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Ultra large scale system

Lothar Wondraczek, Esa Tyystjärvi, Jorge Méndez-Ramos, Frank A Müller, Qinyuan Zhang
Solar energy harvesting is largely limited by the spectral sensitivity of the employed energy conversion system, where usually large parts of the solar spectrum do not contribute to the harvesting scheme, and where, of the contributing fraction, the full potential of each photon is not efficiently used in the generation of electrical or chemical energy. Extrinsic sensitization through photoluminescent spectral conversion has been proposed as a route to at least partially overcome this problem. Here, we discuss this approach in the emerging context of photochemical energy harvesting and storage through natural or artificial photosynthesis...
December 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Maja Pučić-Baković
As biological and clinical relevance of glycosylation is becoming more apparent, interest in large scale studies of the glycome is growing. Glycans attached to immunoglobulin G (IgG) were shown to be essential for its function and IgG glycosylation was shown to change with various processes, making IgG one of the most studied glycoproteins. Many approaches including liquid chromatography, capillary gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were developed to study IgG glycosylation. Generation of high-quality glycomics data in a high-throughput fashion requires reproducible and robust sample preparation and accurate and reliable quantitative analysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Soyoung Kwon, Masataka Watanabe, Elvira Fischer, Andreas Bartels
Attention allows our brain to focus its limited resources on a given task. It does so by selective modulation of neural activity and of functional connectivity (FC) across brain-wide networks. While there is extensive literature on activity changes, surprisingly few studies examined brain-wide FC modulations that can be cleanly attributed to attention compared to matched visual processing. In contrast to prior approaches, we used an ultra-long trial design that avoided transients from trial onsets, included slow fluctuations (<0...
October 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Laura D Lewis, Kawin Setsompop, Bruce R Rosen, Jonathan R Polimeni
Oscillatory neural dynamics play an important role in the coordination of large-scale brain networks. High-level cognitive processes depend on dynamics evolving over hundreds of milliseconds, so measuring neural activity in this frequency range is important for cognitive neuroscience. However, current noninvasive neuroimaging methods are not able to precisely localize oscillatory neural activity above 0.2 Hz. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have limited spatial resolution, whereas fMRI has limited temporal resolution because it measures vascular responses rather than directly recording neural activity...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C N Berger, M Dirschka, A Vijayaraghavan
The fabrication of arrays of ultra-thin conductive membranes remains a major challenge in realising large-scale micro/nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), since processing-stress and stiction issues limit the precision and yield in assembling suspended structures. We present the fabrication and mechanical characterisation of a suspended graphene-polymer heterostructure membrane that aims to tackle the prevailing challenge of constructing high yield membranes with minimal compromise to the mechanical properties of graphene...
October 11, 2016: Nanoscale
C Gaida, M Gebhardt, F Stutzki, C Jauregui, J Limpert, A Tünnermann
Thulium-doped fibers with ultra large mode-field areas offer new opportunities for the power scaling of mid-IR ultrashort-pulse laser sources. Here, we present a laser system delivering a pulse-peak power of 2 GW and a nearly transform-limited pulse duration of 200 fs in combination with 28.7 W of average power. This performance level has been achieved by optimizing the pulse shape, reducing the overlap with atmospheric absorption lines, and incorporating a climate chamber to reduce the humidity of the atmospheric environment...
