dramatically improved therapeutic options for HCV genotype 1. However, the high costs and potential for development of resistance presented by existing treatment demonstrate the need for the development of more efficient new antivirals, or combination of therapies that target different stages of the viral lifecycle...
February 13, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439582/diversity-of-hiv-1-in-aquitaine-south-western-france-2012-2016
#19
Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson, Alexi Groppi, Macha Nikolski, Herve J Fleury
We have estimated the prevalence of the different viral subtypes between January 2012 and December 2016 in HIV-1-infected patients of the Aquitaine region (south-west part of France) who had a routine HIV-1 genotype resistance testing (GRT) centralized at the Bordeaux University Hospital. GRT was performed on viral RNA (1784 samples) before treatment initiation or at failure whereas proviral DNA was used as template (1420 samples) in the event of a treatment switch in patients with viral load below 50 copies/mL...
February 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439476/virus-like-vaccines-against-hiv
#20
REVIEW
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Melanie Schwerdtfeger, Peter J Holst
Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV...
February 11, 2018: Vaccines
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