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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754902/host-energy-source-is-important-for-disease-tolerance-to-malaria
#1
Katherine Cumnock, Avni S Gupta, Michelle Lissner, Victoria Chevee, Nicole M Davis, David S Schneider
Pathologic infections are accompanied by a collection of short-term behavioral perturbations collectively termed sickness behaviors [1, 2]. These include changes in body temperature, reduced eating and drinking, and lethargy and mimic behaviors of animals in torpor and hibernation [1, 3-6]. Sickness behaviors are important, pathogen-specific components of the host response to infection [1, 3, 7-9]. In particular, host anorexia has been shown to be beneficial or detrimental depending on the infection [7, 8]...
May 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746908/the-behavioral-energetics-of-new-zealand-s-bats-daily-torpor-and-hibernation-a-continuum
#2
Brian K McNab, Colin O'Donnell
We examine the impact of behavior on the short-term energy expenditures of the only terrestrial mammals endemic to New Zealand, two bats, the long-tailed (Chalinolobus tuberculatus, family Vespertilionidae), and the lesser short-tailed (Mystacina tuberculata, family Mystacinidae). Vespertilionidae has a world-wide distribution. Mystacinidae is restricted to New Zealand, although related to five neotropical families and one in Madagascar reflecting a shared Gondwanan origin of their Noctilionoidea superfamily...
May 7, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742212/accidental-strangulation-in-children-by-the-automatic-closing-of-a-car-window
#3
Kailene Serena, Jefferson Pedro Piva, Cinara Andreolio, Paulo Roberto Antonacci Carvalho, Tais Sica da Rocha
Among the main causes of death in our country are car accidents, drowning and accidental burns. Strangulation is a potentially fatal injury and an important cause of homicide and suicide among adults and adolescents. In children, its occurrence is usually accidental. However, in recent years, several cases of accidental strangulation in children around the world have been reported. A 2-year-old male patient was strangled in a car window. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 and presented with progressive worsening of respiratory dysfunction and torpor...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734428/characterization-of-mirnas-modulated-by-torpor-in-the-hibernating-ground-squirrel-ictidomys-tridecemlineatus-liver-by-next-generation-sequencing
#4
M D Morin, D Lang-Ouellette, P J Lyons, N Crapoulet, P Morin
BACKGROUND: Mammalian hibernation is a fascinating phenomenon that involves multiple molecular and biochemical changes to proceed. While the molecular picture associated with torpor has become clearer in recent years, the function of non-coding RNAs, and especially of microRNAs, solicited during this process is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To better characterize a signature of cold torpor-associated miRNAs in the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus...
July 2017: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699824/fitness-effects-of-interspecific-competition-between-two-species-of-desert-rodents
#5
Noa Katz, Tamar Dayan, Noga Kronfeld-Schor
Many factors affect individual fitness, but while some factors, such as resource availability, have received strong experimental support, others including interspecific competition have rarely been quantified. Nevertheless, interspecific competition is commonly mentioned in the context of reproductive success and fitness. In general, when reproduction is likely to fail, reproductive suppression may occur. We studied the golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) and the common spiny mouse (A. cahirinus; however, recent molecular analysis in spiny mice from Jordan and Sinai suggests this species is A...
March 14, 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679203/a-window-into-extreme-longevity-the-circulating-metabolomic-signature-of-the-naked-mole-rat-a-mammal-that-shows-negligible-senescence
#6
Kaitlyn N Lewis, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Rochelle Buffenstein
Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity...
