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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812533/immunoreactivity-of-canine-liposarcoma-to-muscle-and-brown-adipose-antigens
#1
Elise Eva Bella LaDouceur, Sarah E Stevens, Jason Wood, Christopher M Reilly
Liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and hibernoma share some overlapping histologic and immunohistochemical features. Although immunohistochemistry (IHC) is commonly used in the diagnosis of these neoplasms, expression of muscle markers has been reported in human liposarcoma and canine hibernoma in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. Thus, these neoplasms are a diagnostic challenge but important to distinguish because of differences in prognosis and treatment. Rhabdomyosarcoma and liposarcoma are both malignant, but rhabdomyosarcoma has a higher potential for metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811495/low-protein-induced-increases-in-fgf21-drive-ucp1-dependent-metabolic-but-not-thermoregulatory-endpoints
#2
Cristal M Hill, Thomas Laeger, Diana C Albarado, David H McDougal, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Dietary protein restriction increases adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), energy expenditure and food intake, and these effects require the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Here we test whether the induction of energy expenditure during protein restriction requires UCP1, promotes a resistance to cold stress, and is dependent on the concomitant hyperphagia. Wildtype, Ucp1-KO and Fgf21-KO mice were placed on control and low protein (LP) diets to assess changes in energy expenditure, food intake and other metabolic endpoints...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807877/cryptotanshinone-promotes-commitment-to-the-brown-adipocyte-lineage-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-ampk-and-p38-mapk-signaling
#3
Khan Mohammad Imran, Naimur Rahman, Dahyeon Yoon, Miso Jeon, Byong-Taek Lee, Yong-Sik Kim
Although white adipose tissue (WAT) stores triglycerides and contributes to obesity, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat. Therefore, browning of WAT is regarded as an attractive way to counteract obesity. Our previous studies have revealed that treatment with cryptotanshinone (CT) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells inhibits their differentiation. Here, we found that pretreatment of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with CT before exposure to adipogenic hormonal stimuli promotes the commitment of these mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocyte lineage as confirmed by increased triglyceride accumulation...
August 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794154/both-brown-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-processes-are-activated-during-mild-to-severe-cold-adaptation-in-mice
#4
Naresh C Bal, Sushant Singh, Felipe C G Reis, Santosh K Maurya, Sunil Pani, Leslie A Rowland, Muthu Periasamy
Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism, essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) (i.e. uncoupling protein 1 [UCP1]-based) and skeletal muscle (i.e. sarcolipin [SLN]-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation employing UCP1-/- and SLN-/- mice...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789977/ablation-of-systemic-sirt1-activity-promotes-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-affecting-liver-mesenteric-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-mobilization
#5
Junrui Cheng, Chun Liu, Kangquan Hu, Andrew Greenberg, Dayong Wu, Lynne M Ausman, Michael W McBurney, Xiang-Dong Wang
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been reported to protect against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. The mechanism of how SIRT1 deacetylase activity affects NAFLD has not been well investigated. The current investigation addressed the causal effect of systemic SIRT1 activity on NAFLD development and the underlying mechanism involved in both liver and mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT). Both SIRT1 homozygous mice ablated the catalytic activity (sirt1(Y/Y)) and their corresponding wild type littermates (WT) were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 60% calories from fat) for 34weeks...
August 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781081/specific-interaction-of-the-human-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-1-with-free-long-chain-fatty-acid
#6
Linlin Zhao, Shuqing Wang, Qianli Zhu, Bin Wu, Zhijun Liu, Bo OuYang, James J Chou
The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) generates heat by causing proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane that requires fatty acid (FA). The mechanism by which UCP1 uses FA to conduct proton remains unsolved, and it is also unclear whether a direct physical interaction between UCP1 and FA exists. Here, we have shown using nuclear magnetic resonance that FA can directly bind UCP1 at a helix-helix interface site composed of residues from the transmembrane helices H1 and H6. According to the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data and molecular dynamics simulation, the FA acyl chain appears to fit into the groove between H1 and H6 while the FA carboxylate group interacts with the basic residues near the matrix side of UCP1...
