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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934139/phyllodulcin-a-natural-sweetener-regulates-obesity-related-metabolic-changes-and-fat-browning-related-genes-of-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Eunju Kim, Soo-Min Lim, Min-Soo Kim, Sang-Ho Yoo, Yuri Kim
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose...
September 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925474/mitochondrial-protein-ucp1-mediates-liver-injury-induced-by-lps-through-ekr-signaling-pathway
#2
P Liu, J Yang, Z-Y Chen, P Zhang, G-J Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria are abundant in liver. The roles of mitochondrial protein in liver injury and related signaling pathways are still unclear. UCP1 is a novel mitochondrial transmembrane protein. Its expression pattern and function in liver still needs further investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of liver injury was established by the treatment of LPS. UCP1 expression in the liver tissue was detected by Western blot and qRT-PCR. ERK signaling activity was tested by enzymatic activity kit...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919001/pharmacological-inhibition-of-aldh1a-enzymes-suppresses-weight-gain-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity
#3
Michael Haenisch, Piper M Treuting, Thea Brabb, Alex S Goldstein, Kathryn Berkseth, John K Amory, Jisun Paik
BACKGROUND: Retinoic acid (RA) is known to play a role in weight regulation. Because mice without ALDH1A1, a major RA synthesizing enzyme, are resistant to diet-induced obesity, we tested a hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of RA synthesis can suppress weight gain in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity and then randomized to a HFD with or without WIN 18,446, an RA synthesis inhibitor, for an additional 9 weeks...
September 11, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917655/inactivation-of-tnf-lt-locus-alters-mouse-metabolic-response-to-concentrated-ambient-pm2-5
#4
Ziying Hu, Minjie Chen, Huifen Zhou, Anui Tharakan, Xiaoke Wang, Lianglin Qiu, Shuai Liang, Xiaobo Qin, Yuhao Zhang, Wanjun Wang, Yanyi Xu, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. This is widely believed to be attributable to PM2.5 exposure-induced pulmonary and subsequent systemic inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), lymphotoxin α (LTα), and lymphotoxin β (LTβ) are three homologous pro-inflammatory cytokines, each with both unique and redundant activities in inflammation. Their role in PM2.5 exposure-induced inflammation and adverse cardiometabolic effects has to be determined...
September 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915325/brown-and-beige-adipose-tissues-in-health-and-disease
#5
Liangyou Rui
Brown and beige adipocytes arise from distinct developmental origins. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops embryonically from precursors that also give to skeletal muscle. Beige fat develops postnatally and is highly inducible. Beige fat recruitment is mediated by multiple mechanisms, including de novo beige adipogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte transdifferentiaiton. Beige precursors reside around vasculatures, and proliferate and differentiate into beige adipocytes. PDGFRα+Ebf2+ precursors are restricted to beige lineage cells, while another PDGFRα+ subset gives rise to beige adipocytes, white adipocytes, or fibrogenic cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894292/partitioning-of-adipose-lipid-metabolism-by-altered-expression-and-function-of-ppar-isoforms-after-bariatric-surgery
#6
C Jahansouz, H Xu, A V Hertzel, S Kizy, K A Steen, R Foncea, F J Serrot, N Kvalheim, G Luthra, K Ewing, D B Leslie, S Ikramuddin, D A Bernlohr
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery remains the most effective treatment for reducing adiposity and eliminating type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanism(s) responsible have remained elusive. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) encompass a family of nuclear hormone receptors that upon activation exert control of lipid metabolism, glucose regulation and inflammation. Their role in adipose tissue following bariatric surgery remains undefined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and serum were obtained and evaluated from time of surgery and on postoperative day 7 in patients randomized to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n=13) or matched caloric restriction (n=14), as well as patients undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n=33)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888087/modulation-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-follistatin-signaling-and-white-adipose-browning-therapeutic-implications-for-obesity-related-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Shehla Pervin, Vineeta Singh, Alexandria Tucker, Javier Collazo, Rajan Singh
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease and other related metabolic conditions. Obesity develops from perturbations in overall cellular bioenergetics when energy intake chronically exceeds total energy expenditure. Lifestyle interventions based on reducing total energy uptake and increasing activities including exercise have proved ineffective in the prevention and treatment of obesity because of poor adherence to such interventions for an extended period of time...