April 20, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678821/individual-differences-in-torpor-expression-in-adult-mice-are-related-to-relative-birth-weight
#7
Goro A Kato, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Takeshi Eto, Yoshinobu Okubo, Akio Shinohara, Tetsuo Morita, Chihiro Koshimoto
Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in small mammals and birds, characterised by drastic reductions in metabolism and body temperature. Energy-constraining conditions, such as cold and starvation, are known to cause the expression of daily torpor. However, the reason for high degrees of inter- and intra- individual variation in torpor expression (TE) in similar situations is not clear. As littermates of altricial animals are exposed to an uneven allocation of maternal resources from conception to weaning, we tested whether early nutritional experiences have long-term effects on TE in adults...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623413/no-effect-of-season-on-the-electrocardiogram-of-long-eared-bats-nyctophilus-gouldi-during-torpor
#8
Shannon E Currie
Heterothermic animals regularly undergo profound alterations of cardiac function associated with torpor. These animals have specialised tissues capable of withstanding fluctuations in body temperature > 30 °C without adverse effects. In particular, the hearts of heterotherms are able to resist fibrillation and discontinuity of the cardiac conduction system common in homeotherms during hypothermia. To investigate the patterns of cardiac conduction in small insectivorous bats which enter torpor year round, I simultaneously measured ECG and subcutaneous temperature (Tsub ) of 21 Nyctophilus gouldi (11 g) during torpor at a range of ambient temperatures (Ta 1-28 °C)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616880/is-adenosine-action-common-ground-for-nrem-sleep-torpor-and-other-hypometabolic-states
#9
Alessandro Silvani, Matteo Cerri, Giovanna Zoccoli, Steven J Swoap
This review compares two states that lower energy expenditure: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and torpor. Knowledge on mechanisms common to these states, and particularly on the role of adenosine in NREM sleep, may ultimately open the possibility of inducing a synthetic torpor-like state in humans for medical applications and long-term space travel. To achieve this goal, it will be important, in perspective, to extend the study to other hypometabolic states, which, unlike torpor, can also be experienced by humans...
May 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581504/testing-for-torpor
#10
Ellen P Neff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2018: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551753/mitochondrial-phenotype-during-torpor-modulation-of-mitochondrial-electron-transport-system-in-the-chilean-mouse-opossum-thylamys-elegans
#11
Pablo A Cortes, Francisco Bozinovic, Pierre U Blier
Mammalian torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate, generally followed by a reduction in body temperature. During arousal from torpor, both metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly returns to resting levels. Metabolic rate reduction experienced by torpid animals is triggered by active suppression of mitochondrial respiration, which is rapidly reversed during rewarming process. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to electron transport system (complexes I, III and IV) in six tissues of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans)...
July 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514878/nature-s-fat-burning-machine-brown-adipose-tissue-in-a-hibernating-mammal
#12
REVIEW
Mallory A Ballinger, Matthew T Andrews
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique thermogenic tissue in mammals that rapidly produces heat via nonshivering thermogenesis. Small mammalian hibernators have evolved the greatest capacity for BAT because they use it to rewarm from hypothermic torpor numerous times throughout the hibernation season. Although hibernator BAT physiology has been investigated for decades, recent efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular underpinnings of BAT regulation and function using a variety of methods, from mitochondrial functional assays to 'omics' approaches...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501789/a-lesson-from-the-oxidative-metabolism-of-hibernator-heart-possible-strategy-for-cardioprotection
#13
Ana Stancic, Aleksandra Jankovic, Aleksandra Korac, Dusko Cirovic, Vesna Otasevic, Kenneth B Storey, Bato Korac
In the present study we hypothesized that myocardial adaptive phenotype in mammalian hibernation involves rearrangement of mitochondria bioenergetic pathways providing protective pattern in states of reduced metabolism and low temperature. European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) were exposed to low temperature (4 ± 1 °C) and then divided into two groups: (1) animals that fell into torpor (hibernating group) and (2) animals that stayed active and euthermic for 1, 3, 7, 12, or 21 days (cold-exposed group)...
