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Hiroshi Maekawa, Kousuke Negishi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polymyxin-B (PMX) treatment has been reported to decrease mortality in patients with septic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether extended sessions of PMX (Ext-PMX) immobilized fiber column hemoperfusion ameliorate clinical outcomes in patients complicated with septic shock and AKI without surgical control. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with nonsurgical septic shock and AKI who received PMX were included...
April 19, 2018: Blood Purification
Xiaobo Zhong, Hua Xiang, Tiedong Wang, Ling Zhong, Di Ming, Linyan Nie, Fengjiao Cao, Bangbang Li, Junjie Cao, Dan Mu, Ke Ruan, Lin Wang, Dacheng Wang
The antibiotic resistance (ARE) subfamily of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) proteins confers resistance to a variety of clinically important ribosome-targeting antibiotics and plays an important role in infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. However, inhibitors of ARE proteins have rarely been reported. Here, OptrA, a new member of the ARE proteins, was used to study inhibitors of these types of proteins. We first confirmed that destroying the catalytic activity of OptrA could restore the sensitivity of host cells to antibiotics...
April 19, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Claudia Strugnell, Liliana Orellana, Joshua Hayward, Lynne Millar, Boyd Swinburn, Steven Allender
Background: Tracking population trends in childhood obesity and identifying target areas for prevention requires accurate prevalence data. This study quantified the magnitude of non-participation bias for mean Body Mass Index-z scores and overweight/obesity prevalence associated with low (opt-in) compared to high (opt-out) participation consent methodologies. Methods: Data arose from all Local Government Areas (LGAs) participating in the Healthy Together Victoria Childhood Obesity Study, Australia. Primary schools were randomly selected in 2013 and 2014 and all Grades 4 and 6 students (aged approx...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Paul A Lombardo
Policy Points: While most scholarship regarding the US Public Health Service's STD experiments in Guatemala during the 1940s has focused on the intentional exposure experiments, secondary research was also conducted on biospecimens collected from these subjects. These biospecimen experiments continued after the Guatemala grant ended, and the specimens were used in conjunction with those from the Tuskegee syphilis experiments for ongoing research. We argue there should be a public accounting of whether there are still biospecimens from the Guatemala and Tuskegee experiments held in US government biorepositories today...
April 13, 2018: Milbank Quarterly
Penny C Gardner, Benoît Goossens, Jocelyn Goon Ee Wern, Petra Kretzschmar, Torsten Bohm, Ian P Vaughan
Identifying the consequences of tropical forest degradation is essential to mitigate its effects upon forest fauna. Large forest-dwelling mammals are often highly sensitive to environmental perturbation through processes such as fragmentation, simplification of habitat structure, and abiotic changes including increased temperatures where the canopy is cleared. Whilst previous work has focused upon species richness and rarity in logged forest, few look at spatial and temporal behavioural responses to forest degradation...
2018: PloS One
Austin Williams, Harrell Chesson
We examined changes in federal STD funding allocations to areas with high racial/ethnic disparities in STDs following the implementation of a funding formula in 2014. The funding formula increased prevention funding allocations to areas with high relative racial/ethnic disparities. Results were mixed for areas with high absolute disparities.
April 5, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Robyn A Jackowich, Leah Pink, Allan Gordon, Évéline Poirier, Caroline F Pukall
BACKGROUND: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is an understudied condition characterized by unwanted physiologic genital arousal in the absence of subjective sexual arousal. Markos and Dinsmore (Int J STD AIDS 2013;24:852-858) theorized that PGAD shares a number of similarities with vulvodynia (unexplained chronic vulvar pain [CVP]), including symptom characteristics and comorbidities. AIM: To compare medical histories, symptom characteristics, pain characteristics, and daily functioning among women with persistent genital pain (PGA) (n = 42), painful PGA (n = 37), and CVP (n = 42) symptoms...