September 9, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882900/adipocyte-liver-kinase-b1-suppresses-beige-adipocyte-renaissance-through-class-iia-histone-deacetylase-4
#8
Yangmeng Wang, Esther Paulo, Dongmei Wu, Yixuan Wu, Wendong Huang, Ajay Chawla, Biao Wang
Uncoupling protein 1(+) (UCP1(+)) beige adipocytes are dynamically regulated by environment in rodents and humans; cold induces formation of beige adipocytes, while warm temperature and nutrient excess lead to their disappearance. Beige adipocytes can form through de novo adipogenesis, however how "beigeing" characteristics are maintained afterwards is largely unknown. Here we show that beige adipocytes formed postnatally in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) lost thermogenic gene expression and multilocular morphology at adult stage, but cold restored their "beigeing" characteristics, a phenomenon termed as beige adipocyte renaissance...
September 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879502/role-of-macrophages-in-depot-dependent-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#9
Ken Machida, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Woongchul Shin, Shinya Matsuoka, Ayumi Tsubota, Kazuhiro Kimura
Sympathetic stimulation induces beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT), known as browning of WAT. In this study, exposure of mice to cold ambient temperature (10 °C) for 24 h induced the mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a marker for beige adipocytes, in inguinal WAT, but not in perigonadal WAT. Thus, we examined the role of macrophages in depot-dependent WAT browning in mice. Flowcytometric analysis showed that total number of macrophages was higher in perigonadal WAT than in inguinal WAT...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878263/a-progesterone-brown-fat-axis-is-involved-in-regulating-fetal-growth
#10
Saraid McIlvride, Aleena Mushtaq, Georgia Papacleovoulou, Chloe Hurling, Jennifer Steel, Eugène Jansen, Shadi Abu-Hayyeh, Catherine Williamson
Pregnancy is associated with profound maternal metabolic changes, necessary for the growth and development of the fetus, mediated by reproductive signals acting on metabolic organs. However, the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in regulating gestational metabolism is unknown. We show that BAT phenotype is lost in murine pregnancy, while there is a gain of white adipose tissue (WAT)-like features. This is characterised by reduced thermogenic capacity and mitochondrial content, accompanied by increased levels of markers of WAT and lipid accumulation...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870477/a-low-protein-high-carbohydrate-diet-increases-browning-in-perirenal-adipose-tissue-but-not-in-inguinal-adipose-tissue
#11
Mayara P Pereira, Laís A A Ferreira, Flávia H S da Silva, Marcelo A Christoffolete, George S Metsios, Valéria E Chaves, Suélem A de França, Amílcar S Damazo, Andreas D Flouris, Nair H Kawashita
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet. METHODS: LPHC (6% protein, 74% carbohydrate) or control (C; 17% protein, 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats for 15 d. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis...
October 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862985/critical-review-of-beige-adipocyte-thermogenic-activation-and-contribution-to-whole-body-energy-expenditure
#12
REVIEW
Érique Castro, Tiago E Oliveira Silva, William T Festuccia
Beige (or brite, "brown in white") adipocytes are uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive cells residing in white adipose depots that, depending on the conditions, behave either as classic white adipocytes, storing energy as lipids, or as brown adipocytes, dissipating energy from oxidative metabolism as heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Because of their thermogenic potential and, therefore, possible usage to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, beige cells have attracted the attention of many scientists worldwide aiming to develop strategies to safely recruit and activate their thermogenic activity...
September 1, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851733/brown-adipose-tissue-activation-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Wenjuan Wang, Xiangzhi Meng, Chun Yang, Dongliang Fang, Xuemeng Wang, Jiaqiang An, Jingyi Zhang, Lulu Wang, Tao Lu, Hai-Bin Ruan, Yan Gao
Loss of body weight and fat mass is one of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss is primarily due to reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure. While inadequate energy intake in PD patients is mainly caused by appetite loss and impaired gastrointestinal absorption, the underlying mechanisms for increased energy expenditure remain largely unknown. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a key thermogenic tissue in humans and other mammals, plays an important role in thermoregulation and energy metabolism; however, it has not been tested if BAT is involved in the negative energy balance in PD...
