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Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jameel Lone, Jong Pil Park, Jang Won Choi, Jong Won Yun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the browning and antioxidative effects of magnolol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as recruitment of beige-like adipocytes (browning) by natural compounds is being considered as a promising strategy to fight against obesity. METHODS: Magnolol-induced browning effect was evaluated by determining the expression levels of specific marker genes and proteins using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively...
February 5, 2018: Nutrition
Chien Wen Su, Chih-Yu Chen, Yali Li, Shao Rong Long, William Massey, Deepak Vijaya Kumar, W Allan Walker, Hai Ning Shi
Epidemiological studies indicate an inverse correlation between the prevalence of the so-called western diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the exposure to helminths. Obesity, a key risk factor for many chronic health problems, is rising globally and is accompanied by low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues. The precise mechanism by which helminths modulate metabolic syndrome and obesity is not fully understood. We infected high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice with the intestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus and observed that helminth infection resulted in significantly attenuated obesity...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hua Lin, Jonathan Z Long, Alexander M Roche, Katrin J Svensson, Florence Dou, Mi Ra Chang, Timothy Strutzenberg, Claudia Ruiz, Michael D Cameron, Scott J Novick, Charles M Berdan, Sharon Louie, Daniel K Nomura, Bruce M Spiegelman, Patrick R Griffin, Theodore M Kamenecka
N-acyl amino acids directly bind mitochondria and function as endogenous uncouplers of UCP1-independent respiration. We found that administration of N-acyl amino acids to mice improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure indicating that this pathway might be useful for treating obesity and associated disorders. We report the full account of the synthesis and mitochondrial uncoupling bioactivity of lipidated N-acyl amino acids and their unnatural analogs. Unsaturated fatty acid chains of medium length and neutral amino acid head groups are required for optimal uncoupling activity on mammalian cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jianmei Zhang, Huixiao Wu, Shizhan Ma, Fei Jing, Chunxiao Yu, Ling Gao, Zhao Jiajun
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic complications has inspired research on adipose tissues. Three kinds of adipose tissues are identified in mammals: brown adipose tissue (BAT), beige or brite adipose tissue and white adipose tissue (WAT). Beige adipocytes share some characteristics with brown adipocytes such as the expression of UCP1. Beige adipocytes can be activated by environmental stimuli or pharmacological treatment, and this change is accompanied by an increase in energy consumption...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Tiange Li, Jing Gao, Min Du, Jiajia Song, Xueying Mao
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes...
March 9, 2018: Nutrients
Martin Jastroch, Rebecca Oelkrug, Susanne Keipert
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) enables adaptive thermoregulation through heat production that is catalyzed by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). BAT is frequently studied in rodent model organisms, and recently in adult humans to treat metabolic diseases. However, complementary studies of many non-model species, which have diversified to many more ecological niches, may significantly broaden our understanding of BAT regulation and its physiological roles. This Review highlights the research on non-model organisms, which was instrumental to the discovery of BAT function, and the unique evolutionary history of BAT/UCP1 in mammalian thermogenesis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kevin M Tharp, Michael S Kang, Greg A Timblin, Jon Dempersmier, Garret E Dempsey, Peter-James H Zushin, Jaime Benavides, Catherine Choi, Catherine X Li, Amit K Jha, Shingo Kajimura, Kevin E Healy, Hei Sook Sul, Kaoru Saijo, Sanjay Kumar, Andreas Stahl
The activation of brown/beige adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism and the induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression are essential for BAT-based strategies to improve metabolic homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that BAT utilizes actomyosin machinery to generate tensional responses following adrenergic stimulation, similar to muscle tissues. The activation of actomyosin mechanics is critical for the acute induction of oxidative metabolism and uncoupled respiration in UCP1+ adipocytes. Moreover, we show that actomyosin-mediated elasticity regulates the thermogenic capacity of adipocytes via the mechanosensitive transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ, which are indispensable for normal BAT function...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Aneta Stefanidis, Nicole M Wiedmann, Sonika Tyagi, Andrew M Allen, Matthew J Watt, Brian J Oldfield
OBJECTIVE: The potential for brown adipose tissue (BAT) to be targeted as a therapeutic option to combat obesity has been heightened by the discovery of a brown-like form of inducible "beige" adipose tissue in white fat which has overlapping structural and functional properties to "classical" BAT. The likelihood that both beige and brown fat are recruited functionally by neural mechanisms, taken together with the lack of a detailed understanding of the nature of changes in the nervous system when white adipose tissue (WAT) is transformed to brown, provides the impetus for this study...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Taeko Suzuki, Itaru Monno, Keizo Kanasaki, Ai Watanabe, Daisuke Koya
Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a low-protein diet (LPD) starting from a young age on diabetic status and renal injury in a rat model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Methods: Diabetic male Wistar fatty ( fa/fa ) rats (WFRs) were fed a standard diet (23.84% protein) or an LPD (5.77% protein) for 24 weeks beginning at 6 weeks of age. We investigated the effects of the LPD on total body weight (BW); fat weight (FW); lower-limb muscle weight (MW); several measures of diabetic status, including fasting/random glucose levels, HOMA-IR and the IPITT; and renal injuries, including renal hypertrophy, albuminuria and histological changes...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Shinjiro Kobayashi
 The antihyperglycemic activities of extracts of boiogito (BOT) and bofutsushosan (BTS) were investigated in streptozotocin-induced (STZ)-diabetic mice. BOT extract containing Stephania tetrandra S. MOORE root (stephania), has more potent antihyperglycemic activity than BOT extract containing sinomenium stem (sinomenium). Extracts of stephania and astragalus root (astragalus) exert combined effects in the antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic activities of BOT extract. Fangchinoline, but not tetrandrine, in stephania plays a role in its activity...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Ksenija D Velickovic, Mirela M Ukropina, Radmila M Glisic, Maja M Cakic-Milosevic