April 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Fabrizio Bert, Maria Rosaria Gualano, Paolo Biancone, Valerio Brescia, Elisa Camussi, Maria Martorana, Silvana Secinaro, Roberta Siliquini
INTRODUCTION: Over 2 million people in high-income countries live with HIV. Early diagnosis and treatment present benefits for infected subjects and reduce secondary transmissions. Cost-effectiveness analyses are important to effectively inform policy makers and consequently implement the most cost-effective programmes. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review regarding the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in high-income countries. METHODS: We followed PRISMA statements and included all papers evaluating the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in the general population or in specific subgroups...
March 23, 2018: Health Policy
Jo A Valentine, Gail A Bolan
It is estimated that approximately 20 million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year in the United States. The federally-funded STD prevention program implemented by CDC is primarily focused on the prevention and control of the three most common bacterial STIs: syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. A range of factors facilitate the transmission and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis. In 1999 CDC launched the National Campaign to Eliminate Syphilis from the United States...
March 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Xiaoming Jia, Einar Heiberg, Maria Sejersten Ripa, Henrik Engblom, Sigrun Halvorsen, Håkan Arheden, Dan Atar, Peter Clemmensen, Yochai Birnbaum
OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine the correlation between ST-segment changes in leads V4-V6 and the extent of myocardial injury by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with inferior ST elevation (STE) myocardial infarction (iSTEMI). DESIGN: Admission electrocardiogram and CMR data from the MITOCARE trial were used. Differences in mean myocardium at risk, infarct size, ejection fraction and myocardial segment involvement by CMR were compared in patients with first iSTEMI with STE, ST depression (STD) or no ST changes (NST) in V4-V6...
March 29, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Nicole F Kahn, Carolyn T Halpern
The goal of this study was to examine, in a nationally representative sample, relationships between various sexual initiation patterns, subsequent sexual partnerships, and related health outcomes from adolescence through early adulthood. Data were from a subset of 6587 respondents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Bivariate analyses and adjusted logistic and ordinary least squares regression models were used to determine associations between membership in three sexual initiation classes, lifetime sexual partner counts, and multiple health outcomes, including lifetime sexually transmitted infection or disease (STI/STD) diagnosis, lifetime unintended pregnancy, and romantic relationship quality...
March 28, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Russell Z Szmulewitz, Cody J Peer, Abiola Ibraheem, Elia Martinez, Mark F Kozloff, Bradley Carthon, R Donald Harvey, Paul Fishkin, Wei Peng Yong, Edmund Chiong, Chadi Nabhan, Theodore Karrison, William D Figg, Walter M Stadler, Mark J Ratain
Purpose Abiraterone acetate (AA) is a standard of care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Despite a large food effect, AA was administered under fasting conditions in its pivotal trials. We sought to test the hypothesis that low-dose AA (LOW; 250 mg with a low-fat meal) would have comparable activity to standard AA (STD; 1,000 mg fasting) in patients with CRPC. Patients and Methods Patients (n = 72) with progressive CRPC from seven institutions in the United States and Singapore were randomly assigned to STD or LOW...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Alec Tributino, Madeline C Montgomery, Thomas Bertrand, Theodore Marak, Alexi Almonte, Jacob van den Berg, Kristen St John, Carol Browning, Martha M Medina, Ashley Morse, Philip A Chan
BACKGROUND: Partner notification services (PNS) are highly effective in reducing transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We assessed outcomes of PNS before and after integration of an on-site disease intervention specialist (DIS) at a publicly-funded STD clinic. METHODS: From August 2014 to December 2015, patients testing positive for infectious syphilis or gonorrhea at the Rhode Island STD Clinic were referred to on-site DIS for partner notification...