May 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475515/synthetic-torpor-a-method-for-safely-and-practically-transporting-experimental-animals-aboard-spaceflight-missions-to-deep-space
#14
REVIEW
Yuri Griko, Matthew D Regan
Animal research aboard the Space Shuttle and International Space Station has provided vital information on the physiological, cellular, and molecular effects of spaceflight. The relevance of this information to human spaceflight is enhanced when it is coupled with information gleaned from human-based research. As NASA and other space agencies initiate plans for human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), incorporating animal research into these missions is vitally important to understanding the biological impacts of deep space...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458712/implications-of-being-born-late-in-the-active-season-for-growth-fattening-torpor-use-winter-survival-and-fecundity
#15
Britta Mahlert, Hanno Gerritsmann, Gabrielle Stalder, Thomas Ruf, Alexandre Zahariev, Stéphane Blanc, Sylvain Giroud
For hibernators, being born late in the active season may have important effects on growth and fattening, hence on winter survival and reproduction. This study investigated differences in growth, fattening, energetic responses, winter survival and fecundity between early-born ('EB') and late-born ('LB') juvenile garden dormice ( Eliomys quercinus ). LB juveniles grew and gained mass twice as fast as EB individuals. Torpor use was low during intensive growth, that are, first weeks of body mass gain, but increased during pre-hibernation fattening...
February 20, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411421/tanycytes-and-hypothalamic-control-of-energy-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Francis J P Ebling, Jo E Lewis
Studies from a number of areas of neuroendocrinology indicate that hypothalamic tanycytes play a key role in control of energy metabolism. First, profound annual changes in gene expression have been identified in these unusual glial cells in seasonal mammals, for example in genes relating to the transport and metabolism of thyroid hormone into the hypothalamus. The consequent changes in local thyroid hormone availability in the hypothalamus have been shown experimentally to regulate annual cycles in energy intake, storage and expenditure in seasonal species...
June 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361606/an-improved-method-for-detecting-torpor-entrance-and-arousal-in-a-mammalian-hibernator-using-heart-rate-data
#17
Amanda D V MacCannell, Ethan C Jackson, Katherine E Mathers, James F Staples
We used electrocardiogram (ECG) telemeters to measure the heart rate of hibernating Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (thirteen-lined ground squirrel). An increase in heart rate from 2.2 to 5 beats min-1 accurately identified arousal from torpor before any change in body temperature was detected. Variability in raw heart rate data was significantly reduced by a forward-backward Butterworth low-pass filter, allowing for discrete differential analysis. A decrease in filtered heart rate to 70% of maximum values in interbout euthermia (from approximately 312 to 235 beats min-1 ) accurately detected entrance into torpor bouts...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361583/oxidation-of-linoleic-and-palmitic-acid-in-pre-hibernating-and-hibernating-common-noctule-bats-revealed-by-13-c-breath-testing
#18
Elisabeth Rosner, Christian C Voigt
Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats ( Nyctalus noctula ). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13 C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared with conspecifics fed 13 C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on five subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311303/pyruvate-induces-torpor-in-obese-mice
#19
Marion Soto, Lucie Orliaguet, Michelle L Reyzer, M Lisa Manier, Richard M Caprioli, C Ronald Kahn
Mice subjected to cold or caloric deprivation can reduce body temperature and metabolic rate and enter a state of torpor. Here we show that administration of pyruvate, an energy-rich metabolic intermediate, can induce torpor in mice with diet-induced or genetic obesity. This is associated with marked hypothermia, decreased activity, and decreased metabolic rate. The drop in body temperature correlates with the degree of obesity and is blunted by housing mice at thermoneutrality. Induction of torpor by pyruvate in obese mice relies on adenosine signaling and is accompanied by changes in brain levels of hexose bisphosphate and GABA as detected by mass spectroscopy-based imaging...
January 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301689/2-deoxy-d-glucose-not-mercaptoacetate-induces-a-reversible-reduction-of-body-temperature-in-male-desert-hamsters-phodopus-roborovskii
#20
Qing-Sheng Chi, Xiu-Juan Li, De-Hua Wang
The initiation of torpor is supposed to be related to the availability of metabolic fuels. Studies on metabolic fuel inhibition of glucose by using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) or fatty acid by mercaptoacetate (MA) in heterothermic mammals produced mixed outcomes. To examine the roles of availability of glucose and fatty acid in the initiation of torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii), we intraperitoneally administrated 2DG and MA to summer-acclimated male hamsters while body temperature (Tb ), metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were simultaneously recorded to monitor their thermoregulatory response...
January 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
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