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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893369/virulence-determinants-of-moraxella-catarrhalis-distribution-and-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#1
Luke V Blakeway, Aimee Tan, Ian R A Peak, Kate L Seib
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human-restricted opportunistic bacterial pathogen of the respiratory mucosa. It frequently colonizes the nasopharynx asymptomatically, but is also an important causative agent of otitis media (OM) in children, and plays a significant role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults. As the current treatment options for M. catarrhalis infection in OM and exacerbations of COPD are often ineffective, the development of an efficacious vaccine is warranted...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881007/delayed-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-respiratory-infections
#2
REVIEW
Geoffrey Kp Spurling, Chris B Del Mar, Liz Dooley, Ruth Foxlee, Rebecca Farley
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872156/indications-of-cone-beam-ct-in-head-and-neck-imaging-in-children
#3
U Walliczek-Dworschak, I Diogo, L Strack, M Mandapathil, A Teymoortash, J A Werner, C Güldner
For imaging of bony structures, especially for the anterior and lateral skull base in ORL medicine, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an increasingly used alternative to CT, with a lower exposition to plain radiography that makes its use for imaging, particularly in children, very interesting. The aim of this study was to analyse possible indications and settings for CBCT in children and compare them to those of adults. A total of 554 patients (age range 0-18 years, mean age 10.36 years), who underwent CBCT between 01/2004-06/2013 in the ENT department at the university clinic of Marburg were enrolled in this retrospective analysis to evaluate technical parameters and indications...
August 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853985/a-moraxella-catarrhalis-vaccine-to-protect-against-otitis-media-and-exacerbations-of-copd-an-update-on-current-progress-and-challenges
#4
Antonia C Perez, Timothy F Murphy
Moraxella catarrhalis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially causing otitis media in young children and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. This pathogen employs several virulence mechanisms to colonize and survive in its host, including adherence and invasion of host cells, formation of polymicrobial biofilms with other bacterial pathogens and production of beta-lactamase. Given the global impact of otitis media and COPD, an effective vaccine to prevent M...
August 30, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755066/two-sides-of-the-same-coin-pediatric-onset-and-adult-onset-common-variable-immune-deficiency
#5
Lauren A Sanchez, Solrun Melkorka Maggadottir, Matthew S Pantell, Patricia Lugar, Charlotte Cunningham Rundles, Kathleen E Sullivan
PURPOSE: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a complex, heterogeneous immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections, and poor antibody response to vaccination. While antibiotics and immunoglobulin prophylaxis have significantly reduced infectious complications, non-infectious complications of autoimmunity, inflammatory lung disease, enteropathy, and malignancy remain of great concern. Previous studies have suggested that CVID patients diagnosed in childhood are more severely affected by these complications than adults diagnosed later in life...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742632/the-middle-ear-cleft-status-in-a-natural-cohort-with-eustachian-tube-dysfunction
#6
Udi Cinamon, Dov Albukrek, Yahav Oron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir, Abraham Goldfarb, David Dvir, Tal Marom
BACKGROUND: The Eustachian tube (ET) has a major role in the middle ear (ME) pressure homeostasis. ET dysfunction is the accepted paradigm for pressure-related ME disorders. We studied the ME status in patients with severely diminished ET opening abilities, and anticipated to find ME disorders in most of them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ME status was evaluated in unconscious adults, who were hospitalized in a rehabilitation center with severe brain damage, requiring tracheotomy and gastrostomy...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676722/the-role-of-the-notch-signal-pathway-in-mucosal-cell-metaplasia-in-mouse-acute-otitis-media
#7
Xiang Liu, Ning Cong, Xiang Cheng, Rui Ma, Jing Wang, Yi-Bo Huang, Meng Zhao, Xin-Wei Wang, Fang-Lu Chi, Dong-Dong Ren
Otitis media (OM) is a major cause of morbidity in pediatric and adult patients. This inflammatory condition is characterized by mucous cell hyperplasia that is thought to produce mucins from the middle ear mucosa. We are interested in the role of Notch signalling pathway in this inflammatory process. Using an acute otitis media (AOM) mouse model through injection of Streptococcus Pneumoniae into the middle ear, histopathologic examination and quantitative RT-PCR, acute inflammation with the thickness of mucosa, Goblet cell hyperplasia, and cilia loss were determined and gene expression related to the Notch signaling pathway were evaluated...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659326/a-cation-binding-surface-protein-as-a-vaccine-antigen-to-prevent-moraxella-catarrhalis-otitis-media-and-infections-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Timothy F Murphy, Aimee L Brauer, Antoinette Johnson, Gregory E Wilding, Mary Koszelak-Rosenblum, Michael G Malkowski
Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent these infections would have a major impact in reducing the substantial global morbidity and mortality in these populations. Through a genome mining approach, we identified AfeA, an ∼32 kDa substrate binding protein of an ABC transport system as an excellent candidate vaccine antigen...
