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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123674/characterization-of-temporal-coherence-of-hard-x-ray-free-electron-laser-pulses-with-single-shot-interferograms
#1
Taito Osaka, Takashi Hirano, Yuki Morioka, Yasuhisa Sano, Yuichi Inubushi, Tadashi Togashi, Ichiro Inoue, Kensuke Tono, Aymeric Robert, Kazuto Yamauchi, Jerome B Hastings, Makina Yabashi
Temporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD) between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales...
November 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120619/a-rapid-throughput-method-to-extract-dna-from-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-tissues-for-biomonitoring-carcinogenic-dna-adducts-in-humans
#2
Byeong Hwa Yun, Shun Xiao, Lihua Yao, Sesha Krishnamachari, Thomas A Rosenquist, Kathleen G Dickman, Arthur P Grollman, Paari Murugan, Christopher J Weight, Robert J Turesky
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are rarely used for screening DNA adducts of carcinogens because the harsh conditions required to reverse the formaldehyde-mediated DNA cross-links can destroy DNA adducts. We recently adapted a commercial silica-based column kit used in genomics to manually isolate DNA under mild conditions from FFPE tissues of rodents and humans and successfully measured DNA adducts of several carcinogens including aristolochic acid I (AA-I), 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Yun et al...
November 9, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120418/ultra-selective-looming-detection-from-radial-motion-opponency
#3
Nathan C Klapoetke, Aljoscha Nern, Martin Y Peek, Edward M Rogers, Patrick Breads, Gerald M Rubin, Michael B Reiser, Gwyneth M Card
Nervous systems combine lower-level sensory signals to detect higher-order stimulus features critical to survival, such as the visual looming motion created by an imminent collision or approaching predator. Looming-sensitive neurons have been identified in diverse animal species. Different large-scale visual features such as looming often share local cues, which means loom-detecting neurons face the challenge of rejecting confounding stimuli. Here we report the discovery of an ultra-selective looming detecting neuron, lobula plate/lobula columnar, type II (LPLC2) in Drosophila, and show how its selectivity is established by radial motion opponency...
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058888/directional-growth-of-ultralong-cspbbr3-perovskite-nanowires-for-high-performance-photodetectors
#4
Muhammad Shoaib, Xuehong Zhang, Xiaoxia Wang, Hong Zhou, Tao Xu, Xiao Wang, Xuelu Hu, Huawei Liu, Xiaopeng Fan, Weihao Zheng, Tiefeng Yang, Shuzhen Yang, Qinglin Zhang, Xiaoli Zhu, Litao Sun, Anlian Pan
Directional growth of ultralong nanowires (NWs) is significant for practical application of large-scale optoelectronic integration. Here, we demonstrate the controlled growth of in-plane directional perovskite CsPbBr3 NWs, induced by graphoepitaxial effect on annealed M-plane sapphire substrates. The wires have a diameter of several hundred nanometers, with lengths up to several millimeters. Microstructure characterization shows that CsPbBr3 NWs are high-quality single crystals, with smooth surfaces and well-defined cross section...
November 8, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041339/analysis-of-material-selection-on-dielectric-metasurface-performance
#5
Jianji Yang, Jonathan A Fan
Dielectric metasurfaces are ultra-thin devices that can shape optical wavefronts with extreme control. While an assortment of materials possessing a wide range of dielectric constants have been proposed and implemented, the minimum dielectric contrast required for metasurfaces to achieve high-efficiency performance, for a given device function and feature size constraint, is unclear. In this Article, we examine the impact of dielectric material selection on metasurface efficiency at optical frequencies. As a model system, we design transmissive, single-layer periodic metasurfaces (i...
October 2, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026435/halign-ii-efficient-ultra-large-multiple-sequence-alignment-and-phylogenetic-tree-reconstruction-with-distributed-and-parallel-computing
#6
Shixiang Wan, Quan Zou
BACKGROUND: Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) plays a key role in biological sequence analyses, especially in phylogenetic tree construction. Extreme increase in next-generation sequencing results in shortage of efficient ultra-large biological sequence alignment approaches for coping with different sequence types. METHODS: Distributed and parallel computing represents a crucial technique for accelerating ultra-large (e.g. files more than 1 GB) sequence analyses...
2017: Algorithms for Molecular Biology: AMB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978429/large-scale-three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-an-entire-caenorhabditis-elegans-larva-using-autocuts-sem
#7
Xixia Li, Gang Ji, Xi Chen, Wei Ding, Lei Sun, Wei Xu, Hua Han, Fei Sun
Large scale, high resolution three dimensional (3D) ultrastructural reconstruction of cells and tissues has become increasingly important to our understanding of complex biological systems. There have been a few partial 3D ultra-structures of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) reported, however 3D reconstruction of a whole nematode has never been achieved. Here, we independently developed a technique called automatic collector of ultrathin sections scanning electron microscopy and using this methodology, generated a 3D reconstruction of an entire C...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912157/approaching-the-ground-truth-revealing-the-functional-organization-of-human-multisensory-stc-using-ultra-high-field-fmri
#8
Francesco Gentile, Nienke van Atteveldt, Federico De Martino, Rainer Goebel
Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory, and bimodal) of its neurons...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780230/self-assembly-phase-behaviour-and-structural-behaviour-as-observed-by-scattering-for-classical-and-non-classical-microemulsions
#9
REVIEW
Sylvain Prévost, Michael Gradzielski, Thomas Zemb
In this review, we discuss the conditions for forming microemulsions, systems which are thermodynamically stable mixtures of oil and water made stable by the presence of an interfacial film containing surface active molecules. There are several types of microemulsions, depending largely on the stiffness of the amphiphilic monolayer that separates the oily and the aqueous micro-domain. We first discuss and compare the phase behaviour of these different types, starting from the classical microemulsion made from a flexible surfactant film but then also moving on to less classical situations: this occurs when the interfacial film is stiff or when microemulsions are formed in the absence of a classical surfactant...
