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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676722/the-role-of-the-notch-signal-pathway-in-mucosal-cell-metaplasia-in-mouse-acute-otitis-media
#1
Xiang Liu, Ning Cong, Xiang Cheng, Rui Ma, Jing Wang, Yi-Bo Huang, Meng Zhao, Xin-Wei Wang, Fang-Lu Chi, Dong-Dong Ren
Otitis media (OM) is a major cause of morbidity in pediatric and adult patients. This inflammatory condition is characterized by mucous cell hyperplasia that is thought to produce mucins from the middle ear mucosa. We are interested in the role of Notch signalling pathway in this inflammatory process. Using an acute otitis media (AOM) mouse model through injection of Streptococcus Pneumoniae into the middle ear, histopathologic examination and quantitative RT-PCR, acute inflammation with the thickness of mucosa, Goblet cell hyperplasia, and cilia loss were determined and gene expression related to the Notch signaling pathway were evaluated...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659326/a-cation-binding-surface-protein-as-a-vaccine-antigen-to-prevent-moraxella-catarrhalis-otitis-media-and-infections-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#2
Timothy F Murphy, Aimee L Brauer, Antoinette Johnson, Gregory E Wilding, Mary Koszelak-Rosenblum, Michael G Malkowski
Moraxella catarrhalis is an exclusively human respiratory tract pathogen that is a common cause of otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A vaccine to prevent these infections would have a major impact in reducing the substantial global morbidity and mortality in these populations. Through a genome mining approach, we identified AfeA, an ∼32 kDa substrate binding protein of an ABC transport system as an excellent candidate vaccine antigen...
June 28, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648390/clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-unusual-manifestations-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease
#3
Adrian Sousa, Maria Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrés Nodar, Lucía Martínez-Lamas, Francisco Jose Vasallo, Maximiliano Álvarez-Fernández, Manuel Crespo
INTRODUCTION: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) typically presents as bacterial pneumonia, meningitis or primary bacteraemia. However, Streptococcus pneumoniae can produce infection at any level of the body (endocarditis, arthritis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, etc.), which is also known as unusual IPD (uIPD). There are very limited data available about the clinical and microbiological profile of these uncommon manifestations of pneumococcal disease. Our aim was to analyse clinical forms, microbiological profile, epidemiology and prognosis of a cohort of patients with unusual invasive pneumococcal disease (uIPD)...
June 22, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628951/cranial-indicators-identified-for-peak-incidence-of-otitis-media
#4
Anthony Pagano, Eugene Wang, Derek Yuan, Daniel Fischer, Charles Bluestone, Samuel Marquez, Jeffrey Laitman
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric conditions worldwide. Peak age of occurrence for AOM has been identified within the first postnatal year and it remains frequent until approximately six postnatal years. Morphological differences between adults and infants in the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) and associated structures may be responsible for development of this disease yet few have investigated normal growth trajectories. We tested hypotheses on coincidence of skeletal growth changes and known ages of peak AOM occurrence...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543437/the-adenoid-its-history-and-a-cautionary-tale
#5
Robert J Ruben
The existence of the adenoid first appears to have been noted by Conrad Victor Schneider in 1661. James Yearsley reported in 1842 one case in which he improved hearing by removal of a mucus membrane from behind the uvula, which indicates some appreciation of a relationship of the nasopharynx to ear disease. Hans Wilhelm Meyer, in 1868, was the first to demonstrate the relationship of the adenoid to ear disease and to develop an effective, although somewhat difficult, surgical operation to remove the adenoid...
June 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513418/flagellar-expression-in-clinical-isolates-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#6
Alejandro Carabarin-Lima, Patricia Lozano-Zarain, Miguel Castañeda-Lucio, Claudia Fabiola Martínez de la Peña, Julieta Martinez-Garcia, Norarizbeth Lara Flores, Elías Campos de la Cruz, Sirenia González-Posos, Rosa Del Carmen Rocha-Gracia
PURPOSE: Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal organism found in the upper respiratory tract of humans. When H. influenzae becomes a pathogen, these bacteria can move out of their commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis and bronchitis in children, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. However, H. influenzae is currently considered a non-flagellate bacterium. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In this study, 90 clinical isolates of H...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486675/short-course-versus-long-course-oral-antibiotic-treatment-for-infections-treated-in-outpatient-settings-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#7
Elizabeth E Dawson-Hahn, Sharon Mickan, Igho Onakpoya, Nia Roberts, Matthew Kronman, Chris C Butler, Matthew J Thompson
Purpose.: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings. Methods.: We identified systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials for children and adults with bacterial infections treated in outpatient settings from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and The Database of Review of Effects. Data were extracted on the primary outcome of clinical resolution and secondary outcomes...