June 28, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648390/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-unusual-manifestations-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#9
Adrian Sousa, Maria Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrés Nodar, Lucía Martínez-Lamas, Francisco Jose Vasallo, Maximiliano Álvarez-Fernández, Manuel Crespo
INTRODUCTION: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) typically presents as bacterial pneumonia, meningitis or primary bacteraemia. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae can produce infection at any level of the body (endocarditis, arthritis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc.), which is also known as unusual IPD (uIPD). There are very limited data available about the clinical and microbiological profile of these uncommon manifestations of pneumococcal disease. Our aim was to analyse clinical forms, microbiological profile, epidemiology and prognosis of a cohort of patients with unusual invasive pneumococcal disease (uIPD)...
June 22, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628951/cranial-indicators-identified-for-peak-incidence-of-otitis-media
#10
Anthony S Pagano, Eugene Wang, Derek Yuan, Daniel Fischer, Charles Bluestone, Samuel Marquez, Jeffrey Laitman
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric conditions worldwide. Peak age of occurrence for AOM has been identified within the first postnatal year and it remains frequent until approximately six postnatal years. Morphological differences between adults and infants in the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) and associated structures may be responsible for development of this disease yet few have investigated normal growth trajectories. We tested hypotheses on coincidence of skeletal growth changes and known ages of peak AOM occurrence...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543437/the-adenoid-its-history-and-a-cautionary-tale
#11
REVIEW
Robert J Ruben
The existence of the adenoid first appears to have been noted by Conrad Victor Schneider in 1661. James Yearsley reported in 1842 one case in which he improved hearing by removal of a mucus membrane from behind the uvula, which indicates some appreciation of a relationship of the nasopharynx to ear disease. Hans Wilhelm Meyer, in 1868, was the first to demonstrate the relationship of the adenoid to ear disease and to develop an effective, although somewhat difficult, surgical operation to remove the adenoid...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513418/flagellar-expression-in-clinical-isolates-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#12
Alejandro Carabarin-Lima, Patricia Lozano-Zarain, Miguel Castañeda-Lucio, Claudia Fabiola Martínez de la Peña, Julieta Martinez-Garcia, Norarizbeth Lara Flores, Elías Campos de la Cruz, Sirenia González-Posos, Rosa Del Carmen Rocha-Gracia
PURPOSE: Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal organism found in the upper respiratory tract of humans. When H. influenzae becomes a pathogen, these bacteria can move out of their commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis and bronchitis in children, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. However, H. influenzae is currently considered a non-flagellate bacterium. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In this study, 90 clinical isolates of H...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486675/short-course-versus-long-course-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-infections-treated-in-outpatient-settings-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#13
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose.: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods.: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
May 9, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471720/effects-of-mechanical-trauma-to-the-human-tympanic-membrane-an-experimental-study-using-transmission-electron-microscopy
#14
Nadine Schart-Morén, Paula Mannström, Helge Rask-Andersen, Magnus von Unge
HYPOTHESIS: To examine the cellular events following induced superficial lesions of the human tympanic membrane (TM). Such information could lead to enhanced appreciation of repair mechanisms and novel strategies to restore TM perforations. BACKGROUND: Persistent perforation of the TM in chronic otitis media is a major global health problem and frequently necessitates surgical intervention. Most TM perforations heal spontaneously and swiftly, but sometimes healing fails...
