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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222916/transplanting-hcv-positive-livers-into-hcv-negative-patients-with-preemptive-antiviral-treatment-a-modeling-study
#1
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Emily D Bethea, Turgay Ayer, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Mark S Roberts, Norah Terrault, Raymond T Chung
Under current guidelines hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive livers are not transplanted into HCV-negative recipients because of adverse post-transplant outcomes associated with allograft HCV infection. However, HCV can now be cured post liver transplant (LT) using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with >90% success; therefore, HCV-negative patients on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list may benefit from accepting HCV-positive organs with preemptive treatment. Our objective was to evaluate if and in which HCV-negative patients the potential benefit of accepting an HCV-positive (i...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222332/stabilization-of-the-gp120-v3-loop-through-hydrophobic-interactions-reduces-the-immunodominant-v3-directed-non-neutralizing-response-to-hiv-1-envelope-trimers
#2
Steven W de Taeye, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Andrea Vecchione, Enzo Scutigliani, Kwinten Sliepen, Judith A Burger, Patricia van der Woude, Anna Schorcht, Edith E Schermer, Marit J van Gils, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Ian A Wilson, John P Moore, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders
To provide protective immunity against circulating primary HIV-1 strains, a vaccine most likely has to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein spike. Recombinant Env trimers such as the prototype BG505 SOSIP.664 that closely mimic the native Env spike can induce autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against relatively resistant (tier-2) primary viruses. Ideally, Env immunogens should present bNAb epitopes, but limit the presentation of immunodominant non-NAb epitopes that might induce off-target and potentially interfering responses...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222027/tbk1-from-orange-spotted-grouper-exerts-antiviral-activity-against-fish-viruses-and-regulates-interferon-response
#3
Yin Hu, Youhua Huang, Jiaxin Liu, Jingcheng Zhang, Qiwei Qin, Xiaohong Huang
TANK-binding kinase-1 (TBK1) has been well studied in mammals because of its importance in type I interferon induction in antiviral immunity. However, the roles of fish TBK1 in virus infection still remained largely uncertain. In the current study, a TBK1 homolog from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcTBK1) was cloned and its roles in fish viral infections were investigated. Sequence analysis showed that EcTBK1 encoded a 723-amino acid peptide which shared 98% and 73% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) and human (homo sapiens), respectively...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221787/evaluation-of-alternative-serum-biomarkers-to-monitor-the-progression-of-chronic-hbv-and-hcv-infection
#4
S Tsiomita, U Georgopoulou, P P Doumba, J Koskinas, K Adamidis, C Papaloukas, G Thyphronitis
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the most serious health conditions affecting about 600 million people worldwide leading to a number of severe liver diseases. Due to the lack of warning signs or mild symptoms during the early stage of the infection, a molecular signature associated with disease progression would be useful. Based on our recent paper where candidate biomarkers were determined through topological and modularity analysis of protein interaction networks (PINs), this study was focused on the evaluation of MIF, TNFRSF1A, FAS and TMSB4X as diagnostic biomarkers in chronic HBV and HCV infections...
December 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221652/-acyclovir-resistant-perineal-hsv-infection-revealing-chronic-lymphoid-leukaemia
#5
E A Casassa, P Nicol, R Viraben, C Gaudin, C Bulai Livideanu, C Mengelle, L Lamant, F Fortenfant, C Paul, M P Konstantinou
BACKGROUND: Chronic HSV infection is a cause of chronic perineal ulcerations. We report a case of a chronic and refractory HSV infection revealing chronic lymphoid leukaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An 85-year-old woman with an 8-month history of chronic perineal ulcerations was referred to our dermatology department. She had no previous medical history of herpes infection. Skin biopsies ruled out carcinoma but were consistent with HSV infection. A local swab was positive for HSV2...
