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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#1
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898069/clozapine-modifies-the-differentiation-program-of-human-adipocytes-inducing-browning
#2
E Kristóf, Q-M Doan-Xuan, A K Sárvári, Á Klusóczki, P Fischer-Posovszky, M Wabitsch, Z Bacso, P Bai, Z Balajthy, L Fésüs
Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886210/physical-activity-energy-expenditure-and-defense-of-body-weight-in-melanocortin-4-receptor-deficient-male-rats
#3
Tariq I Almundarij, Mark E Smyers, Addison Spriggs, Lydia A Heemstra, Lisa Beltz, Eric Dyne, Caitlyn Ridenour, Colleen M Novak
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) variants contribute to human obesity, and rats lacking functional MC4R (Mc4r(K314X/K314X)) are obese. We investigated the hypothesis that low energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity contribute to this obese phenotype in male rats, and determined whether lack of functional MC4R conferred protection from weight loss during 50% calorie restriction. Though Mc4r(K314X/K314X) rats showed low brown adipose Ucp1 expression and were less physically active than rats heterozygous for the mutation (Mc4r(+/K314X)) or wild-type (Mc4r(+/+)) rats, we found no evidence of lowered EE in Mc4r(K314X/K314X) rats once body weight was taken into account using covariance...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883936/relationship-between-fgf21-and-ucp1-levels-under-time-restricted-feeding-and-high-fat-diet
#4
Nava Chapnik, Yoni Genzer, Oren Froy
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) exhibits a circadian oscillation, and its induction is critical during fasting. When secreted by liver and skeletal muscle, FGF21 enhances thermogenic activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by utilizing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) to dissipate energy as heat. Recently, it has been reported that UCP1 is not required for FGF21-mediated reduction in body weight or improvements in glucose homeostasis. As the relationship between FGF21 and UCP1 induction in tissues other than BAT is less clear, we tested the effect of restricted feeding (RF) and high dietary fat on FGF21 circadian expression and its correlation with UCP1 expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881400/loss-of-ucp1-exacerbates-western-diet-induced-glycemic-dysregulation-independent-of-changes-in-body-weight-in-female-mice
#5
Nathan C Winn, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Michelle L Gastecki, Rebecca J Welly, Rebecca J Scroggins, Terese M Zidon, T'Keaya L Gaines, Makenzie L Woodford, Natalia G Karasseva, Jill A Kanaley, Harold S Sacks, Jaume Padilla
We tested the hypothesis that female mice null for UCP1 would have increased susceptibility to Western diet-induced "whitening" of brown adipose tissue (AT) and glucose intolerance. Six-week old C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) and UCP1 knockout (UCP1(-/-)) mice, housed at 25°C, were randomized to either a control diet (10% kcal from fat) or Western diet (45% kcal from fat and 1% cholesterol) for 28 weeks. Loss of UCP1 had no effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous physical activity, weight gain, or visceral white AT mass...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881398/separate-and-shared-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-coordinately-regulate-thermoregulation-and-beige-adipocyte-recruitment
#6
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Candace L Barr, Vitaly Ryu, Qiang Cao, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are innervated and regulated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). It is not clear, however, whether there are shared or separate central SNS outflows to WAT and BAT that regulate their function. We injected two isogenic strains of pseudorabies virus, a retrograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, with unique fluorescent reporters into interscapular BAT (IBAT) and inguinal WAT (IWAT) of the same Siberian hamsters to define SNS pathways to both. To test the functional importance of SNS coordinated control of BAT and WAT, we exposed hamsters with denervated SNS nerves to IBAT to 4°C for 16-24 hours, and measured core and fat temperatures, and norepinephrine turnover (NETO) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in fat tissues...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874268/a-combination-of-resveratrol-and-quercetin-induces-browning-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-rats-fed-an-obesogenic-diet
#7
Noemí Arias, Catalina Picó, M Teresa Macarulla, Paula Oliver, Jonatan Miranda, Andreu Palou, María P Portillo
OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether a combination of quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (RSV) would induce a white adipose tissue (WAT) browning effect. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were fed an obesogenic diet and divided into four groups: control, treated with RSV (15 mg/kg body weight/day; RSV group), treated with Q (30 mg/kg body weight/day; Q group), or treated with both polyphenols (RSV + Q group). RESULTS: After 6 weeks, body and WAT weights were significantly reduced in the RSV + Q group...