July 19, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774822/browning-deficiency-and-low-mobilization-of-fatty-acids-in-gonadal-white-adipose-tissue-leads-to-decreased-cold-tolerance-of-transglutaminase-2-knock-out-mice
#7
András Mádi, Ixchelt Cuaranta-Monroy, Kinga Lénárt, Attila Pap, Zoltán András Mezei, Endre Kristóf, Anna Oláh, György Vámosi, Zsolt Bacsó, Péter Bai, László Fésüs
During cold-exposure 'beige' adipocytes with increased mitochondrial content are activated in white adipose tissue (WAT). These cells, similarly to brown adipocytes (BAT), dissipate stored chemical energy in the form of heat with the help of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We investigated the effect of TG2 ablation on the function of ATs in mice. Although TG2(+/+) and TG2(-/-) mice had the same amount of WAT and BAT, we found that TG2(+/+) animals could tolerate acute cold exposure for 4h, whereas TG2(-/-) mice only for 3h...
July 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768190/bmp4-gene-therapy-in-mature-mice-reduces-bat-activation-but-protects-from-obesity-by-browning-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#8
Jenny M Hoffmann, John R Grünberg, Christopher Church, Ivet Elias, Vilborg Palsdottir, John-Olov Jansson, Fatima Bosch, Ann Hammarstedt, Shahram Hedjazifar, Ulf Smith
We examined the effect of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) on energy expenditure in adult mature mice by targeting the liver with adeno-associated viral (AAV) BMP4 vectors to increase circulating levels. We verified the direct effect of BMP4 in inducing a brown oxidative phenotype in differentiating preadipocytes in vitro. AAV-BMP4-treated mice display marked browning of subcutaneous adipocytes, with increased mitochondria and Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1). These mice are protected from obesity on a high-fat diet and have increased whole-body energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver fat, and reduced adipose tissue inflammation...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768181/long-term-cold-adaptation-does-not-require-fgf21-or-ucp1
#9
Susanne Keipert, Maria Kutschke, Mario Ost, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Evert M van Schothorst, Daniel Lamp, Laura Brachthäuser, Isabel Hamp, Sithandiwe E Mazibuko, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, Elisabeth Graf, Oliver Plettenburg, Frauke Neff, Matthias H Tschöp, Martin Jastroch
Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-dependent thermogenesis and its suggested augmenting hormone, FGF21, are potential therapeutic targets in current obesity and diabetes research. Here, we studied the role of UCP1 and FGF21 for metabolic homeostasis in the cold and dissected underlying molecular mechanisms using UCP1-FGF21 double-knockout mice. We report that neither UCP1 nor FGF21, nor even compensatory increases of FGF21 serum levels in UCP1 knockout mice, are required for defense of body temperature or for maintenance of energy metabolism and body weight...
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754711/10-oxo-12-z-octadecenoic-acid-a-linoleic-acid-metabolite-produced-by-gut-lactic-acid-bacteria-enhances-energy-metabolism-by-activation-of-trpv1
#10
Minji Kim, Tomoya Furuzono, Kanae Yamakuni, Yongjia Li, Young-Il Kim, Haruya Takahashi, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Huei-Fen Jheng, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Yuriko Kano, Rina Yu, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Kunitoshi Uchida, Jun Yamazaki, Makoto Tominaga, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Gut microbiota can regulate the host energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanisms that could involve gut microbiota-derived compounds remain to be understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of KetoA [10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid]-a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria-on whole-body energy metabolism and found that dietary intake of KetoA could enhance energy expenditure in mice, thereby protecting mice from diet-induced obesity. By using Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, KetoA was noted to potently activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and enhance noradrenalin turnover in adipose tissues...
