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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#1
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895000/severe-acute-otitis-media-and-acute-mastoiditis-in-adults
#2
Anu Laulajainen Hongisto, Jussi Jero, Antti Markkola, Riste Saat, Antti A Aarnisalo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare clinical and microbiological findings in adults hospitalized for acute otitis media (AOM) or mastoid infections (acute or latent). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adults (≥17 years old) hospitalized (between 2003 and 2012) at a tertiary referral center for acute mastoid infections or AOM not responding to outpatient medical treatment. RESULTS: Of the 160 patients in the study sample, 19% had an infection caused by S...
November 28, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882553/malignant-otitis-externa-hospitalizations-analysis-of-patient-characteristics
#3
Michael J Sylvester, Saurin Sanghvi, Viral M Patel, Jean Anderson Eloy, Yu-Lan Mary Ying
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Malignant otitis externa (MOE) is a rare disorder that is not well studied in the inpatient setting. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was utilized to analyze characteristics and predischarge outcomes of hospitalized MOE patients. METHODS: MOE hospitalizations were identified in the 2002 to 2013 NIS. Patient demographics, length of hospital stay, hospital charges, concomitant diagnoses, treatment-related procedures, complications, and in-hospital mortality rates were examined, with comparisons made among age cohorts and between diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-DM groups...
November 24, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874935/effect-of-administration-of-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-on-the-occurrence-of-streptococcal-pharyngo-tonsillitis-scarlet-fever-and-acute-otitis-media-in-3-years-old-children
#4
F Di Pierro, M Colombo, M G Giuliani, M L Danza, I Basile, T Bollani, A M Conti, A Zanvit, A S Rottoli
OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837423/the-effects-of-surgery-type-and-different-ossiculoplasty-materials-on-the-hearing-results-in-cholesteatoma-surgery
#5
Sultan Şevik Eliçora, Duygu Erdem, Aykut Erdem Dinç, Murat Damar, Sultan Bişkin
To investigate the effects of surgery type [intact canal wall (ICW) or canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy] and different ossiculoplasty materials on hearing outcome in single-staged cholesteatoma surgery. A retrospective case-control study. A total of 116 cases (97 adults, 29 children) underwent surgery, including ossiculoplasty, between 2012 and 2015 for cholesteatoma. Patients who had undergone surgery for the first time, and whose grafts were successful, were included in the study. Patients with adhesive otitis media, unsuccessful grafts, revision and recurrent cases, radical mastoidectomy, and craniofacial anomalies were excluded...
November 11, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821091/model-estimates-of-the-burden-of-outpatient-visits-attributable-to-influenza-in-the-united-states
#6
Gonçalo Matias, François Haguinet, Roger L Lustig, Laurel Edelman, Gerardo Chowell, Robert J Taylor
BACKGROUND: Although many studies have modelled the national burdens of hospitalizations and deaths due to influenza, few studies have considered the outpatient burden. To fill this gap for the United States (US), we applied traditional statistical modelling approaches to time series derived from large medical claims databases held in the private sector. METHODS: We accessed ICD-9-coded office visit data extracted from Truven Health Analytics' MarketScan Commercial database covering about one third of the US population <65 years during 2001-2009, and Medicare Supplemental data covering about one fifth of US seniors 65+ during 2006-2009...
November 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810842/pediatric-type-1-cartilage-tympanoplasty-comparison-between-graft-success-rates-and-hearing-results-in-adults
#7
Gültekin Övet, Necat Alataş, Mehmet Şentürk, Fatih Güzelkara
OBJECTIVE: It is an ongoing debate whether tympanoplasty should be performed in the pediatric age group. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the anatomical and functional outcomes of type I cartilage tympanoplasty in children and adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The file records of patients who underwent type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty were retrospectively reviewed. In total, 133 patients who underwent type 1 tympanoplasty for chronic otitis media were included...
August 1, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804083/chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps-is-associated-with-chronic-otitis-media-in-the-elderly
#8
Seung-No Hong, Woo Hyun Lee, Seung Hoon Lee, Chae-Seo Rhee, Chul Hee Lee, Jeong-Whun Kim
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and chronic otitis media (COM) are common diseases in the otorhinolaryngology field. Although clinicians frequently encounter patients presenting both diseases simultaneously, a few studies have shown relationships between them. We examined whether CRS was associated with COM in adults who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 to 2012. A total of 27,492 participants were examined in this cross-sectional epidemiological study. Regression analyses was performed and adjusted for socio-demographics, general health behavior, and other comorbidities...
November 1, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707422/current-demand-of-paediatric-otolaryngology-input-for-children-with-down-s-syndrome-in-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#9
M Khalid-Raja, K Tzifa
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the activity of paediatric otolaryngology services required for children with Down's syndrome in a tertiary referral centre. METHODS: A review of the paediatric otolaryngology input for children with Down's syndrome was performed; data were obtained from the coding department for a two-year period and compared with other surgical specialties. RESULTS: Between June 2011 and May 2013, 106 otolaryngology procedures were performed on children with Down's syndrome...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703971/the-economic-burden-of-otitis-media-in-korea-2012-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-study
#10
Young-Eun Kim, Ye-Rin Lee, So-Youn Park, Kyung Suk Lee, In-Hwan Oh
Background. Otitis media (OM) is a common communicable disease that is associated with a substantial economic burden. However, no Korean studies have evaluated OM-related trends after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Purpose. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and economic burden of OM in Korea using nationally representative data. Methods. The burden of OM was estimated nationally representative data such as national health insurance claims data from 2012, based on the prevalence approach and the societal perspective...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693542/the-role-of-fusobacterium-necrophorum-in-pharyngotonsillitis-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Karin Holm, Steffen Bank, Hanne Nielsen, Lena Hagelskjær Kristensen, Jørgen Prag, Anders Jensen
Fusobacterium necrophorum is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of the invasive disease Lemierre's syndrome. In addition, it is also associated with peritonsillar abscess formation and otitis media in small children. Recent research has shown that F. necrophorum may be involved in pharyngotonsillitis especially in adolescent and young adults and that it may be the second most common bacterial cause of pharyngotonsillitis after Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococci). Peritonsillar abscesses and Lemierre's syndrome due to F...