August 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842503/the-c-terminal-fibrinogen-like-domain-of-angiopoietin-like-4-stimulates-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-promotes-energy-expenditure
#14
Allison E McQueen, Deepthi Kanamaluru, Kimberly Yan, Nora E Gray, Leslie Wu, Mei-Lan Li, Anthony Chang, Adeeba Hasan, Daniel Stifler, Suneil Koliwad, Jen-Chywan Wang
Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) is a circulating protein secreted by white and brown adipose tissues and the liver. Structurally, Angptl4 contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) connected to a C-terminal fibrinogen-like domain (FLD) via a cleavable linker, and both full-length Angptl4 and its individual domains circulate in the bloodstream. Angptl4 inhibits extracellular lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and stimulates the lipolysis of triacylglycerol stored by adipocytes in the white adipose tissue (WAT)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842500/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-and-adipose-tissue-thermogenesis-bridging-physiology-and-mechanisms
#15
Edward T Chouchani, Lawrence Kazak, Bruce M Spiegelman
Brown and beige adipose tissues can catabolize stored energy to generate heat, relying on the principal effector of thermogenesis: uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This unique capability could be leveraged as a therapy for metabolic disease. Numerous animal and cellular models have now demonstrated that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal to support adipocyte thermogenic identity and function. Herein, we contextualize these findings within established principles of redox signaling, and mechanistic studies of UCP1 function...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828418/the-anti-obesity-properties-of-the-proanthocyanidin-extract-from-the-leaves-of-chinese-bayberry-myrica-rubra-sieb-et-zucc
#16
Xiaozhou Zhou, Shiguo Chen, Xingqian Ye
The anti-obesity effects of different proanthocyanidin extracts (PE) from Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb.et Zucc.) leaves were evaluated in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese rat model. The leaves of Chinese bayberry (LCB), a non-desaccharified proanthocyanidin extract (NDPE), and a desaccharified proanthocyanidin extract (DPE) were compared with orlistat, a conventional anti-obesity drug used as a positive control. The rats from all of the PE-treated groups showed obvious weight loss, with the greatest weight loss in the DPE group (P < 0...
September 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827782/extracellular-calcium-modulates-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-and-identity
#17
Ines Pramme-Steinwachs, Martin Jastroch, Siegfried Ussar
Brown adipocytes are important in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis, whole body glucose and lipid homeostasis. Increasing evidence supports an important role of metabolites as well as macro- and micronutrients in brown adipocyte differentiation and function. Calcium is one of the most abundant ions in the body regulating multiple cellular processes. We observed that increasing extracellular calcium concentration during brown adipocyte differentiation blocks lipid accumulation and suppresses induction of major adipogenic transcription factors such as PPARγ and C/EBPα...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812533/immunoreactivity-of-canine-liposarcoma-to-muscle-and-brown-adipose-antigens
#18
Elise Eva Bella LaDouceur, Sarah E Stevens, Jason Wood, Christopher M Reilly
Liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and hibernoma share some overlapping histologic and immunohistochemical features. Although immunohistochemistry (IHC) is commonly used in the diagnosis of these neoplasms, expression of muscle markers has been reported in human liposarcoma and canine hibernoma in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. Thus, these neoplasms are a diagnostic challenge but important to distinguish because of differences in prognosis and treatment. Rhabdomyosarcoma and liposarcoma are both malignant, but rhabdomyosarcoma has a higher potential for metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811495/low-protein-induced-increases-in-fgf21-drive-ucp1-dependent-metabolic-but-not-thermoregulatory-endpoints
#19
Cristal M Hill, Thomas Laeger, Diana C Albarado, David H McDougal, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Dietary protein restriction increases adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), energy expenditure and food intake, and these effects require the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Here we test whether the induction of energy expenditure during protein restriction requires UCP1, promotes a resistance to cold stress, and is dependent on the concomitant hyperphagia. Wildtype, Ucp1-KO and Fgf21-KO mice were placed on control and low protein (LP) diets to assess changes in energy expenditure, food intake and other metabolic endpoints...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807877/cryptotanshinone-promotes-commitment-to-the-brown-adipocyte-lineage-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-ampk-and-p38-mapk-signaling
#20
Khan Mohammad Imran, Naimur Rahman, Dahyeon Yoon, Miso Jeon, Byong-Taek Lee, Yong-Sik Kim
Although white adipose tissue (WAT) stores triglycerides and contributes to obesity, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat. Therefore, browning of WAT is regarded as an attractive way to counteract obesity. Our previous studies have revealed that treatment with cryptotanshinone (CT) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells inhibits their differentiation. Here, we found that pretreatment of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells with CT before exposure to adipogenic hormonal stimuli promotes the commitment of these mesenchymal stem cells to the adipocyte lineage as confirmed by increased triglyceride accumulation...
October 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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