December 5, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221523/estimating-effects-of-temperature-on-dengue-transmission-in-colombian-cities
#6
Víctor Hugo Peña-García, Omar Triana-Chávez, Sair Arboleda-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a viral disease that affects tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is well known that processes related to virus transmission by mosquitoes are highly influenced by weather. Temperature has been described as one of the climatic variables that largely governs the development and survival of mosquito eggs as well as the survival of all insect stages. Previously, we noted that high temperatures in the Colombian city of Riohacha negatively affect the establishment of dengue virus (DENV) infection in mosquitoes; in Bello and Villavicencio cities, which have lower average temperatures, DENV infection rates in mosquitoes are positively associated with a gradual increase in temperature...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221500/analysis-of-naturally-occurring-resistance-associated-variants-to-ns3-4a-protein-inhibitors-ns5a-protein-inhibitors-and-ns5b-polymerase-inhibitors-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#7
Danhui Sun, Mingjia Dai, Shanshan Shen, Chunyang Li, Xuebing Yan
The first NS3/4A hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir were approved in 2011,and both NS5A and NS5B polymerase inhibitors were launched. Recently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have had a major impact on patients infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV DAAs are highly effective antivirals with fewer side effects. DAAs have been developed for treatment of HCV infection in combination with PEG-IFNα/RBV as well as in IFN-free regimens. However, some drug resistance mutations occur when a single oral DAA is used for treatment, which indicates that there is a low-frequency drug resistance mutation in HCV patients before the application of antiviral drugsOur research showed that natural resistance to HCV DAAs was found in treatment-naïve CHC patients and that the drug resistance mutation rates differ in various HCV genotypes...
December 8, 2017: Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220876/pharmacokinetics-clot-strength-and-safety-of-a-new-fibrinogen-concentrate-randomized-comparison-with-active-control-in-congenital-fibrinogen-deficiency
#8
C Ross, S Rangarajan, M Karimi, G H Toogeh, S Apte, T Lissitchkov, S Acharya, M J Manco-Johnson, A Srivastava, B Brand, B Schwartz, S Knaub, F Peyvandi
BACKGROUND: Human fibrinogen concentrate (HFC) corrects fibrinogen deficiency in congenital a-/hypofibrinogenaemia. OBJECTIVES: To assess pharmacokinetics (PK), effects on thromboelastometry maximum clot firmness (MCF), and safety of a new double virus-inactivated/eliminated, highly purified HFC vs. active control. PATIENTS/METHODS: In this multinational, randomized, phase II, open-label, crossover study in 22 congenital afibrinogenaemia patients ≥12 years, 70 mg kg-1 of new HFC (FIBRYGA, Octapharma AG) or control (Haemocomplettan® P/RiaSTAP™ , CSL Behring GmbH) were administered, followed by crossover to the other concentrate...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220615/medication-assisted-treatment-mat-for-opioid-addiction-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#9
Karen McElrath, Herman Joseph
Several countries are experiencing public health crises as a result of opioid addiction. Fatal overdoses have reached record highs in many regions and Hepatitis C virus is the norm among people who inject drugs in several countries. Thus, providing for the global availability of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid addiction is more important than ever. In this article, we introduce readers to the collection of papers that appear in this special issue on MAT for opioid addiction. We describe the articles and commentaries thematically to include topics that address 1) the contemporary history of methadone maintenance, 2) the provision of and access and barriers to MAT, 3) compliance and outcomes of MAT, 4) health issues among MAT patients, 5) race, ethnicity, and social class backgrounds of MAT patients, 6) criminalization and stigma, and 7) challenges associated with the expansion of MAT...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220409/acquisition-of-functions-on-the-outer-capsid-surface-during-evolution-of-double-stranded-rna-fungal-viruses
#10
Carlos P Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M Rodríguez, José M González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A Ghabrial, José L Carrascosa, Benes L Trus, José R Castón
Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double-stranded (ds)RNA virus. RnQV1, the type species of the family Quadriviridae, has a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments. Whereas most dsRNA virus capsids are based on dimers of a single protein, the ~450-Å-diameter, T = 1 RnQV1 capsid is built of P2 and P4 protein heterodimers, each with more than 1000 residues...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220350/deep-sequencing-of-near-full-length-hiv-1-genomes-from-plasma-identifies-circulating-subtype-c-and-infrequent-occurrence-of-ac-recombinant-form-in-southern-india
#11
Shuba Varshini Alampalli, Michael M Thomson, Raghavan Sampathkumar, Karthi Sivaraman, Anto Jesuraj U K J, Chirag Dhar, George D Souza, Neil Berry, Annapurna Vyakarnam
India has the third largest number of HIV-1-infected individuals accounting for approximately 2.1 million people, with a predominance of circulating subtype C strains and a low prevalence of subtype A and A1C and BC recombinant forms, identified over the past two decades. Recovery of near full-length HIV-1 genomes from a plasma source coupled with advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and development of universal methods for amplifying whole genomes of HIV-1 circulating in a target geography or population provides the opportunity for a detailed analysis of HIV-1 strain identification, evolution and dynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220079/hepatitis-c-virus-genotyping-of-organ-donor-samples-to-aid-in-transplantation-of-hcv-positive-organs
#12
Caren Gentile, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, David S Goldberg, Peter P Reese, Richard D Hasz, Peter Abt, Emily Blumberg, Midhat S Farooqi
Given the availability of new highly efficacious anti-HCV therapies, some clinicians have advocated for wider use of kidneys from hepatitis C virus-positive (HCV+) donors, including transplanting them into HCV-negative recipients. Since treatment regimens for HCV are commonly guided by genotype, pre-transplant HCV genotyping of tissue donors would be beneficial. To our knowledge, donor HCV genotyping has never been reported. We retrieved archived frozen plasma samples for 17 previous organ donors through a local organ procurement organization...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219811/non-targeted-hiv-screening-in-emergency-departments-in-the-netherlands
#13
G P M Luiken, I K Joore, A Taselaar, S C E Schuit, S E Geerlings, A Govers, P P M Rood, J M Prins, B E Nichols, A Verbon, T E M S de Vries-Sluijs
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands a substantial proportion of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients present late for care and an estimated 12-34% of people living with HIV are undiagnosed. Linkage to care of these patients is important to decrease HIV transmission and to improve individual patient outcomes. We investigated if non-targeted HIV testing in emergency departments is a useful and cost-effective way to identify these patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional multicentre study, eligible adult patients who underwent phlebotomy were given an active choice to be additionally tested for HIV...
November 2017: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219790/hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients-current-treatment-options
#14
Pavlina Dzekova-Vidimliski, Aleksandar Sikole
Hepatitis C virus infection is highly prevalent among kidney transplant recipients, occurring consequently to their previous treatment with hemodialysis. Hepatitis C virus infection has been associated with lower graft and patient survival compared with that shown in patients without infection. The lower survival has been associated with the posttransplant progression of liver disease and increased risk for development of extrahepatic complications. The choice of immunosuppressive drugs could significantly affect the course of the infection with an accelerated viral replication after kidney transplant...
December 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218486/interaction-study-between-hcv-ns5a-d2-and-ns5b-using-19f-nmr
#15
Marie Dujardin, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Guy Lippens, Xavier Hanoulle
The non structural protein 5A (NS5A) regulates the replication of the hepatitis C viral RNA through a direct molecular interaction of its domain 2 (NS5A-D2) with the RNA dependent RNA polymerase NS5B. Because of conflicting data in the literature, we study here this molecular interaction using fluorinated versions of the NS5A-D2 protein derived from the JFH1 Hepatitis C Virus strain. Two methods to prepare fluorine-labelled NS5A-D2 involving the biosynthetic incorporation of a 19F-tryptophan using 5-fluoroindole and the posttranslational introduction of fluorine by chemical conjugation of 2-iodo-N-(trifluoromethyl)acetamide with the NS5A-D2 cysteine side chains are presented...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218468/prediction-of-unfavorable-outcomes-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-results-of-the-multicenter-infectious-diseases-international-research-initiative-id-iri-cryptococcal-meningitis-study
#16