May 9, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471720/effects-of-mechanical-trauma-to-the-human-tympanic-membrane-an-experimental-study-using-transmission-electron-microscopy
#8
Nadine Schart-Morén, Paula Mannström, Helge Rask-Andersen, Magnus von Unge
HYPOTHESIS: To examine the cellular events following induced superficial lesions of the human tympanic membrane (TM). Such information could lead to enhanced appreciation of repair mechanisms and novel strategies to restore TM perforations. BACKGROUND: Persistent perforation of the TM in chronic otitis media is a major global health problem and frequently necessitates surgical intervention. Most TM perforations heal spontaneously and swiftly, but sometimes healing fails...
May 4, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468223/values-range-of-tympanometric-gradient-in-otitis-media-with-effusion
#9
Sertac Duzer, Oner Sakallioglu, Abdulvahap Akyigit, Cahit Polat, Hasan Cetiner, Nihat Susaman
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to establish how reliable a given tympanogram is in predicting the presence or absence of a middle ear effusion, and to provide new views for the diagnostic information of tympanometry. The use of tympanometric gradient in addition to static admittance is the focus of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors enrolled 146 female and 129 male patients. The participants were allocated into groups as follow: Group A1 consisted of 50 healthy children...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458938/septic-arthritis-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-secondary-to-acute-otitis-media-in-an-adult-a-rare-case-with-achromobacter-xylosoxidans
#10
Ryan Chin Taw Cheong, Laura Harding
Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (SATMJ) is a rare complication of acute otitis media (AOM) with only four reported cases in the English and Japanese literature. Based on the unusual nature of this clinical condition, we discuss the first documented case due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans and the utility of myringotomy with long-term intravenous antibiotics via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). We describe the case of a 76-year-old male patient that was brought in by ambulance to the accident and emergency (A&E) department due to severe right-sided otalgia with increased hearing impairment...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443591/clinical-findings-of-pediatric-hiv-infection-in-a-tertiary-center-in-turkey
#11
Murat Sütçü, Manolya Acar, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Torun, Hayati Beka, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
BACKGROUND: Paediatric HIV infection is different from the adult type of disease in many ways, including transmission routes, clinical findings and treatment strategies. AIMS: To evaluate clinical data of paediatric patients with HIV disease. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: The charts of 22 paediatric patients diagnosed with HIV infection in our clinic during a 14 year period through 2001-2015 were retrospectively analysed...
May 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420278/audiometric-features-in-young-adults-with-turner-syndrome
#12
Åsa Bonnard, Christina Hederstierna, Rusana Bark, Malou Hultcrantz
OBJECTIVE: Hearing loss (HL) is a known problem in adults with Turner syndrome (TS). The aim of this study was to investigate audiometric features in young adults with TS and the extent of hearing aid provision. DESIGN: Patients were recruited from the Turner centre at Karolinska University Hospital. Analysis of audiograms was made in relation to hearing aid use, a Swedish normal hearing cohort and the need for hearing rehabilitation. STUDY SAMPLE: Sixty-four women with TS aged 25-38 years at the time of their audiological testing...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397271/microbiomes-of-the-normal-middle-ear-and-ears-with-chronic-otitis-media
#13
Shujiro B Minami, Hideki Mutai, Tomoko Suzuki, Arata Horii, Naoki Oishi, Koichiro Wasano, Motoyasu Katsura, Fujinobu Tanaka, Tetsuya Takiguchi, Masato Fujii, Kimitaka Kaga
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study. METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA))...