July 18, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699731/in-situ-grown-s-nanosheets-on-cu-foam-an-ultrahigh-electroactive-cathode-for-room-temperature-na-s-batteries
#10
Bin-Wei Zhang, Yun-Dan Liu, Yun-Xiao Wang, Lei Zhang, Ming-Zhe Chen, Wei-Hong Lai, Shu-Lei Chou, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi-Xue Dou
Room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries are competitive candidates for large-scale stationary energy storage because of their low price and high theoretical capacity. Herein, pure S nanosheet cathodes can be grown in situ on three-dimensional Cu foam substrate with the condensation between binary polymeric binders, serving as a model system to investigate the formation and electrochemical mechanism of unique S nanosheets on the Cu current collectors. On the basis of the confirmed conversion reactions to Na2S, The constructed cathode exhibits ultrahigh initial discharge/charge capacity of 3189/1403 mAh g(-1)...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660575/lipid-identification-by-untargeted-tandem-mass-spectrometry-coupled-with-ultra-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography
#11
Gabriel B Gugiu
Lipidomics refers to the large-scale study of lipids in biological systems (Wenk, Nat Rev Drug Discov 4(7):594-610, 2005; Rolim et al., Gene 554(2):131-139, 2015). From a mass spectrometric point of view, by lipidomics we understand targeted or untargeted mass spectrometric analysis of lipids using either liquid chromatography (LC) (Castro-Perez et al., J Proteome Res 9(5):2377-2389, 2010) or shotgun (Han and Gross, Mass Spectrom Rev 24(3):367-412, 2005) approaches coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. This chapter describes the former methodology, which is becoming rapidly the preferred method for lipid identification owing to similarities with established omics workflows, such as proteomics (Washburn et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607052/efficient-ultra-high-affinity-chromatography-in-a-one-step-purification-of-complex-proteins
#12
Marina N Vassylyeva, Sergiy Klyuyev, Alexey D Vassylyev, Hunter Wesson, Zhuo Zhang, Matthew B Renfrow, Hengbin Wang, N Patrick Higgins, Louise T Chow, Dmitry G Vassylyev
Protein purification is an essential primary step in numerous biological studies. It is particularly significant for the rapidly emerging high-throughput fields, such as proteomics, interactomics, and drug discovery. Moreover, purifications for structural and industrial applications should meet the requirement of high yield, high purity, and high activity (HHH). It is, therefore, highly desirable to have an efficient purification system with a potential to meet the HHH benchmark in a single step. Here, we report a chromatographic technology based on the ultra-high-affinity (Kd ∼ 10(-14)-10(-17) M) complex between the Colicin E7 DNase (CE7) and its inhibitor, Immunity protein 7 (Im7)...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396293/the-impact-of-ultra-high-field-mri-on-cognitive-and-computational-neuroimaging
#13
Federico De Martino, Essa Yacoub, Valentin Kemper, Michelle Moerel, Kamil Uludag, Peter De Weerd, Kamil Ugurbil, Rainer Goebel, Elia Formisano
The ability to measure functional brain responses non-invasively with ultra high field MRI (7 T and above) represents a unique opportunity in advancing our understanding of the human brain. Compared to lower fields (3 T and below), ultra high field MRI has an increased sensitivity, which can be used to acquire functional images with greater spatial resolution, and greater specificity of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to the underlying neuronal responses. Together, increased resolution and specificity enable investigating brain functions at a submillimeter scale, which so far could only be done with invasive techniques...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373404/precancer-atlas-to-drive-precision-prevention-trials
#14
Avrum Spira, Matthew B Yurgelun, Ludmil Alexandrov, Anjana Rao, Rafael Bejar, Kornelia Polyak, Marios Giannakis, Ali Shilatifard, Olivera J Finn, Madhav Dhodapkar, Neil E Kay, Esteban Braggio, Eduardo Vilar, Sarah A Mazzilli, Timothy R Rebbeck, Judy E Garber, Victor E Velculescu, Mary L Disis, Douglas C Wallace, Scott M Lippman
Cancer development is a complex process driven by inherited and acquired molecular and cellular alterations. Prevention is the holy grail of cancer elimination, but making this a reality will take a fundamental rethinking and deep understanding of premalignant biology. In this Perspective, we propose a national concerted effort to create a Precancer Atlas (PCA), integrating multi-omics and immunity - basic tenets of the neoplastic process. The biology of neoplasia caused by germline mutations has led to paradigm-changing precision prevention efforts, including: tumor testing for mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in Lynch syndrome establishing a new paradigm, combinatorial chemoprevention efficacy in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), signal of benefit from imaging-based early detection research in high-germline risk for pancreatic neoplasia, elucidating early ontogeny in BRCA1-mutation carriers leading to an international breast cancer prevention trial, and insights into the intricate germline-somatic-immunity interaction landscape...