September 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Xin Liang, Mohammad Rejaul Kaiser, Konstantin Konstantinov, Richard Tandiono, Zhaoxiang Wang, Chunhua Chen, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi-Xue Dou, Jiazhao Wang
Ternary composites with porous sulfur/dual-carbon architectures have been synthesized by a single-step spray-pyrolysis/sublimation technique, which is an industry-oriented method that features continuous fabrication of products with highly developed porous structures without the need for any further treatments. A double suspension of commercial sulfur and carbon scaffolding particles was dispersed in ethanol/water solution and sprayed at 180 °C using a spray pyrolysis system. In the resultant composites, the sulfur particles were subjected to an ultrashort sublimation process, leading to the development of a highly porous surface, and were meanwhile coated with amorphous carbon, obtained through the pyrolysis of the ethanol, which acts as an adhesive interface to bind together the porous sulfur with the scaffolding carbon particles, to form a ternary composite architecture...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kang O Kim, Sunjung Kim
Cu-Ag alloy interconnect is promising for ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) microelectronic system of which device dimension keeps shrinking. In this study, seedless electrodeposition of Cu-Ag alloy directly on W diffusion barrier as interconnect technology is presented in respect of nano-nucleation control. Chemical equilibrium state of electrolyte was fundamentally investigated according to the pH of electrolyte because direct nano-nucleation of Cu-Ag alloy on W surface is challenging. Chelation behavior of Cu2+ and Ag+ ions with citrate (Cit) and ammonia ligands was dependent on the pH of electrolyte...
May 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Ebru Cihan, Semran İpek, Engin Durgun, Mehmet Z Baykara
Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (∼4,000-130,000 nm(2)) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite...
2016: Nature Communications
Xia Li, Andrew Lushington, Qian Sun, Wei Xiao, Jian Liu, Biqiong Wang, Yifan Ye, Kaiqi Nie, Yongfeng Hu, Qunfeng Xiao, Ruying Li, Jinghua Guo, Tsun-Kong Sham, Xueliang Sun
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising high energy storage candidate in electric vehicles. However, the commonly employed ether based electrolyte does not enable to realize safe high-temperature Li-S batteries due to the low boiling and flash temperatures. Traditional carbonate based electrolyte obtains safe physical properties at high temperature but does not complete reversible electrochemical reaction for most Li-S batteries. Here we realize safe high temperature Li-S batteries on universal carbon-sulfur electrodes by molecular layer deposited (MLD) alucone coating...
June 8, 2016: Nano Letters
M Baillergeau, K Maussang, T Nirrengarten, J Palomo, L H Li, E H Linfield, A G Davies, S Dhillon, J Tignon, J Mangeney
Diffraction is the ultimate limit at which details of objects can be resolved in conventional optical spectroscopy and imaging systems. In the THz spectral range, spectroscopy systems increasingly rely on ultra-broadband radiation (extending over more 5 octaves) making a great challenge to reach resolution limited by diffraction. Here, we propose an original easy-to-implement wavefront manipulation concept to achieve ultrabroadband THz spectroscopy system with diffraction-limited resolution. Applying this concept to a large-area photoconductive emitter, we demonstrate diffraction-limited ultra-broadband spectroscopy system up to 14...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kavi Ratanabanangkoon, Kae Yi Tan, Sukanya Eursakun, Choo Hock Tan, Pavinee Simsiriwong, Teeraporn Pamornsakda, Witthawat Wiriyarat, Chaiya Klinpayom, Nget Hong Tan
Snakebite envenomation is a serious medical problem in many tropical developing countries and was considered by WHO as a neglected tropical disease. Antivenom (AV), the rational and most effective treatment modality, is either unaffordable and/or unavailable in many affected countries. Moreover, each AV is specific to only one (monospecific) or a few (polyspecific) snake venoms. This demands that each country to prepare AV against its local snake venoms, which is often not feasible. Preparation of a 'pan-specific' AV against many snakes over a wide geographical area in some countries/regions has not been possible...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Samir Mekid, Salem Bashmal, Hassen M Ouakad
BACKGROUND: Nanomanipulation techniques have gone through several phases to be used in scientific explorations not only to reveal more characteristics of nano, micro and mesoscopic phenomena but also to build functional nano-devices useful for specific applications. The nano-manipulator becomes a key instrument for technology bridging between sub-nano and mesoscale. The recent patents have exhibited integration of various functions in the nano-devices requiring sub-nanometer precision and highly stable manipulator with substantial pulling/pushing forces...