May 4, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468223/values-range-of-tympanometric-gradient-in-otitis-media-with-effusion
#15
Sertac Duzer, Oner Sakallioglu, Abdulvahap Akyigit, Cahit Polat, Hasan Cetiner, Nihat Susaman
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to establish how reliable a given tympanogram is in predicting the presence or absence of a middle ear effusion, and to provide new views for the diagnostic information of tympanometry. The use of tympanometric gradient in addition to static admittance is the focus of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors enrolled 146 female and 129 male patients. The participants were allocated into groups as follow: Group A1 consisted of 50 healthy children...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458938/septic-arthritis-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-secondary-to-acute-otitis-media-in-an-adult-a-rare-case-with-achromobacter-xylosoxidans
#16
Ryan Chin Taw Cheong, Laura Harding
Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (SATMJ) is a rare complication of acute otitis media (AOM) with only four reported cases in the English and Japanese literature. Based on the unusual nature of this clinical condition, we discuss the first documented case due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans and the utility of myringotomy with long-term intravenous antibiotics via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). We describe the case of a 76-year-old male patient that was brought in by ambulance to the accident and emergency (A&E) department due to severe right-sided otalgia with increased hearing impairment...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443591/clinical-findings-of-pediatric-hiv-infection-in-a-tertiary-center-in-turkey
#17
Murat Sütçü, Manolya Acar, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Torun, Hayati Beka, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
BACKGROUND: Paediatric HIV infection is different from the adult type of disease in many ways, including transmission routes, clinical findings and treatment strategies. AIMS: To evaluate clinical data of paediatric patients with HIV disease. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: The charts of 22 paediatric patients diagnosed with HIV infection in our clinic during a 14 year period through 2001-2015 were retrospectively analysed...
May 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420278/audiometric-features-in-young-adults-with-turner-syndrome
#18
Åsa Bonnard, Christina Hederstierna, Rusana Bark, Malou Hultcrantz
OBJECTIVE: Hearing loss (HL) is a known problem in adults with Turner syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to investigate audiometric features in young adults with TS and the extent of hearing aid provision. DESIGN: Patients were recruited from the Turner centre at Karolinska University Hospital. Analysis of audiograms was made in relation to hearing aid use, a Swedish normal hearing cohort and the need for hearing rehabilitation. STUDY SAMPLE: Sixty-four women with TS aged 25-38 years at the time of their audiological testing...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397271/microbiomes-of-the-normal-middle-ear-and-ears-with-chronic-otitis-media
#19
Shujiro B Minami, Hideki Mutai, Tomoko Suzuki, Arata Horii, Naoki Oishi, Koichiro Wasano, Motoyasu Katsura, Fujinobu Tanaka, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Masato Fujii, Kimitaka Kaga
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA))...
April 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390611/the-use-of-practice-guidelines-in-the-management-of-pediatric-cases-of-acute-otitis-media-in-amman-jordan
#20
Lubna Khreesha, Ali Bacharouch, R Alexander Blackwood, Mohammed Alkhoujah, Mohamad R Issa
OBJECTIVES: The widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance has led many healthcare institutions to adopt more conservative antibiotic prescription practice guidelines for the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Little is known about the awareness and use of such guidelines by physicians in Jordan. Our aim was to pilot an anonymous survey instrument that would assess AOM treatment trends as well as awareness of and adherence to practice guidelines in Amman. By qualitatively assessing the management of AOM we could illuminate possible disparities in treatment trends, evaluate variability in practice guideline adherence, and help focus efforts of future educational programs that pertain to pediatric AOM management...
May 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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