April 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371584/ultrasmall-ferrite-nanoparticles-synthesized-via-dynamic-simultaneous-thermal-decomposition-for-high-performance-and-multifunctional-t1-magnetic-resonance-imaging-contrast-agent
#15
Huan Zhang, Li Li, Xiao Li Liu, Ju Jiao, Cheng-Teng Ng, Jia Bao Yi, Yan E Luo, Boon-Huat Bay, Ling Yun Zhao, Ming Li Peng, Ning Gu, Hai Ming Fan
Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse ultrasmall metal ferrite nanoparticles as well as understanding the correlations between chemical composition and MR signal enhancement is critical for developing next-generation, ultrasensitive T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nanoprobes. Herein, taking ultrasmall MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (UMFNPs) as a model system, we report a general dynamic simultaneous thermal decomposition (DSTD) strategy for controllable synthesis of monodisperse ultrasmall metal ferrite nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 4 nm...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282850/fully-printed-flexible-single-chip-rfid-tag-with-light-detection-capabilities
#16
Aniello Falco, Jose F Salmerón, Florin C Loghin, Paolo Lugli, Almudena Rivadeneyra
A printed passive radiofrequency identification (RFID) tag in the ultra-high frequency band for light and temperature monitoring is presented. The whole tag has been manufactured by printing techniques on a flexible substrate. Antenna and interconnects are realized with silver nanoparticles via inkjet printing. A sprayed photodetector performs the light monitoring, whereas temperature measurement comes from an in-built sensor in the silicon RFID chip. One of the advantages of this system is the digital read-out and transmission of the sensors information on the RFID tag that ensures reliability...
March 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269558/a-110-nw-in-channel-sigma-delta-converter-for-large-scale-neural-recording-implants
#17
M Rezaei, E Maghsoudloo, M Sawan, B Gosselin
Advancement in wireless and microsystems technology have ushered in new devices that can directly interface with the central nervous system for stimulating and/or monitoring neural circuitry. In this paper, we present an ultra low-power sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) intended for utilization into large-scale multi-channel neural recording implants. This proposed design, which provides a resolution of 9 bits using a one-bit oversampled ADC, presents several desirable features that allow for an in-channel ADC scheme, where one sigma-delta converter is provided for each channel, enabling development of scalable systems that can interface with different types of high-density neural microprobes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227813/a-110-nw-in-channel-sigma-delta-converter-for-large-scale-neural-recording-implants
#18
M Rezaei, E Maghsoudloo, M Sawan, B Gosselin, M Rezaei, E Maghsoudloo, M Sawan, B Gosselin, M Rezaei, E Maghsoudloo, M Sawan, B Gosselin
Advancement in wireless and microsystems technology have ushered in new devices that can directly interface with the central nervous system for stimulating and/or monitoring neural circuitry. In this paper, we present an ultra low-power sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) intended for utilization into large-scale multi-channel neural recording implants. This proposed design, which provides a resolution of 9 bits using a one-bit oversampled ADC, presents several desirable features that allow for an in-channel ADC scheme, where one sigma-delta converter is provided for each channel, enabling development of scalable systems that can interface with different types of high-density neural microprobes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168253/electrochemical-micro-nano-machining-principles-and-practices
#19
REVIEW
Dongping Zhan, Lianhuan Han, Jie Zhang, Quanfeng He, Zhao-Wu Tian, Zhong-Qun Tian
Micro/nano-machining (MNM) is becoming the cutting-edge of high-tech manufacturing because of the increasing industrial demand for supersmooth surfaces and functional three-dimensional micro/nano-structures (3D-MNS) in ultra-large scale integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, miniaturized total analysis systems, precision optics, and so on. Taking advantage of no tool wear, no surface stress, environmental friendliness, simple operation, and low cost, electrochemical micro/nano-machining (EC-MNM) has an irreplaceable role in MNM...
February 7, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157956/tdm-interrogation-of-intensity-modulated-usfbgs-network-based-on-multichannel-lasers
#20
Jalal Rohollahnejad, Li Xia, Rui Cheng, Yanli Ran, Udaya Rahubadde, Jiaao Zhou, Lin Zhu
We report a large-scale multi-channel fiber sensing network, where ultra-short FBGs (USFBGs) instead of conventional narrow-band ultra-weak FBGs are used as the sensors. In the time division multiplexing scheme of the network, each grating response is resolved as three adjacent discrete peaks. The central wavelengths of USFBGs are tracked with the differential detection, which is achieved by calculating the peak-to-peak ratio of two maximum peaks. Compared with previous large-scale hybrid multiplexing sensing networks (e...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
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