July 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752043/adipocyte-lipid-synthesis-coupled-to-neuronal-control-of-thermogenic-programming
#11
Adilson Guilherme, David J Pedersen, Elizabeth Henchey, Felipe S Henriques, Laura V Danai, Yuefei Shen, Batuhan Yenilmez, DaeYoung Jung, Jason K Kim, Irfan J Lodhi, Clay F Semenkovich, Michael P Czech
BACKGROUND: The de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids (DNL) through fatty acid synthase (FASN) in adipocytes is exquisitely regulated by nutrients, hormones, fasting, and obesity in mice and humans. However, the functions of DNL in adipocyte biology and in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis are not fully understood. METHODS & RESULTS: Here we show adipocyte DNL controls crosstalk to localized sympathetic neurons that mediate expansion of beige/brite adipocytes within inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT)...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751675/cell-cycle-arrest-in-mature-adipocytes-impairs-bat-development-but-not-wat-browning-and-reduces-adaptive-thermogenesis-in-mice
#12
Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Keigo Fukano, Ayumi Tsubota, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Kyoko Nakamura, Masami Morimatsu, Hiroshi Sakaue, Masayuki Saito, Kazuhiro Kimura
We previously reported brown adipocytes can proliferate even after differentiation. To test the involvement of mature adipocyte proliferation in cell number control in fat tissue, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27 specifically in adipocytes, using the aP2 promoter. While there was no apparent difference in white adipose tissue (WAT) between wild-type (WT) and Tg mice, the amount of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was much smaller in Tg mice. Although BAT showed a normal cellular morphology, Tg mice had lower content of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) as a whole, and attenuated cold exposure- or β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist-induced thermogenesis, with a decrease in the number of mature brown adipocytes expressing proliferation markers...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733645/hdac3-is-a-molecular-brake-of-the-metabolic-switch-supporting-white-adipose-tissue-browning
#13
Alessandra Ferrari, Raffaella Longo, Erika Fiorino, Rui Silva, Nico Mitro, Gaia Cermenati, Federica Gilardi, Béatrice Desvergne, Annapaola Andolfo, Cinzia Magagnotti, Donatella Caruso, Emma De Fabiani, Scott W Hiebert, Maurizio Crestani
White adipose tissue (WAT) can undergo a phenotypic switch, known as browning, in response to environmental stimuli such as cold. Post-translational modifications of histones have been shown to regulate cellular energy metabolism, but their role in white adipose tissue physiology remains incompletely understood. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) regulates WAT metabolism and function. Selective ablation of Hdac3 in fat switches the metabolic signature of WAT by activating a futile cycle of de novo fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation that potentiates WAT oxidative capacity and ultimately supports browning...
July 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730707/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-novel-murine-model-of-pancreatic-cancer-cachexia
#14
Katherine A Michaelis, Xinxia Zhu, Kevin G Burfeind, Stephanie M Krasnow, Peter R Levasseur, Terry K Morgan, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a complex metabolic and behavioural syndrome lacking effective therapies. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most important conditions associated with cachexia, with >80% of PDAC patients suffering from the condition. To establish the cardinal features of a murine model of PDAC-associated cachexia, we characterized the effects of implanting a pancreatic tumour cell line from a syngeneic C57BL/6 KRAS(G12D) P53(R172H) Pdx-Cre(+/+) (KPC) mouse...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722653/directing-visceral-white-adipocyte-precursors-to-a-thermogenic-adipocyte-fate-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-mice
#15
Chelsea Hepler, Mengle Shao, Jonathan Y Xia, Alexandra L Ghaben, Mackenzie J Pearson, Lavanya Vishvanath, Ankit X Sharma, Thomas S Morley, William L Holland, Rana K Gupta
Visceral adiposity confers significant risk for developing metabolic disease in obesity whereas preferential expansion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) appears protective. Unlike subcutaneous WAT, visceral WAT is resistant to adopting a protective thermogenic phenotype characterized by the accumulation of Ucp1(+) beige/BRITE adipocytes (termed "browning"). In this study, we investigated the physiological consequences of browning murine visceral WAT by selective genetic ablation of Zfp423, a transcriptional suppressor of the adipocyte thermogenic program...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722204/loss-of-the-tumor-suppressor-gene-aip-mediates-the-browning-of-human-brown-fat-tumors
