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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128641/cell-loss-by-apoptosis-is-involved-in-the-intestinal-degeneration-that-occurs-during-aestivation-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#1
Ke Xu, Qiuhan Yu, Jianshe Zhang, Zhenming Lv, Wandong Fu, Tianming Wang
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) commonly undergoes aestivation in response to high water temperatures. This process is accompanied by tissue regression and body mass reduction. Previous studies have suggested that apoptosis may play a role in the tissue remodeling that occurs during aestivation, although this has not definitively been shown. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study used A. japonicus as a model organism to examine cell loss through apoptosis in intestinal degeneration during aestivation...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073147/molecular-characterization-of-three-rhesus-glycoproteins-from-the-gills-of-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-annectens-and-effects-of-aestivation-on-their-mrna-expression-levels-and-protein-abundance
#2
You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Biyun Ching, Xiu L Chen, Kum C Hiong, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Siew H Lam, Yuen K Ip
African lungfishes are ammonotelic in water. They can aestivate for long periods on land during drought. During aestivation, the gills are covered with dried mucus and ammonia excretion ceases. In fishes, ammonia excretion through the gills involves Rhesus glycoproteins (RhGP/Rhgp). This study aimed to obtain the complete cDNA coding sequences of rhgp from the gills of Protopterus annectens, and to determine their branchial mRNA and protein expression levels during the induction, maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037385/temperature-dependent-development-of-diapausing-larvae-of-chilo-partellus-swinhoe-lepidoptera-crambidae
#3
Mukesh K Dhillon, Fazil Hasan
Temperature-dependent development rate, percent diapause induction (hibernation at low temperature and aestivation at high temperature), and survival of diapausing larvae of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe, 1885) were examined on 13 constant temperatures ranging from 8 to 40°C. Development of hibernating and aestivating larvae occurred from 10 to 25°C and 27-38°C, respectively. However, no development occurred at 8°C and 40°C. To determine actual thermal conditions that affect development and trigger both kind of diapause (hibernation and aestivation), various thermal parameters were estimated by fitting the development rate data to two linear (Ordinary equation and Ikemoto & Takai) models and thirteen non-linear models...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924505/greater-reproductive-investment-but-shorter-lifespan-in-agrosystem-than-in-natural-habitat-toads
#4
Francisco Javier Zamora-Camacho, Mar Comas
Global amphibian decline is due to several factors: habitat loss, anthropization, pollution, emerging diseases, and global warming. Amphibians, with complex life cycles, are particularly susceptible to habitat alterations, and their survival may be impaired in anthropized habitats. Increased mortality is a well-known consequence of anthropization. Life-history theory predicts higher reproductive investment when mortality is increased. In this work, we compared age, body size, and different indicators of reproductive investment, as well as prey availability, in natterjack toads (Epidalea calamita) from agrosystems and adjacent natural pine groves in Southwestern Spain...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791805/ecological-factors-influencing-the-beneficial-endosymbionts-of-the-hemlock-woolly-adelgid-hemiptera-adelgidae
#5
Angela M Mech, Sherilyn J Harper, Nathan P Havill, Carol D von Dohlen, Gaelen R Burke
Bacterial endosymbionts of sap-sucking insects provide their host with a number of beneficial qualities, including the supply of nutrition, defense against parasitoids, and protection from heat stress. Damage to these bacterial associates can therefore have a negative impact on the fitness of their insect host. We evaluated observational and experimental factors regarding the non-native hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) to help understand the roles of its three recently identified symbionts, including under heat stress conditions...
August 9, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717390/tracing-the-origin-of-the-early-wet-season-anopheles-coluzzii-in-the-sahel
#6
Tovi Lehmann, David Weetman, Diana L Huestis, Alpha S Yaro, Yaya Kassogue, Moussa Diallo, Martin J Donnelly, Adama Dao
In arid environments, the source of the malaria mosquito populations that re-establish soon after first rains remains a puzzle and alternative explanations have been proposed. Using genetic data, we evaluated whether the early rainy season (RS) population of Anopheles coluzzii is descended from the preceding late RS generation at the same locality, consistent with dry season (DS) dormancy (aestivation), or from migrants from distant locations. Distinct predictions derived from these two hypotheses were assessed, based on variation in 738 SNPs in eleven A...
August 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659170/the-transcriptome-of-a-sleeping-invader-de-novo-assembly-and-annotation-of-the-transcriptome-of-aestivating-cornu-aspersum
#7
Aristeidis Parmakelis, Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Christos K Kontos, Panagiotis G Adamopoulos, Andreas Scorilas
BACKGROUND: Cornu aspersum is a quite intriguing species from the point of view of ecology and evolution and its potential use in medical and environmental applications. It is a species of economic importance since it is farmed and used for culinary purposes. However, the genomic tools that would allow a thorough insight into the ecology, evolution, nutritional and medical properties of this highly adaptable organism, are missing. In this work, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques we assessed a significant portion of the transcriptome of this non-model organism...