November 22, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873458/resveratrol-enhances-brown-adipocyte-formation-and-function-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-%C3%AE-1-in-mice-fed-high-fat-diet
#8
Songbo Wang, Xingwei Liang, Qiyuan Yang, Xing Fu, Meijun Zhu, B D Rodgers, Qingyan Jiang, Michael V Dodson, Min Du
SCOPE: Enhancing the formation and function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases thermogenesis and hence reduces obesity. Thus, we investigate the effects of resveratrol (Resv) on brown adipocyte formation and function in mouse interscapular BAT (iBAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: CD1 mice and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) isolated from iBAT were treated with Resv. Expression of brown adipogenic and thermogenic markers, and involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α1 were assessed...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872157/exendin-4-increases-oxygen-consumption-and-thermogenic-gene-expression-in-muscle-cells
#9
Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) has many anti-diabetic actions and also increases energy expenditure in vivo. Since skeletal muscle is a major organ controlling energy metabolism, we investigated whether GLP1 can affect energy metabolism in muscle. We found that treatment of differentiated C2C12 cells with Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP1 receptor agonist, reduced oleate:palmitate-induced lipid accumulation and triglyceride content compared with cells without Ex-4 treatment. When we examined the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), not only the basal OCR but also the OCR induced by oleate:palmitate addition was significantly increased in Ex-4-treated differentiated C2C12 cells, and this was inhibited by Exendin-9, a GLP1 receptor antagonist...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864077/trpv1-participates-in-the-activation-of-clock-molecular-machinery-in-the-brown-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-light-dark-cycle
#10
Maria Nathalia Moraes, Nathana Mezzalira, Leonardo Vinicius Monteiro de Assis, Michael Menaker, Ali Guler, Ana Maria L Castrucci
Transient receptor potential (TRPs) channels are involved in thermogenesis, and temperature and energy balance control. Mice lacking TrpV1 become more obese and develop insulin resistance when fed with high fat diet; however, a relationship between metabolic disorders, TRP channels, and clock genes is still unknown. Based on this, we hypothesized that TRPV1 channels would be involved in the synchronization of clock genes in the peripheral tissues. To address this question, we used wild type (WT) and TrpV1 knockout (KO) mice kept in constant darkness (DD) or in light-dark cycle (LD)...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853670/features-of-omental-adipose-tissue-in-endometrial-cancer-patients-with-standard-or-metabolically-healthy-obesity-associations-with-tumor-process-characteristics
#11
Lev M Berstein, Aglaya G Iyevleva, Marina S Mukhina, Dmitry A Vasilyev, Tatyana E Poroshina
PURPOSE: Adipose tissue products may contribute to endometrial cancer (EC) initiation and further growth that encourages the analysis of this issue in patients with different obesity phenotypes. METHODS/PATIENTS: Omental fat depot characteristics were studied in EC patients (n = 57) with "standard" (SO) or "metabolically healthy" (MHO) obesity. Collected omental samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry /IHC/ for brown fat marker UCP1, CYP19 (aromatase) and macrophage infiltration markers (CD68, CD163, crown-like structures/CLS) expression...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833052/dietary-calcium-supplementation-in-adult-rats-reverts-brown-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-programmed-by-postnatal-early-overfeeding
#12
Ellen Paula Santos Conceição, Egberto Gaspar Moura, Elaine Oliveira, Deysla Sabino Guarda, Mariana Sarto Figueiredo, Fernanda Torres Quitete, Camila Calvino, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Paulo Cezar Freitas Mathias, Alex Christian Manhães, Patricia Cristina Lisboa
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction is associated with obesity and its comorbidities, such as hypertension, and the improvement of BAT function seems important for obesity management. Here we investigated the effects of dietary calcium supplementation on BAT autonomic nerve activity, sympathoadrenal function and cardiovascular parameters in adult obese rats that were raised in small litters (SL group). Three days after birth, SL litters were adjusted to three pups to induce early overfeeding. The control group remained with 10 pups/litter until weaning (NL group)...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826939/a-novel-iron-chelator-radical-scavenger-ameliorates-motor-dysfunction-and-improves-life-span-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-sod1-g93a-als-mice
#13
Sagit Golko-Perez, Tamar Amit, Orit Bar-Am, Moussa B H Youdim, Orly Weinreb
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of the novel neuroprotective multitarget brain permeable monoamine oxidase inhibitor/iron chelating-radical scavenging drug, VAR10303 (VAR), co-administered with high-calorie/energy-supplemented diet (ced) in SOD1(G93A) transgenic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice. Administration of VAR-ced was initiated after the appearance of disease symptoms (at day 88), as this regimen is comparable with the earliest time at which drug therapy could start in ALS patients...