#16
Linda Magnusson, Nils Hansen, Karim H Saba, Jenny Nilsson, Thoas Fioretos, Pehr Rissler, Karolin H Nord
Human brown fat tumors (hibernomas) display concomitant loss of the tumor suppressor genes MEN1 and AIP. In the present study, we hypothesized that the brown fat phenotype is attributed to these mutations. Accordingly, we demonstrate that silencing of AIP in human brown preadipocytic and white fat cell lines results in the induction of the brown fat marker UCP1. In human adipocytic tumors, loss of MEN1 was found both in white (one out of 51 lipomas) and brown fat tumors. In contrast, concurrent loss of AIP was always accompanied by a brown fat morphology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719892/cinnamaldehyde-ameliorates-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-by-inducing-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#17
Jiacheng Zuo, Dandan Zhao, Na Yu, Xin Fang, Qianqian Mu, Yue Ma, Fangfang Mo, Rui Wu, Rufeng Ma, Lili Wang, Ruyuan Zhu, Haixia Liu, Dongwei Zhang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity has become a major health concern with few effective medications. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been reported to exhibit anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether CA shows anti-obesity activity remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the potential anti-obesity effects of CA on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to explore the possible mechanisms involved. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice fed an HFD for 12 weeks were supplemented with CA (40 mg/kg/day) via gavage for an additional 8 weeks...
July 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718514/aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1-a1-regulates-energy-metabolism-in-adipocytes-from-different-species
#18
Kefeng Yang, Christopher Adin, Qiwen Shen, Ly James Lee, Lianbo Yu, Paolo Fadda, Arpad Samogyi, Kathleen Ham, Lu Xu, Chen Gilor, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
BACKGROUND: Survival and longevity of xenotransplants depend on immune function and ability to integrate energy metabolism between cells from different species. However, mechanisms for interspecies cross talk in energy metabolism are not well understood. White adipose tissue stores energy and is capable of mobilization and dissipation of energy as heat (thermogenesis) by adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Both pathways are under the control of vitamin A metabolizing enzymes...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717127/experimental-evidence-reveals-the-ucp1-genotype-changes-the-oxygen-consumption-attributed-to-non-shivering-thermogenesis-in-humans
#19
Takayuki Nishimura, Takafumi Katsumura, Midori Motoi, Hiroki Oota, Shigeki Watanuki
Humans have spread out all over the world adapting to many different cold environments. Recent worldwide genome analyses and animal experiments have reported dozens of genes associated with cold adaptation. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene enhances thermogenesis reaction in a physiological process by blocking ATP (adenosine triphosphate) synthesis on a mitochondrial membrane in brown adipose tissues. To our knowledge, no previous studies have shown an association between variants of the UCP1 gene and physiological phenotypes concerning non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) under the condition of low temperature in humans...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711354/the-roles-of-metabolic-thermogenesis-in-body-fat-regulation-in-striped-hamsters-fed-high-fat-diet-at-different-temperatures
#20
Lu-Lu Shi, Wei-Jia Fan, Ji-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Ya Zhao, Song Tan, Jing Wen, Jing Cao, Xue-Ying Zhang, Qing-Sheng Chi, De-Hua Wang, Zhi-Jun Zhao
The metabolic thermogenesis plays important roles in thermoregulation, and it may be also involved in body fat regulation. The thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is largely affected by ambient temperature, but it is unclear if the roles in body fat regulation are dependent on the temperature. In the present study, uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1)-based BAT thermogenesis, energy budget and body fat content were examined in the striped hamsters fed high fat diet (HF) at cold (5°C) and warm (30°C) temperatures...
July 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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