2018: PloS One
Y Chen, W R Premasiri, L D Ziegler
SERS spectra excited at 785 nm of the bacteria Chlamydia trahomatis (elementary bodies, EB) and Neisseria gonorrheoae, the causative pathogens for the two most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD), chlamydia and gonorrhea, respectively, are reported. Although both are Gram-negative bacteria, the SERS signatures of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrheoae are completely different. N. gonorrheoae SERS spectra are due to the starvation induced nucleotide metabolites adenine and guanine, and the surface associated co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and are very similar on Au and Ag although the spectrum appears more rapidly on Ag...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gyutae Kim, Kyu-Sung Kim, Sangmin Lee
Simple non-associative learning processes, habituation and sensitization, are known to be systemically involved in different neurotransmissions, and these processes in the vestibular nucleus (VN) often show opposite responding patterns to repeated stimuli. However, their roles and mechanisms of the reciprocal responses at the cellular level are still elusive. Here, we conducted an electrophysiological experiment to investigate the neuronal responses to repeated stimuli in the VN, characterizing the neuronal responding patterns of habituation and sensitization...
March 26, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Anaïs R F Hoffmann, Lucie Caillon, Lilian Shadai Salazar Vazquez, Pierre-Alexandre Spath, Ludovic Carlier, Lucie Khemtémourian, Olivier Lequin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease are characterized by the accumulation of fibrillar amyloid deposits consisting mainly of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and amyloid-β (Aβ), respectively. Fibril formation is a multi-step nucleation process that involves the transient build-up of oligomeric species that are thought to be the most toxic components. To gain more insight into the molecular mechanism of early IAPP aggregated species formation, we performed a combination of direct and indirect biophysical approaches on IAPP and also on Aβ42 for the sake of comparison...
March 26, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Pamela A Matson, J Dennis Fortenberry, Shang-En Chung, Charlotte A Gaydos, Jonathan M Ellen
OBJECTIVES: Feelings of intimacy, perceptions of partner concurrency (PPC) and perceptions of risk for an STD (PRSTD) are meaningful and dynamic attributes of adolescent sexual relationships. Our objective was to examine whether variations in these STI-associated feelings and perceptions predicted incident Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseriagonorrhoeae infection within a prospective cohort of urban adolescent women. METHODS: A cohort of clinic-recruited women aged 16-19 completed daily surveys on feelings and risk perceptions about each current sex partner on a smartphone continuously for up to 18 months...
March 24, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Marco Guerrini, Eduardo Stancanelli, Stefano Elli, Po-Hung Hsieh, Jian Liu
Heparin is a highly-sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) of natural origin used as anticoagulant and antithrombotic drug. These properties are principally based on the binding and activation of antithrombin (AT) through the pentasaccharide sequence: GlcNAc/NS,6S-GlcA-GlcNS,3,6S-IdoA2S-GlcNS,6S (AGA*IA). Literature data shows that the population of 2S0 ring conformation of the 2-O-sulfo-α-L-Iduronic acid (IdoA2S) correlates with the affinity and activation of AT. It was recently demonstrated that two synthetic AGA*IA containing hexasaccharides (one G unit added at the reducing end), differing in the sulfation of the IdoA unit, show comparable affinity and ability to activate AT, despite the different conformation of the IdoA residue...
March 24, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Qi Gao, Jeong-Yeh Yang, Kelley W Moremen, John G Flanagan, James H Prestegard
Leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR) protein is one of the type IIa receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), which are important for signal transduction in biological processes including axon growth and regeneration. Glycosaminoglycan chains, including heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), act as ligands that regulate LAR signaling. Here, we report the structural characterization of the first two immunoglobulin domains (Ig1-2) of LAR interacting with an HS pentasaccharide (GlcNS6S-GlcA-GlcNS3,6S-IdoA2S-GlcNS6S-OME, fondaparinux) using multiple solution-based NMR methods...
March 23, 2018: Biochemistry
María Sanz-Lorente, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Ramón Castejón-Bolea, Javier Sanz-Valero
BACKGROUND: The internet is now the primary source of information that young people use to get information on issues related to sex, contraception, and sexually transmitted infections. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the research was to review the scientific literature related to the use of Web 2.0 tools as opposed to other strategies in the prevention of curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: A scoping review was performed on the documentation indexed in the bibliographic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, PsycINFO, Educational Resources Information Center, the databases of Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas in Spain, and the Índice Bibliográfico Español de Ciencias de la Salud from the first available date according to the characteristics of each database until April 2017...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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