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Chaitali Joshi, Alessandro Farsi, Stéphane Clemmen, Sven Ramelow, Alexander L Gaeta
Parametric single-photon sources are well suited for large-scale quantum networks due to their potential for photonic integration. Active multiplexing of photons can overcome the intrinsically probabilistic nature of these sources, resulting in near-deterministic operation. However, previous implementations using spatial and temporal multiplexing scale unfavorably due to rapidly increasing switching losses. Here, we break this limitation via frequency multiplexing in which switching losses remain fixed irrespective of the number of multiplexed modes...
February 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Barbara Walther, Daniel Wechsler, Patrick Schlegel, Max Haldimann
The iodine content in milk depends on various factors, including the season, production system, and location of milk production. The aim of this study was 1) to obtain data on the iodine concentration of conventional and organically produced milk and according to seasons; 2) to compare these actual data with previous measurement data; 3) to study the influence of UHT treatment on the iodine content and 4) to estimate the contribution of organic and conventional milk to the consumer's iodine intake. A total of 110 samples of conventional and organic ultra-heat treated (UHT) whole milk were collected in the period between 1 May 2013 and 30 April 2014 from two large-scale companies, processing milk from two regions in Switzerland...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Zhenhua Tang, Shuhai Jia, Fei Wang, Changsheng Bian, Yuyu Chen, Yonglin Wang, Bo Li
Lightweight, stretchable, and wearable strain sensors have recently been widely studied for the development of health monitoring systems, human machine interfaces, and wearable devices. Herein, highly stretchable polymer elastomer-wrapped carbon nanocomposite piezoresistive core-sheath fibers (CSFs) are successfully prepared using a facile and scalable one-step coaxial wet-spinning assembly approach. The carbon nanotube-polymeric composite core of the stretchable fiber is surrounded by an insulating sheath, similar to conventional cables, and shows excellent electrical conductivity with a low percolation threshold (0...
January 31, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Geng Chen, Nati Aharon, Yong-Nan Sun, Zi-Huai Zhang, Wen-Hao Zhang, De-Yong He, Jian-Shun Tang, Xiao-Ye Xu, Yaron Kedem, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
Improving the precision of measurements is a significant scientific challenge. Previous works suggest that in a photon-coupling scenario the quantum fisher information shows a quantum-enhanced scaling of N2, which in theory allows a better-than-classical scaling in practical measurements. In this work, utilizing mixed states with a large uncertainty and a post-selection of an additional pure system, we present a scheme to extract this amount of quantum fisher information and experimentally attain a practical Heisenberg scaling...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Tiefeng Yang, Biyuan Zheng, Zhen Wang, Tao Xu, Chen Pan, Juan Zou, Xuehong Zhang, Zhaoyang Qi, Hongjun Liu, Yexin Feng, Weida Hu, Feng Miao, Litao Sun, Xiangfeng Duan, Anlian Pan
High-quality two-dimensional atomic layered p-n heterostructures are essential for high-performance integrated optoelectronics. The studies to date have been largely limited to exfoliated and restacked flakes, and the controlled growth of such heterostructures remains a significant challenge. Here we report the direct van der Waals epitaxial growth of large-scale WSe2 /SnS2 vertical bilayer p-n junctions on SiO2 /Si substrates, with the lateral sizes reaching up to millimeter scale. Multi-electrode field-effect transistors have been integrated on a single heterostructure bilayer...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
Spencer C Behr, Emma Bahroos, Randall A Hawkins, Lorenzo Nardo, Vahid Ravanfar, Emily V Capbarat, Youngho Seo
PURPOSE: Newer high-performance time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) systems have the capability to preserve diagnostic image quality with low count density, while maintaining a high raw photon detection sensitivity that would allow for a reduction in injected dose or rapid data acquisition. To assess this, we performed quantitative and visual assessments of the PET images acquired using a highly sensitive (23.3 cps/kBq) large field of view (25-cm axial) silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based TOF PET (400-ps timing resolution) integrated with 3 T-MRI in comparison to PET images acquired on non-TOF PET/x-ray computed tomography (CT) systems...
November 30, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Taito Osaka, Takashi Hirano, Yuki Morioka, Yasuhisa Sano, Yuichi Inubushi, Tadashi Togashi, Ichiro Inoue, Kensuke Tono, Aymeric Robert, Kazuto Yamauchi, Jerome B Hastings, Makina Yabashi
Temporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD) between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales...