November 8, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824141/nesfatin-1-promotes-brown-adipocyte-phenotype
#14
Yuexin Wang, Ziru Li, Xinyu Zhang, Xinxin Xiang, Yin Li, Michael W Mulholland, Weizhen Zhang
Nesfatin-1, an 82 amino acid gastric peptide, is involved in regulation of food uptake and in multiple metabolic activities. Whether nesfatin-1 modulates the differentiation and lipid metabolism of brown adipocytes remains unknown. In the present study, we found that nesfatin-1 mRNA and protein were detectable in isolated brown adipocytes and gradually decreased during differentiation (95% CI 0.6057 to 1.034, p = 0.0001). The decrease in nesfatin-1 was associated with a significant reduction in p-S6. Exposure to nesfatin-1 promoted differentiation of brown adipocytes as revealed by a significant increase in UCP1 mRNA (p = 0...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814392/gender-specific-mechanisms-underlying-the-amelioration-of-high-fat-diet-induced-glucose-intolerance-in-b-cell-activating-factor-deficient-mice
#15
Bobae Kim, Chang-Kee Hyun
It has recently been found that B cell activating factor (BAFF) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We also have previously reported that BAFF deficiency reverses high-fat (HF) diet-induced glucose intolerance by potentiating adipose tissue function. In the present study, we found that BAFF deficient (BAFF-/-) mice exhibit gender-specific differences in protection against diet-induced glucose intolerance, and aimed to characterize the gender-dependent molecular alterations in energy metabolism...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806373/the-genetic-predisposition-score-of-seven-obesity-related-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-is-associated-with-better-metabolic-outcomes-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#16
Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Marcela A Souza Pinhel, Bruno Affonso Parenti de Oliveira, Julio Sergio Marchini, Wilson Salgado Junior, Wilson Araujo Silva Junior, Carla Barbosa Nonino
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Genetic variants associated with obesity have cumulative effects on obesity risk and related phenotypes. This study aimed to estimate the contribution of a genetic predisposition score (GPS) calculated from 7 obesity-related polymorphisms to the improvement of biochemical parameters 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Obese patients (n = 150; aged 47.2 ± 10.5 years) were enrolled and weight, body mass index (BMI), and biochemical parameters (glycemia and lipid profile) were evaluated preoperatively and 1 year after RYGB...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805061/harmine-induces-adipocyte-thermogenesis-through-rac1-mek-erk-chd4-axis
#17
Tao Nie, Xiaoyan Hui, Liufeng Mao, Baoming Nie, Kuai Li, Wei Sun, Xuefei Gao, Xiaofeng Tang, Yong Xu, Baishan Jiang, Zhengcao Tu, Peng Li, Ke Ding, Weiping Han, Shaoping Zhang, Aimin Xu, Sheng Ding, Pentao Liu, Adam Patterson, Garth Cooper, Donghai Wu
Harmine is a natural compound possessing insulin-sensitizing effect in db/db diabetic mice. However its effect on adipose tissue browning is unknown. Here we reveal that harmine antagonizes high fat diet-induced adiposity. Harmine-treated mice gained less weight on a high fat diet and displayed increased energy expenditure and adipose tissue thermogenesis. In vitro, harmine potently induced the expression of thermogenic genes in both brown and white adipocytes, which was largely abolished by inhibition of RAC1/MEK/ERK pathway...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802441/the-effect-of-growth-hormone-on-lipid-accumulation-or-maturation-in-adipocytes
#18
Yuchao Zhang, Hongsheng Yu, Peng Gao, Jicui Chen, Cong Yu, Chen Zong, Sumei Lu, Xia Li, Xiaoli Ma, Yuantao Liu, Xiangdong Wang
BACKGROUND: Adipogenesis of adipocytes includes two stages: initiation and maturation. Growth hormone (GH) secretion is decreased in obese subjects and GH levels are inversely correlated with abdominal fat mass. The effects of growth hormone (GH) on lipids accumulation or maturation of adipocytes remains elusive. METHODS: In the present study, effect of GH on lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo was examined. cDNA microarray, quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) and western blotting was used to analyze the expression of genes related to adipocyte lipid accumulation or degradation in pre- or mature 3T3-F442A adipocytes treated with GH and in epididymal adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice administrated with GH...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794497/ucp1-a-sophisticated-energy-valve
#19
REVIEW
Martin Klingenberg
This review focuses on the biochemical work of UCP1 starting from the early observation by Ricquier and Kader in 1976. We entered this field in 1980 with the isolation of native UCP1 and then reported the amino acid sequence structure discovering a strong homology to the ADP/ATP carrier. With the isolated native UCP1 we studied structural and functional features, in particular the complex characteristics of nucleotide binding. A strong pH dependence of binding and herein the differences between diphopho- and triphopho-nucleotides were observed, resulting in the identification of residues which control binding site access by their H(+) dissociation...
October 26, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777789/foxo1-interacts-with-transcription-factor-eb-and-differentially-regulates-mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-via-autophagy-in-adipocytes
#20
Longhua Liu, Zhipeng Tao, Louise D Zheng, Joseph P Brooke, Cayleen M Smith, Dongmin Liu, Yun Chau Long, Zhiyong Cheng
Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inducible and play an important role in metabolic and redox homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that FoxO1 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology, but it remains largely unknown how FoxO1 may regulate mitochondrial UCPs. Here we show that FoxO1 interacted with transcription factor EB (Tfeb), a key regulator of autophagosome and lysosome, and mediated the expression of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 differentially via autophagy in adipocytes. UCP1 was down-regulated but UCP2 and UCP3 were upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, which was associated with increased Tfeb and autophagy activity...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
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