June 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551285/insights-into-the-unique-torpor-of-botrylloides-leachi-a-colonial-urochordate
#8
Yosef Hyams, Guy Paz, Claudette Rabinowitz, Baruch Rinkevich
Rough environmental conditions make the survival of many multi-cellular organisms almost impossible, enforcing behavioral, morphological, physiological and reproductive rejoinders that can cope with harsh times and hostile environments, frequently through down-regulation of metabolism into basal states of dormancy, or torpor. This study examines one of the most unique torpor strategies seen within the phylum Chordata, exhibited by the colonial urochordate Botrylloides leachi, which enters a state of hibernation or aestivation in response to thermal stress, during which all of its functional colonial units (zooids) are entirely absorbed and the colony survives as small remnants of the vasculature, lacking both feeding and reproduction organs...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444212/numerical-response-and-impact-of-laricobius-nigrinus-coleoptera-derodontidae-on-adelges-tsugae-hemiptera-adelgidae-in-their-native-range
#9
D L Mausel, L T Kok, S M Salom
To determine if key attributes for a successful biological control agent are possessed by the predator, Laricobius nigrinus Fender, field studies were conducted in its native range of Seattle, WA. The relationship between adult and immature L. nigrinus abundance to different densities of its prey, Adelges tsugae Annand, were determined. In a second study, predator and prey densities, and survivorship of each sistens A. tsugae stage were determined to gauge the impact of predation. The predator strongly aggregated and increased its reproduction when prey density increased, the two mechanisms of a numerical response...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398155/seasonal-patterns-of-variation-in-steroid-plasma-levels-and-immune-parameters-in-anurans-from-brazilian-semiarid-area
#10
Carla Bonetti Madelaire, Inna Sokolova, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Elevated androgens and glucocorticoids displayed by males during the reproductive season have been proposed to mediate a possible trade-off between reproduction and immunocompetence. Anurans living in arid and semiarid environments display a strong seasonal reproduction, which could accentuate the variation in physiological, immunological, and behavioral parameters. We studied covariation between steroid plasma levels, morphometric variables associated with body condition and immunity, leukocyte profile, parasite load, and response to an immunological challenge across different phases of the annual life-history cycle of three anuran species from a Brazilian semiarid area...
July 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340627/the-contribution-of-dietary-restriction-to-extended-longevity-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-coluzzii
#11
Roy Faiman, Samantha Solon-Biet, Margery Sullivan, Diana L Huestis, Tovi Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Variation in longevity has long been of interest in vector biology because of its implication in disease transmission through vectorial capacity. Recent studies suggest that Anopheles coluzzii adults persist during the ~7 month dry season via aestivation. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence linking dietary restriction and low ratio of dietary protein to carbohydrate with extended longevity of animals. Here, we evaluated the effects of dietary restriction and the protein : carbohydrate ratio on longevity of An...
March 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261105/aestivation-induces-changes-in-the-mrna-expression-levels-and-protein-abundance-of-two-isoforms-of-urea-transporters-in-the-gills-of-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-annectens
#12
You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Biyun Ching, Xiu L Chen, Kum C Hiong, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Siew H Lam, Yuen K Ip
The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens, is ammonotelic in water despite being ureogenic. When it aestivates in mucus cocoon on land, ammonia is detoxified to urea. During the maintenance phase of aestivation, urea accumulates in the body, which is subsequently excreted upon arousal. Urea excretion involves urea transporters (UT/Ut). This study aimed to clone and sequence the ut isoforms from the gills of P. annectens, and to test the hypothesis that the mRNA and/or protein expression levels of ut/Ut isoforms could vary in the gills of P...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216392/nitrergic-cardiovascular-regulation-in-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-aethiopicus
#13
Renato Filogonio, William Joyce, Tobias Wang
As a ubiquitous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) exerts various important effects on the cardiovascular system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone and myocardial metabolism in vertebrates. Lungfishes are closely related to tetrapods and provide an interesting possibility to understand the transition from water to land. Lungfishes are endowed with both systemic and pulmonary circulations, and their incompletely divided ventricle allows for blood to bypass either circuit. Lungfishes inhabit ephemeral waterbodies that may enforce prolonged aestivation during drought, throughout which nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression is upregulated...