November 1, 2017: IUCrJ
Byeong Hwa Yun, Shun Xiao, Lihua Yao, Sesha Krishnamachari, Thomas A Rosenquist, Kathleen G Dickman, Arthur P Grollman, Paari Murugan, Christopher J Weight, Robert J Turesky
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are rarely used for screening DNA adducts of carcinogens because the harsh conditions required to reverse the formaldehyde-mediated DNA cross-links can destroy DNA adducts. We recently adapted a commercial silica-based column kit used in genomics to manually isolate DNA under mild conditions from FFPE tissues of rodents and humans and successfully measured DNA adducts of several carcinogens including aristolochic acid I (AA-I), 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Yun et al...
December 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Nathan C Klapoetke, Aljoscha Nern, Martin Y Peek, Edward M Rogers, Patrick Breads, Gerald M Rubin, Michael B Reiser, Gwyneth M Card
Nervous systems combine lower-level sensory signals to detect higher-order stimulus features critical to survival, such as the visual looming motion created by an imminent collision or approaching predator. Looming-sensitive neurons have been identified in diverse animal species. Different large-scale visual features such as looming often share local cues, which means loom-detecting neurons face the challenge of rejecting confounding stimuli. Here we report the discovery of an ultra-selective looming detecting neuron, lobula plate/lobula columnar, type II (LPLC2) in Drosophila, and show how its selectivity is established by radial motion opponency...
November 8, 2017: Nature
Muhammad Shoaib, Xuehong Zhang, Xiaoxia Wang, Hong Zhou, Tao Xu, Xiao Wang, Xuelu Hu, Huawei Liu, Xiaopeng Fan, Weihao Zheng, Tiefeng Yang, Shuzhen Yang, Qinglin Zhang, Xiaoli Zhu, Litao Sun, Anlian Pan
Directional growth of ultralong nanowires (NWs) is significant for practical application of large-scale optoelectronic integration. Here, we demonstrate the controlled growth of in-plane directional perovskite CsPbBr3 NWs, induced by graphoepitaxial effect on annealed M-plane sapphire substrates. The wires have a diameter of several hundred nanometers, with lengths up to several millimeters. Microstructure characterization shows that CsPbBr3 NWs are high-quality single crystals, with smooth surfaces and well-defined cross section...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jianji Yang, Jonathan A Fan
Dielectric metasurfaces are ultra-thin devices that can shape optical wavefronts with extreme control. While an assortment of materials possessing a wide range of dielectric constants have been proposed and implemented, the minimum dielectric contrast required for metasurfaces to achieve high-efficiency performance, for a given device function and feature size constraint, is unclear. In this Article, we examine the impact of dielectric material selection on metasurface efficiency at optical frequencies. As a model system, we design transmissive, single-layer periodic metasurfaces (i...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
Shixiang Wan, Quan Zou
BACKGROUND: Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) plays a key role in biological sequence analyses, especially in phylogenetic tree construction. Extreme increase in next-generation sequencing results in shortage of efficient ultra-large biological sequence alignment approaches for coping with different sequence types. METHODS: Distributed and parallel computing represents a crucial technique for accelerating ultra-large (e.g. files more than 1 GB) sequence analyses...
2017: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
Xixia Li, Gang Ji, Xi Chen, Wei Ding, Lei Sun, Wei Xu, Hua Han, Fei Sun
Large scale, high resolution three dimensional (3D) ultrastructural reconstruction of cells and tissues has become increasingly important to our understanding of complex biological systems. There have been a few partial 3D ultra-structures of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) reported, however 3D reconstruction of a whole nematode has never been achieved. Here, we independently developed a technique called automatic collector of ultrathin sections scanning electron microscopy and using this methodology, generated a 3D reconstruction of an entire C...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
Francesco Gentile, Nienke van Atteveldt, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel
Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory, and bimodal) of its neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sylvain Prévost, Michael Gradzielski, Thomas Zemb
In this review, we discuss the conditions for forming microemulsions, systems which are thermodynamically stable mixtures of oil and water made stable by the presence of an interfacial film containing surface active molecules. There are several types of microemulsions, depending largely on the stiffness of the amphiphilic monolayer that separates the oily and the aqueous micro-domain. We first discuss and compare the phase behaviour of these different types, starting from the classical microemulsion made from a flexible surfactant film but then also moving on to less classical situations: this occurs when the interfacial film is stiff or when microemulsions are formed in the absence of a classical surfactant...