I N Hakyemez, H Erdem, G Beraud, M Lurdes, A Silva-Pinto, C Alexandru, B Bishop, F Mangani, X Argemi, M Poinot, R Hasbun, M Akcaer, S Alp, T Demirdal, K Angamuthu, F Amer, E Ragab, G A Shehata, D Ozturk-Engin, N Ozgunes, L Larsen, S Zimmerli, O R Sipahi, E Tukenmez Tigen, G Celebi, N Oztoprak, A C Yardimci, Y Cag
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is mostly seen in immunocompromised patients, particularly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, but CM may also occur in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Outcome analyses have been performed in such patients but, due to the high prevalence of HIV infection worldwide, CM patients today may be admitted to hospitals with unknown HIV status, particularly in underdeveloped countries. The objective of this multicenter study was to analyze all types of CM cases in an aggregate cohort to disclose unfavorable outcomes...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218433/s8orf2-protein-of-infectious-salmon-anaemia-virus-is-a-rna-silencing-suppressor-and-interacts-with-salmon-salar-mov10-ssmov10-of-the-host-rnai-machinery
#17
Vandana Thukral, Bhavna Varshney, Rimatulhana B Ramly, Sanket S Ponia, Sumona Karjee Mishra, Christel M Olsen, Akhil C Banerjea, Sunil K Mukherjee, Rana Zaidi, Espen Rimstad, Sunil K Lal
The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a piscine virus, a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. It encodes at least 10 proteins from eight negative-strand RNA segments. Since ISAV belongs to the same virus family as Influenza A virus, with similarities in protein functions, they may hence be characterised by analogy. Like NS1 protein of Influenza A virus, s8ORF2 of ISAV is implicated in interferon antagonism and RNA-binding functions. In this study, we investigated the role of s8ORF2 in RNAi suppression in a well-established Agrobacterium transient suppression assay in stably silenced transgenic Nicotiana xanthi...
December 7, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218341/templated-co-assembly-into-nanorods-of-polyanions-and-artificial-virus-capsid-proteins
#18
A Hernandez-Garcia, M A Cohen Stuart, R de Vries
Recombinant triblock polypeptides C-Sn-B, where C is a 400 amino acid long hydrophilic random coil block, Sn is a multimer of the silk-like octapeptide S = (GAGAGAGQ), and B = K12 is an oligolysine, have previously been shown to encapsulate double stranded DNA into rod-shaped, virus-like particles. In order to gain insight of the co-assembly process, and in order to be able to use these proteins for templating other types of nanorods, we here explore their co-assembly with a range of polyanionic templates: poly(acrylic acids) (PAA) of a wide range of lengths, poly(styrene sulphonate) (PSS) and the stiff anionic polysaccharide xanthan...
December 8, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217660/chimeric-pneumoviridae-fusion-proteins-as-immunogens-to-induce-cross-neutralizing-antibody-responses
#19
Eduardo Olmedillas, Olga Cano, Isidoro Martínez, Daniel Luque, María C Terrón, Jason S McLellan, José A Melero, Vicente Más
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), two members of the Pneumoviridae family, account for the majority of severe lower respiratory tract infections worldwide in very young children. They are also a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly and immunocompromised adults. High levels of neutralizing antibodies, mostly directed against the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein, correlate with protection against either hRSV or hMPV However, no cross-neutralization is observed in polyclonal antibody responses raised after virus infection or immunization with purified F proteins...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217468/availability-of-hepatitis-c-diagnostics-and-therapeutics-in-european-and-eurasia-countries
#20
Hakan Leblebicioglu, Joop E Arends, Resat Ozaras, Giampaolo Corti, Lurdes Santos, Christoph Boesecke, Andrew Ustianowski, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Simona Ruta, Nermin N Salkic, Petr Husa, Ivana Lazarevic, Juan A Pineda, Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya, Tengiz Tsertswadze, Mojca Matičič, Edmond Puca, Gulzhan Abuova, Judit Gervain, Ramin Bayramli, Salih Ahmeti, Mairi Koulentaki, Badreddine Kilani, Adriana Vince, Francesco Negro, Mustafa Sunbul, Dominique Salmon
BACKGROUND: Treatment with direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has provided sustained virological response rates in >95% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However treatment is costly and market access, reimbursement and governmental restrictions differ among countries. We aimed to analyze these differences among European and Eurasian countries. METHODS: A survey including 20-item questionnaire was sent to experts in viral hepatitis...
December 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
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