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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785025/an-immune-beige-adipocyte-communication-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling
#1
Heejin Jun, Hui Yu, Jianke Gong, Juan Jiang, Xiaona Qiao, Eric Perkey, Dong-Il Kim, Margo P Emont, Alexander G Zestos, Jung-Sun Cho, Jianfeng Liu, Robert T Kennedy, Ivan Maillard, X Z Shawn Xu, Jun Wu
Beige adipocytes have recently been shown to regulate energy dissipation when activated and help organisms defend against hypothermia and obesity. Prior reports indicate that beige-like adipocytes exist in adult humans and that they may present novel opportunities to curb the global epidemic in obesity and metabolic illnesses. In an effort to identify unique features of activated beige adipocytes, we found that expression of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit (Chrna2) was induced in subcutaneous fat during the activation of these cells and that acetylcholine-producing immune cells within this tissue regulated this signaling pathway via paracrine mechanisms...
May 21, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785004/a-direct-tissue-grafting-approach-to-increasing-endogenous-brown-fat
#2
Nicole R Blumenfeld, Hwan June Kang, Anna Fenzl, Ziwei Song, Janice J Chung, Ranjodh Singh, Roshawn Johnson, Ayse Karakecili, Jun B Feranil, Ninna S Rossen, Vivian Zhang, Sahir Jaggi, Bret McCarty, Steven Bessler, Gary J Schwartz, Robert Grant, Judith Korner, Florian W Kiefer, Brian M Gillette, Samuel K Sia
There is widespread evidence that increasing functional mass of brown adipose tissue (BAT) via browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) could potentially counter obesity and diabetes. However, most current approaches focus on administration of pharmacological compounds which expose patients to highly undesirable side effects. Here, we describe a simple and direct tissue-grafting approach to increase BAT mass through ex vivo browning of subcutaneous WAT, followed by re-implantation into the host; this cell-therapy approach could potentially act synergistically with existing pharmacological approaches...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777802/derivation-and-characterization-of-a-ucp1-reporter-human-es-cell-line
#3
Suranjit Mukherjee, Tuo Zhang, Lauretta A Lacko, Lei Tan, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Jason M Butler, Shuibing Chen
Interest in human brown fat as a novel therapeutic target to tackle the growing obesity and diabetes epidemic has increased dramatically in recent years. While much insight into brown fat biology has been gained from murine cell lines and models, few resources are available to study human brown fat in vitro, which makes the need for new ways to derive and study human brown adipocytes imperative. Human ES cell based reporter systems present an excellent tool to identify, mark, and purify cell populations of choice...
April 22, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#4
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772784/capsaicin-in-metabolic-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Sunil K Panchal, Edward Bliss, Lindsay Brown
Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders...
May 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769150/adipose-tissue-uncoupling-protein-1-levels-and-function-are-increased-in-a-mouse-model-of-developmental-obesity-induced-by-maternal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet
#6
E Bytautiene Prewit, C Porter, M La Rosa, N Bhattarai, H Yin, P Gamble, T Kechichian, L S Sidossis
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764546/-effect-of-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-function-of-lung-tissue-in-mice-with-acute-lung-injury
#7
Hongfu Yang, Ke Chao, Ming Liang, Rongqing Sun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function of lung tissue in mice with acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Forty female Balb/c mice were randomly divided into normal saline (NS) control group, LPS model group, PDTC group, and PDTC+LPS group, with 10 mice in each group. The model of mice with ALI was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg LPS...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757365/multifaceted-roles-of-beige-fat-in-energy-homeostasis-beyond-ucp1
#8
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipose cells that emerge within the white adipose tissue in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as chronic cold acclimation. Similar to brown adipocytes that reside in brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, beige adipocytes are also thermogenic; however beige adipocytes possess unique, distinguishing characteristics in their developmental regulation and biological function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of beige adipocytes, focusing on the diverse roles of beige fat in the regulation of energy homeostasis that are independent of the canonical thermogenic pathway via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748882/evolution-of-ucp1
#9
Michael J Gaudry, Kevin L Campbell, Martin Jastroch
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), the specialized heat-producing organ found in many placental mammals including humans, may be accessible for clinical drug intervention to help combat metabolic diseases. Understanding the biology of BAT and its thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) will benefit from an assessment of its evolution, answering where UCP1 originated and how it has been modified and integrated into cellular energy metabolism. Here, we review topical insights regarding the molecular evolution of UCP1-also reconstructing the proximate and ultimate factors selecting for brown fat thermogenesis in placental mammals...