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term sucrose overfeeding on functional capacity and ultrastructural characteristics of the rat brown adipose tissue (BAT). For the study, sixteen male Wistar rats, chow-fed and kept under standard laboratory conditions were divided into 2 equal groups. The rats from a control group drank tap water, while those from a sucrose overfed group were allowed to drink 10% sucrose solution for 21 days. Structural changes of BAT were analysed at the level of light and electron microscopy on routinely prepared tissue sections or using immunohistochemical staining, in combination with stereological methods...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Driele Cristina Gomes Quinhoneiro, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Marcela Augusta Souza Pinhel, Natália Yumi Noronha, Camila Bitu Moreno Braga, Bruno Affonso Parenti Oliveira, Cristiana Cortes-Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira Oliveira, Wilson Salgado Junior, Júlio Sergio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
This study aims (i) to verify expression of the UCPs, PLIN1, PPARG2, and ADRB3 genes in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation with decaffeinated green tea extract, and (ii) to associate findings with clinical parameters. This is a longitudinal study during which 11 women with obesity grade III were submitted to supplementation with 450 mg of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) (intervention group); the control group consisted of 10 eutrophic women...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Mandy Stadion, Kristin Schwerbel, Antonia Graja, Christian Baumeier, Maria Rödiger, Wenke Jonas, Christian Wolfrum, Harald Staiger, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Nora Klöting, Matthias Blüher, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Tim J Schulz, Hans-Georg Joost, Heike Vogel, Annette Schürmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Obesity results from a constant and complex interplay between environmental stimuli and predisposing genes. Recently, we identified the IFN-activated gene Ifi202b as the most likely gene responsible for the obesity quantitative trait locus Nob3 (New Zealand Obese [NZO] obesity 3). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ifi202b on body weight and adipose tissue biology, and to clarify the functional role of its human orthologue IFI16. METHODS: The impact of Ifi202b and its human orthologue IFI16 on adipogenesis was investigated by modulating their respective expression in murine 3T3-L1 and human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) pre-adipocytes...
February 24, 2018: Diabetologia
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
Lasse K Markussen, Sally Winther, Barton Wicksteed, Jacob B Hansen
Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders due to its ability to dissipate energy and improve systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. β-Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes leads to an increase in oxygen consumption and induction of a thermogenic gene program that includes uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21). In kinase inhibitor screens, we have identified glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) as a negative regulator of basal and β-adrenergically stimulated Fgf21 expression in cultured brown adipocytes...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Meijuan Liu, Huijuan Zhu, Yufei Dai, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Kemin Yan, Fengying Gong
Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) plays an important role in the regulation of body weight, body fat, and glucose metabolism. In this study, we first measured ZAG levels in serum and ZAG mRNA levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) among overweight/obese patients and lean control subjects. Second, we investigated the effects of ZAG administration on the body weight, body fat and glucose metabolism of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese ICR mice and the possible mechanisms involved. The results showed that serum ZAG and mRNA levels in sWAT were significantly decreased in overweight/obese patients and that both showed a negative association with body mass index (BMI) and body weight after adjustment for age and sex...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Rolando B Ceddia
The white adipose tissue (WAT) exhibits great plasticity and can undergo "browning" and acquire features of the brown adipose tissue (BAT), which takes place following cold exposure, chronic endurance exercise or β3-adrenergic stimulation. WAT that underwent browning is characterized by the presence of "beige" adipocytes, which are morphologically similar to brown adipocytes, express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are considered thermogenically competent. Thus, inducing a BAT-like phenotype in the WAT could promote energy dissipation within this depot, reducing the availability of substrate that would otherwise be stored in the WAT...
February 21, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Elisavet Kodela, Maria Moysidou, Sevasti Karaliota, Yassemi Koutmani, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Konstantia Kodella, Eleni A Karavia, Kyriakos E Kypreos, Nikolaos Kostomitsopoulos, Katia P Karalis
Obesity is characterized as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease owing to the infiltration of the adipose tissue by macrophages. Although the role of macrophages in this process is well established, the role of lymphocytes in the development of obesity and metabolism remains less well defined. In the current study, we fed WT and Rag1-/- male mice, of C57BL/6J and BALB/c backgrounds, high-fat diet (HFD) or normal diet for 15 wk. Compared with WT mice, Rag1-/- mice of either of the examined strains were found less prone to insulin resistance after HFD, had higher metabolic rates, and used lipids more efficiently, as shown by the increased expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation in epidydimal white adipose tissue...
February 1, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Merel Defour, Wieneke Dijk, Philip Ruppert, Emmani B M Nascimento, Patrick Schrauwen, Sander Kersten
OBJECTIVE: Chronic cold exposure causes white adipose tissue (WAT) to adopt features of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a process known as browning. Previous studies have hinted at a possible role for the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) in cold-induced browning. Here we aimed to investigate the importance of PPARα in driving transcriptional changes during cold-induced browning in mice. METHODS: Male wildtype and PPARα-/- mice were housed at thermoneutrality (28 °C) or cold (5 °C) for 10 days...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Afrooz Rashnonejad, Gulinnaz Ercan, Cumhur Gunduz, Ali Akdemir, Yigit Ozer Tiftikcioglu
The differentiation potential of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) into brown and white adipocytes in comparison to Adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) were investigated in order to characterize their potency for future cell therapies. MSCs were isolated from ten UCB samples and six liposuction materials. MSCs were differentiated into white and brown adipocytes after characterization by flow cytometry. Differentiated adipocytes were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin/eosin...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
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