2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Antonino Leo, Antonino Naro, Antonio Cannavò, Laura Rosa Pisani, Rocco Bruno, Carlo Salviera, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Although patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC), including unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and minimally conscious state (MCS), show a limited repertoire of awareness signs, owing to a large-scale cortico-thalamo-cortical functional disconnectivity, an activation of some cortical areas in response to relevant stimuli has been described by means of electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging approaches. In addition, cognitive processes associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses elicited by nociceptive stimuli have been identified in some DOC patients...
August 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hui Wang, Wei Deng, Liming Huang, Xiujuan Zhang, Jiansheng Jie
Owing to extraordinary properties, small-molecule organic micro/nanocrystals are identified to be prospective system to construct new-generation organic electronic and optoelectronic devices. Alignment and patterning of organic micro/nanocrystals at desired locations are prerequisite for their device applications in practice. Though various methods have been developed to control their directional growth and alignment, high-throughput precise positioning and patterning of the organic micro/nanocrystals at desired locations remains a challenge...
March 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
H Ando, K Takizawa, T Yoshida, K Matsushita, M Hirata, T Suzuki
Simultaneous recordings of neural activity at large scale, in the long term and under bio-safety conditions, can provide essential data. These data can be used to advance the technology for brain-machine interfaces in clinical applications, and to understand brain function. For this purpose, we present a new multichannel neural recording system that can record up to 4096-channel (ch) electrocorticogram data by multiple connections of customized application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The ASIC includes 64-ch low-noise amplifiers, analog time-division multiplexers, and 12-bit successive approximation register ADCs...
February 26, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Amelia Lavinia Ricchiuti, Salvador Sales
A simple scheme for interrogating a 5 m long photonics device and its potential applications to quasi-distributed fiber sensing is proposed. The sensor consists of an array of 500 identical, very weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The gratings are 9 mm long and have been serially written in cascade along a single optical fiber. The measurement system is based on a combination of optical time domain reflectometry and frequency scanning of the interrogating pulse. The time-frequency analysis is performed by launching an optical pulse into the sensor and retrieving and analyzing the back-reflected signal...
February 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Urs Gysin, Thilo Glatzel, Thomas Schmölzer, Adolf Schöner, Sergey Reshanov, Holger Bartolf, Ernst Meyer
BACKGROUND: The resolution in electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), a descendant of atomic force microscopy (AFM), has reached nanometre dimensions, necessary to investigate integrated circuits in modern electronic devices. However, the characterization of conducting or semiconducting power devices with EFM methods requires an accurate and reliable technique from the nanometre up to the micrometre scale. For high force sensitivity it is indispensable to operate the microscope under high to ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions to suppress viscous damping of the sensor...
2015: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Fabrizio Torricelli, Luigi Colalongo, Daniele Raiteri, Zsolt Miklós Kovács-Vajna, Eugenio Cantatore
Emerging large-area technologies based on organic transistors are enabling the fabrication of low-cost flexible circuits, smart sensors and biomedical devices. High-gain transistors are essential for the development of large-scale circuit integration, high-sensitivity sensors and signal amplification in sensing systems. Unfortunately, organic field-effect transistors show limited gain, usually of the order of tens, because of the large contact resistance and channel-length modulation. Here we show a new organic field-effect transistor architecture with a gain larger than 700...
2016: Nature Communications
Yongqiang Li, Cheng Gao, Wenpu Dong, Jiaolong Zeng, Zengxiu Zhao, Jianmin Yuan
Both coherent pumping and energy relaxation play important roles in understanding physical processes of ultra-intense coherent light-matter interactions. Here, using a large-scale quantum master equation approach, we describe dynamical processes of practical open quantum systems driven by both coherent and stochastic interactions. As examples, two typical cases of light-matter interactions are studied. First, we investigate coherent dynamics of inner-shell electrons of a neon gas irradiated by a high-intensity X-ray laser along with vast number of decaying channels...
2016: Scientific Reports
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