May 10, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744695/bovine-lactoferrin-promotes-energy-expenditure-via-the-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-human-reprogrammed-brown-adipocytes
#10
Kanae Nakamura, Tsunao Kishida, Akika Ejima, Riho Tateyama, Satoru Morishita, Tomoji Ono, Michiaki Murakoshi, Keikichi Sugiyama, Hoyoku Nishino, Osam Mazda
Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein in mammalian milk. We previously reported that enteric-coated bovine LF reduced the visceral fat in a double-blind clinical study. We further demonstrated that bovine LF (bLF) inhibited adipogenesis and promoted lipolysis in white adipocytes, but the effect of bLF on brown adipocytes has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of bLF on energy expenditure and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway using human reprogrammed brown adipocytes generated by gene transduction...
May 9, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733968/molecular-characterization-of-elongase-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-6-elovl6-genes-in-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-and-their-potential-roles-in-adaptation-to-cold-temperature
#11
Jingwen Chen, Yun Cui, Jie Yan, Jimin Jiang, Xiaojuan Cao, Jian Gao
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined...
May 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730295/ifi27-is-indispensable-for-mitochondrial-function-and-browning-in-adipocytes
#12
Weiwei Jin, Wenfang Jin, Dongning Pan
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, but the signaling pathways that regulate BAT metabolism and activity are incompletely understood. Interferon (IFN) signaling is a sophisticated defense mechanism to counteract viral infection. IFNs and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are reported to exert profound effects on adipocytes. IFN-α inducible protein 27 (Ifi27/ISG12a) is a BAT-enriched gene, yet no any studies on its roles in BAT have been reported. Here, we show that Ifi27 protein localizes to mitochondria and the expression of Ifi27 can be induced by β3-adrenergic activation in adipose tissues...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720945/decrease-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-browning-is-associated-with-vascular-dysfunction-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats-during-aging
#13
Ling-Ran Kong, Yan-Ping Zhou, Dong-Rui Chen, Cheng-Chao Ruan, Ping-Jin Gao
Functional perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is necessary to maintain vascular physiology through both mechanical support and endocrine or paracrine ways. PVAT shows a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like feature and the browning level of PVAT is dependent on the anatomic location and species. However, it is not clear whether PVAT browning is involved in the vascular tone regulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In the present study, we aimed to illustrate the effect of aging on PVAT browning and subsequent vasomotor reaction in SHRs...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715464/spermidine-spermine-n1-acetyltransferase-mediated-polyamine-catabolism-regulates-beige-adipocyte-biogenesis
#14
Fang Yuan, Lin Zhang, Yang Cao, Wei Gao, Can Zhao, Yuan Fang, Kamyar Zahedi, Manoocher Soleimani, Xiang Lu, Zhuyuan Fang, Qin Yang
OBJECTIVE: Cold and β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists activate beige adipocyte biogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT). The two stimuli also induce expression of inflammatory cytokines in WAT. The low-grade inflammation may further promote WAT browning. However, the mechanisms to reconcile these two biological processes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate the roles of the rate-limiting polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1) in regulating beige adipocyte biogenesis and inflammation...