July 18, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Bin-Wei Zhang, Yun-Dan Liu, Yun-Xiao Wang, Lei Zhang, Ming-Zhe Chen, Wei-Hong Lai, Shu-Lei Chou, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi-Xue Dou
Room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries are competitive candidates for large-scale stationary energy storage because of their low price and high theoretical capacity. Herein, pure S nanosheet cathodes can be grown in situ on three-dimensional Cu foam substrate with the condensation between binary polymeric binders, serving as a model system to investigate the formation and electrochemical mechanism of unique S nanosheets on the Cu current collectors. On the basis of the confirmed conversion reactions to Na2S, The constructed cathode exhibits ultrahigh initial discharge/charge capacity of 3189/1403 mAh g(-1)...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gabriel B Gugiu
Lipidomics refers to the large-scale study of lipids in biological systems (Wenk, Nat Rev Drug Discov 4(7):594-610, 2005; Rolim et al., Gene 554(2):131-139, 2015). From a mass spectrometric point of view, by lipidomics we understand targeted or untargeted mass spectrometric analysis of lipids using either liquid chromatography (LC) (Castro-Perez et al., J Proteome Res 9(5):2377-2389, 2010) or shotgun (Han and Gross, Mass Spectrom Rev 24(3):367-412, 2005) approaches coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. This chapter describes the former methodology, which is becoming rapidly the preferred method for lipid identification owing to similarities with established omics workflows, such as proteomics (Washburn et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marina N Vassylyeva, Sergiy Klyuyev, Alexey D Vassylyev, Hunter Wesson, Zhuo Zhang, Matthew B Renfrow, Hengbin Wang, N Patrick Higgins, Louise T Chow, Dmitry G Vassylyev
Protein purification is an essential primary step in numerous biological studies. It is particularly significant for the rapidly emerging high-throughput fields, such as proteomics, interactomics, and drug discovery. Moreover, purifications for structural and industrial applications should meet the requirement of high yield, high purity, and high activity (HHH). It is, therefore, highly desirable to have an efficient purification system with a potential to meet the HHH benchmark in a single step. Here, we report a chromatographic technology based on the ultra-high-affinity (Kd ∼ 10(-14)-10(-17) M) complex between the Colicin E7 DNase (CE7) and its inhibitor, Immunity protein 7 (Im7)...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Federico De Martino, Essa Yacoub, Valentin Kemper, Michelle Moerel, Kamil Uludag, Peter De Weerd, Kamil Ugurbil, Rainer Goebel, Elia Formisano
The ability to measure functional brain responses non-invasively with ultra high field MRI (7 T and above) represents a unique opportunity in advancing our understanding of the human brain. Compared to lower fields (3 T and below), ultra high field MRI has an increased sensitivity, which can be used to acquire functional images with greater spatial resolution, and greater specificity of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to the underlying neuronal responses. Together, increased resolution and specificity enable investigating brain functions at a submillimeter scale, which so far could only be done with invasive techniques...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
Avrum Spira, Matthew B Yurgelun, Ludmil Alexandrov, Anjana Rao, Rafael Bejar, Kornelia Polyak, Marios Giannakis, Ali Shilatifard, Olivera J Finn, Madhav Dhodapkar, Neil E Kay, Esteban Braggio, Eduardo Vilar, Sarah A Mazzilli, Timothy R Rebbeck, Judy E Garber, Victor E Velculescu, Mary L Disis, Douglas C Wallace, Scott M Lippman
Cancer development is a complex process driven by inherited and acquired molecular and cellular alterations. Prevention is the holy grail of cancer elimination, but making this a reality will take a fundamental rethinking and deep understanding of premalignant biology. In this Perspective, we propose a national concerted effort to create a Precancer Atlas (PCA), integrating multi-omics and immunity - basic tenets of the neoplastic process. The biology of neoplasia caused by germline mutations has led to paradigm-changing precision prevention efforts, including: tumor testing for mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in Lynch syndrome establishing a new paradigm, combinatorial chemoprevention efficacy in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), signal of benefit from imaging-based early detection research in high-germline risk for pancreatic neoplasia, elucidating early ontogeny in BRCA1 -mutation carriers leading to an international breast cancer prevention trial, and insights into the intricate germline-somatic-immunity interaction landscape...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Research
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