September 28, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683915/conductive-hearing-loss-has-long-lasting-structural-and-molecular-effects-on-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-structures-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-in-the-cochlear-nucleus
#12
Cheryl Clarkson, Flora M Antunes, Maria E Rubio
UNLABELLED: Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667784/treatment-of-eosinophilic-otitis-media-with-pegylated-interferon-%C3%AE-2a-and-2b
#13
Brian A Neff, Stephen G Voss, Matthew L Carlson, Erin K O'Brien, Joseph H Butterfield
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a variant of chronic otitis media that is characterized by the development of thick mucoid middle ear effusion, adult onset bronchial asthma, sinonasal polyposis, and aspirin sensitivity. EOM is typically refractory to corticosteroid therapy and surgical intervention. Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) has effectively treated hypereosinophilic syndrome in clinical trials; however, the efficacy of this medication for EOM treatment remains undefined...
September 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626918/acute-otitis-media-and-the-crying-child
#14
Glenn Isaacson
Acute otitis media (AOM) can be difficult to diagnose in a crying child. The vessels of the ear canal and tympanic membrane (TM) can engorge simulating AOM. We observed the pattern of vascular congestion during modified Valsalva maneuver. Sparing of the pars tensa, lack of TM bulging help to differentiate a crying child's red TM from that seen in AOM.
December 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540683/taste-disturbance-after-stapes-surgery-an-evaluation-of-frequency-severity-duration-and-quality-of-life
#15
Katarina Berling Holm, Johan Knutsson, Karin Strömbäck, Niklas Danckwardt Lillieström, Georgios Papatziamos, Andreas Rosenblad, Magnus Von Unge
CONCLUSION: The incidence of taste disturbance after stapes surgery is high (61.9%), whereas the majority (94.8%) recovers within 1 year. More severe surgical nerve trauma caused more disturbance, implying that the nerve should be handled carefully during surgery. OBJECTIVES: Patients operated on for otosclerosis seem more often to complain about post-operative taste disturbance than those operated on for chronic otitis media, although the chorda tympani nerve more seldom becomes maltreated in stapedotomy...
August 19, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497390/morphological-changes-in-the-round-window-membrane-associated-with-haemophilus-influenzae-induced-acute-otitis-media-in-the-chinchilla
#16
Shangyuan Jiang, Thomas W Seale, Rong Z Gan
OBJECTIVE: The round window membrane (RWM) encloses the round window, the opening into the scala tympani (ST) from the middle ear. During the course of acute otitis media (AOM), structural changes of the RWM can occur that potentially affect sound transmission into and out of the cochlea. The relationship between such structural changes and conductive hearing loss during AOM has remained unclear. The focus of the current study was to compare the thickness distribution across the RWM surface between normal ears and those with AOM in the chinchilla...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486735/parainfluenza-virus-infection
#17
Angela R Branche, Ann R Falsey
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459498/tympanoplasty-does-dry-or-wet-temporalis-fascia-graft-matter
#18
G B Singh, D Kumar, K Aggarwal, S Garg, R Arora, S Kumar
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the success rate of dry and wet temporalis fascia grafts in type I underlay tympanoplasty. METHODS: A prospective, randomised study was conducted. One hundred adult patients (males and females) with chronic suppurative otitis media (mucosal type) were divided into 2 groups of 50 each: one group underwent dry graft tympanoplasty and the other underwent wet graft tympanoplasty. Fibroblast count was calculated in dry and wet grafts. RESULTS: The dry graft and wet graft groups had overall surgical success rates of 82 and 90 per cent, respectively; this finding was not statistically significant...
August 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391026/atp-binding-cassette-abc-transporters-of-the-human-respiratory-tract-pathogen-moraxella-catarrhalis-role-in-virulence
#19
Timothy F Murphy, Aimee L Brauer, Antoinette Johnson, Charmaine Kirkham
Moraxella catarrhalis is a human respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media (middle ear infections) in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In view of the huge global burden of disease caused by M. catarrhalis, the development of vaccines to prevent these infections and better approaches to treatment have become priorities. In previous work, we used a genome mining approach that identified three substrate binding proteins (SBPs) of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as promising candidate vaccine antigens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379238/community-acquired-pneumonia-caused-by-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-how-physical-and-radiological-examination-contribute-to-successful-diagnosis
#20
REVIEW
Tomoo Kishaba
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), particularly in young adults. Vital signs are usually normal except for temperature. On physical examination, general appearance is normal compared with that of typical pneumonia such as pneumococcal pneumonia patients. Mycoplasma sometimes causes ear infections such as otitis media. It is important to distinguish between typical pneumonia and atypical pneumonia such as mycoplasma pneumonia because having the right diagnosis allows for the use of the correct antibiotic to treat CAP while preventing development of drug-resistant bacteria and also decreasing medical cost...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
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