May 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184997/molecular-characterization-of-myostatin-from-the-skeletal-muscle-of-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-annectens-and-changes-in-its-mrna-and-protein-expression-levels-during-three-phases-of-aestivation
#14
Jasmine L Y Ong, You R Chng, Biyun Ching, Xiu L Chen, Kum C Hiong, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
African lungfishes can aestivate and remain torpid without food and water for years, but disuse muscle atrophy is not prominent during aestivation. This study aimed to clone myostatin (mstn/Mstn), a factor associated with disuse muscle atrophy in mammals, from the skeletal muscle of the African lungfish Protopterus annectens, and to determine its mRNA expression level and protein abundance therein during the induction, maintenance, and arousal phases of aestivation. The complete coding cDNA sequence of mstn comprised 1128 bp, encoding for 376 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 42...
May 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059140/identification-and-functional-characterisation-of-5-ht4-receptor-in-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus-selenka
#15
Tianming Wang, Zhen Yang, Naiming Zhou, Lina Sun, Zhenming Lv, Changwen Wu
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that controls a variety of sensory and motor functions through 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs). The 5-HT4R subfamily is linked to Gs proteins, which activate adenylyl cyclases (ACs), and is involved in many responses in peripheral organs. In this study, the 5-HT4R from Apostichopus japonicus (Aj5-HT4R) was identified and characterised. The cloned full-length Aj5-HT4R cDNA is 1,544 bp long and contains an open reading frame 1,011 bp in length encoding 336 amino acid proteins...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025284/flower-development-of-goniorrhachis-marginata-reveals-new-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-florally-diverse-detarioid-legumes
#16
Gerhard Prenner, Domingos Cardoso
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The study of floral morphology and ontogeny and the re-investigation of existing data help to uncover potential synapomorphic characters and foster our understanding of phylogenetic relationships that rely primarily on molecular analyses. Goniorrhachis marginata is a monotypic caesalpinioid legume (Leguminosae) that shows some interesting floral features, such as a long hypanthium and regular Rosaceae-like flowers. We studied the ontogeny and morphology of the flowers in detail and present our results in a broad phylogenetic context...
February 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891097/molecular-characterization-of-aquaporin-1-and-aquaporin-3-from-the-gills-of-the-african-lungfish-protopterus-annectens-and-changes-in-their-branchial-mrna-expression-levels-and-protein-abundance-during-three-phases-of-aestivation
#17
You R Chng, Jasmine L Y Ong, Biyun Ching, Xiu L Chen, Kum C Hiong, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Siew H Lam, Yuen K Ip
African lungfishes can undergo long periods of aestivation on land during drought. During aestivation, lungfishes are confronted with desiccation and dehydration, and their gills become non-functional and covered with a thick layer of dried mucus. Aquaporins (Aqps) are a superfamily of integral membrane proteins which generally facilitate the permeation of water through plasma membranes. This study aimed to obtain the complete cDNA coding sequences of aqp1 and aqp3 from the gills of Protopterus annectens, and to determine their branchial mRNA and protein expression levels during the induction, maintenance and arousal phases of aestivation...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806730/comparative-physiological-plasticity-to-desiccation-in-distinct-populations-of-the-malarial-mosquito-anopheles-coluzzii
#18
K Hidalgo, D Siaussat, V Braman, K R Dabiré, F Simard, K Mouline, D Renault
BACKGROUND: In West Africa, populations of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles coluzzii, are seasonally exposed to strong desiccating conditions during the dry season. Their dynamics strictly follows the pace of the availability of suitable larval development sites (water collections). Accordingly, mosquitoes can reproduce all year long where permanent breeding is possible, or stop reproduction and virtually disappear at the onset of the dry season when surface water dries up, like observed in temporary habitats of dry savannah areas...
November 2, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601256/gene-structure-expression-and-dna-methylation-characteristics-of-sea-cucumber-cyclin-b-gene-during-aestivation
#19
Aijun Zhu, Muyan Chen, Xiumei Zhang, Kenneth B Storey
The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is a good model for studying environmentally-induced aestivation by a marine invertebrate. One of the central requirements of aestivation is the repression of energy-expensive cellular processes such as cell cycle progression. The present study identified the gene structure of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin B, and detected the expression levels of this gene over three stages of the annual aestivation-arousal cycle. Furthermore, the DNA methylation characteristics of cyclin B were analyzed in non-aestivation and deep-aestivation stages of sea cucumbers...
December 5, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591287/eliminating-macchiademus-diplopterus-hemiptera-lygaeidae-and-siculobata-sicula-acari-oribatulidae-from-export-fruit-using-ethyl-formate
#20
Tim G Grout, Kim C Stoltz
South African fruit is sometimes rejected for export for the presence of live arthropods that are not considered pests of the fruit concerned. Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) is a cereal pest but may aestivate on fruit of some tree crops in the Western Cape province of South Africa and occasionally results in rejections of export fruit. Ethyl formate in the form of the commercial product Vapormate (a patented combination of ethyl formate and carbon dioxide) was evaluated as a fumigant against M...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
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