April 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390611/the-use-of-practice-guidelines-in-the-management-of-pediatric-cases-of-acute-otitis-media-in-amman-jordan
#14
Lubna Khreesha, Ali Bacharouch, R Alexander Blackwood, Mohammed Alkhoujah, Mohamad R Issa
OBJECTIVES: The widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance has led many healthcare institutions to adopt more conservative antibiotic prescription practice guidelines for the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Little is known about the awareness and use of such guidelines by physicians in Jordan. Our aim was to pilot an anonymous survey instrument that would assess AOM treatment trends as well as awareness of and adherence to practice guidelines in Amman. By qualitatively assessing the management of AOM we could illuminate possible disparities in treatment trends, evaluate variability in practice guideline adherence, and help focus efforts of future educational programs that pertain to pediatric AOM management...
May 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366032/etiology-of-single-sided-deafness-and-asymmetrical-hearing-loss
#15
Shin-Ichi Usami, Ryosuke Kitoh, Hideaki Moteki, Shin-Ya Nishio, Tomohiro Kitano, Masafumi Kobayashi, Jun Shinagawa, Yoh Yokota, Kenjiro Sugiyama, Kizuki Watanabe
CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that various etiologies are involved in single-sided deafness (SSD), and that the cause of SSD and asymmetrical hearing loss (AHL) differed greatly between congenital/early-onset cases and adult cases. Clarification of the etiology is the first step toward providing appropriate intervention. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to clarify the etiology of SSD and AHL patients. METHODS: The etiology of a total of 527 SSD or AHL patients who visited Shinshu University Hospital between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed by imaging as well as serological tests for mumps virus, and CMV DNA testing...
2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353452/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-haemophilus-influenzae-clinical-isolates
#16
Hüseyin K L Ç, Selcan Akyol, Õmür Mustafa Parkan, Gõkçen Dinç, Hafize Sav, Gonca Aydemir
Haemophilus influenzae can cause invasive and severe infections in both adults and children such as otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. The emerging antibiotic resistance in recent years against ampicillin and several other antibiotics among strains of H. influenzae gives cause for serious concern. Here, we investigate ß-lactamase (BL) activity in clinical isolates of H. influenzae, profile their resistance to antibiotics, and characterize the clonal relationship of the isolates...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290230/cilia-and-ear
#17
Gioia Piatti, Maria Margherita De Santi, Sara Torretta, Lorenzo Pignataro, Daniela Soi, Umberto Ambrosetti
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of otological complications derived from primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in adulthood. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with diagnosed PCD underwent medical history aimed at recording the presence of ear, nose, and throat manifestations (ENT) and any surgical treatments. The ENT objectivity was annotated, and then patients were subjected to audiometric test, tympanometry, registration of otoacoustic emission, and vestibular evaluation...
April 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283791/balloon-eustachian-tuboplasty-in-children
#18
A Leichtle, D Hollfelder, B Wollenberg, K-L Bruchhage
Endonasal ballon dilatation of the Eustachian tube (BET) is a promising treatment for Eustachian tube dysfunction with encouraging results over the last years in adults. In addition, in children, single studies demonstrated promising results, but revealed the necessity for broader and additional studies. Our retrospective analysis presents outcomes with BET in children with chronic obstructive dysfunction of the Eustachian tube, showing resistance to the conventional therapy after adenotomy with paracentesis or grommets (ventilation tubes)...
June 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235797/inhaled-corticosteroids-and-respiratory-infections-in-children-with-asthma-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Cristine Cazeiro, Cristina Silva, Susana Mayer, Vanessa Mariany, Claire Elizabeth Wainwright, Linjie Zhang
CONTEXT: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in adult patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between ICS use and risk of pneumonia and other respiratory infections in children with asthma. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed from inception until May 2015. We also searched clinicaltrials.gov and databases of pharmaceutical manufacturers. STUDY SELECTION: We selected randomized trials that compared ICS with placebo for at least 4 weeks in children with asthma...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229292/laser-eustachian-tuboplasty-for-eustachian-tube-dysfunction-a-case-series-review
#20
REVIEW
Benjamin John Miller, Mustafa Jaafar, Hassan A Elhassan
The authors reviewed the literature regarding the safety and efficacy of Laser Eustachian Tuboplasty (LETP) in the treatment of Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD). Medline via Pubmed, OvidSP and Science Direct were consulted, with a supplementary manual review of citations. English language case series constituted a baseline for inclusion. Primary outcome measures were pre- and post-operative tympanometry, otoscopy findings, subjective symptoms and pure tone audiometry, and findings were stratified into short term (≤6 months) and long term (>6 months-5 years)...
February 22, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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