April 28, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715048/%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-control-brown-adipose-ucp-1-tone-and-cold-response-without-affecting-its-circadian-rhythmicity
#15
Maria Razzoli, Matthew J Emmett, Mitchell A Lazar, Alessandro Bartolomucci
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic functions are primarily mediated by uncoupling protein (UCP)-1. Ucp1 gene expression is highly induced by cold temperature, via sympathetic nervous system and β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). Ucp1 is also repressed by the clock gene Rev-erbα, contributing to its circadian rhythmicity. In this study, we investigated mice lacking βARs (β-less mice) to test the relationship between βAR signaling and the BAT molecular clock. We found that in addition to controlling the induction of Ucp1 and other key BAT genes at near freezing temperatures, βARs are essential for the basal expression of BAT Ucp1 at room temperature...
May 1, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704660/genetic-and-epigenetic-control-of-adipose-development
#16
REVIEW
Olga Gulyaeva, Jon Dempersmier, Hei Sook Sul
White adipose tissue (WAT) is the primary energy storage organ and its excess contributes to obesity, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducible thermogenic (beige/brite) adipocytes in WAT dissipate energy via Ucp1 to maintain body temperature. BAT and subcutaneous WAT develop perinatally while visceral WAT forms after birth from precursors expressing distinct markers, such as Myf5, Pref-1, Wt1, and Prx1, depending on the anatomical location. In addition to the embryonic adipose precursors, a pool of endothelial cells or mural cells expressing Pparγ, Pdgfrβ, Sma and Zfp423 may become adipocytes during WAT expansion in adults...
April 25, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704006/intracellular-glycolysis-in-brown-adipose-tissue-is-essential-for-optogenetically-induced-nonshivering-thermogenesis-in-mice
#17
Jae Hoon Jeong, Ji Suk Chang, Young-Hwan Jo
Release of fatty acids from lipid droplets upon activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a key step in nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, intracellular lipolysis appears not to be critical for cold-induced thermogenesis. As activation of the SNS increases glucose uptake, we studied whether intracellular glycolysis plays a role in BAT thermogenesis. To stimulate BAT-innervating sympathetic nerves in vivo, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in catecholaminergic fibers by crossbreeding tyrosine hydroxylase-Cre mice with floxed-stop ChR2 mice...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703782/adipose-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-studies-from-large-animals
#18
REVIEW
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Belinda A Henry
The balance between energy intake and energy expenditure establishes and preserves a 'set-point' body weight. The latter is comprised of three major components including metabolic rate, physical activity and thermogenesis. Thermogenesis is defined as the cellular dissipation of energy via heat production. This process has been extensively characterised in brown adipose tissue (BAT), wherein uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) creates a proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, diverting protons away from ATP synthesis and resulting in heat dissipation...
June 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698580/clinical-implications-of-ucp1-mrna-expression-in-human-cervical-adipose-tissue-under-physiological-conditions
#19
Ju Hee Lee, Ji Min Kim, Min Jeong Choi, Yea Eun Kang, Kyoung Hye Joung, Hyon-Seung Yi, Koon Soon Kim, Bon Jeong Ku, Bon Seok Koo, Minho Shong, Hyun Jin Kim
OBJECTIVE: The clinical implications of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) were investigated based on the analysis of cervical adipose tissue gene expression under normal physiological conditions. METHODS: Matched-pair specimens of adipose tissue (AT) were collected from beneath the incision plane (subcutaneous AT) and from the area surrounding the carotid sheath (carotid AT) from 60 patients undergoing thyroidectomy. The mRNA expression of BAT-associated genes in these tissues was examined, and this expression was correlated with the clinical characteristics of the subjects...
April 26, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694503/neonatal-tobacco-smoke-reduces-thermogenesis-capacity-in-brown-adipose-tissue-in-adult-rats
#20
T C Peixoto, E G Moura, E Oliveira, V Younes-Rapozo, P N Soares, V S T Rodrigues, T R Santos, N Peixoto-Silva, J C Carvalho, C Calvino, E P S Conceição, D S Guarda, S Claudio-Neto, A C Manhães, P C Lisboa
Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower metabolic rate...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
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