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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783201/n-4-18-f-fluorobenzyl-cholylglycine-a-novel-tracer-for-pet-of-enterohepatic-circulation-of-bile-acids-radiosynthesis-and-proof-of-concept-studies-in-rats
#1
Kim Frisch, Damion H R Stimson, Taracad Venkatachalam, Gregory K Pierens, Susanne Keiding, David Reutens, Rajiv Bhalla
INTRODUCTION: Enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of conjugated bile acids is an important physiological process crucial for regulation of intracellular concentrations of bile acids and their function as detergents and signal carriers. Only few bile acid-derived imaging agents have been synthesized and hitherto none have been evaluated for studies of EHC. We hypothesized that N-(4-[18 F]fluorobenzyl)cholylglycine ([18 F]FBCGly), a novel fluorine-18 labeled derivative of endogenous cholylglycine, would be a suitable tracer for PET of the EHC of conjugated bile acids, and we report here a radiosynthesis of [18 F]FBCGly and a proof-of-concept study by PET/MR in rats...
May 4, 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783145/electrochemical-biosensor-system-using-a-cmos-microelectrode-array-provides-high-spatially-and-temporally-resolved-images
#2
William Tedjo, Jasmine E Nejad, Rachel Feeny, Lang Yang, Charles S Henry, Stuart Tobet, Tom Chen
The ability to view biological events in real time has contributed significantly to research in the life sciences. While video capture of real time changes in anatomical relationships is important, it is equally important to visualize real time changes in the chemical communications that drive cell behaviors. This paper describes an electrochemical imaging system capable of capturing changes in chemical gradients in live tissue slices. The system consists of a CMOS microchip with 8192 configurable Pt surface electrodes, on-chip potentiostat, on-chip control logic, and a microfluidic device designed to interface with the CMOS chip to support ex vivo tissue experimentation...
April 10, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783139/inspection-of-baked-carbon-anodes-using-a-combination-of-multi-spectral-acousto-ultrasonic-techniques-and-principal-component-analysis
#3
Moez Ben Boubaker, Donald Picard, Carl Duchesne, Jayson Tessier, Houshang Alamdari, Mario Fafard
This paper reports on the application of an acousto-ultrasonic (AU) scheme for the inspection of industrial-size carbon anode blocks used in the production of primary aluminium by the Hall-Héroult process. A frequency-modulated wave is used to excite the anode blocks at multiple points. The collected attenuated AU signals are decomposed using the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DTW) after which vectors of features are calculated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is utilized to cluster the AU responses of the anodes...
May 17, 2018: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783076/disrupted-reward-and-cognitive-control-networks-contribute-to-anhedonia-in-depression
#4
Liang Gong, Cancan He, Haisan Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Chunming Xie
Neuroimaging studies have identified that anhedonia, a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), is associated with dysfunction in reward and cognitive control processing. However, it is still not clear how the reward network (β-network) and the cognitive control network (δ-network) are linked to biased anhedonia in MDD patients. Sixty-eight MDD patients and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A 2*2 ANCOVA analysis was used to explore the differences in the nucleus accumbens-based, voxelwise functional connectivity (FC) between the groups...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782993/generalized-recurrent-neural-network-accommodating-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-functional-mri-analysis
#5
Yuan Wang, Yao Wang, Yvonne W Lui
Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) is an advanced biophysical model which explicitly describes the entire process from experimental stimuli to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals via neural activity and cerebral hemodynamics. To conduct a DCM study, one needs to represent the experimental stimuli as a compact vector-valued function of time, which is hard in complex tasks such as book reading and natural movie watching. Deep learning provides the state-of-the-art signal representation solution, encoding complex signals into compact dense vectors while preserving the essence of the original signals...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782369/neuroimaging-in-epilepsy
#6
Meneka Kaur Sidhu, John S Duncan, Josemir W Sander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy neuroimaging is important for detecting the seizure onset zone, predicting and preventing deficits from surgery and illuminating mechanisms of epileptogenesis. An aspiration is to integrate imaging and genetic biomarkers to enable personalized epilepsy treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability to detect lesions, particularly focal cortical dysplasia and hippocampal sclerosis, is increased using ultra high-field imaging and postprocessing techniques such as automated volumetry, T2 relaxometry, voxel-based morphometry and surface-based techniques...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782059/testicular-histomorphometry-and-the-proliferative-and-apoptotic-activities-of-the-seminiferous-epithelium-in-syrian-hamster-during-spontaneous-recrudescence-after-exposure-to-short-photoperiod
#7
Jesús Martínez-Hernández, Vicente Seco-Rovira, Ester Beltrán-Frutos, Concepción Ferrer, Manuel Canteras, María Del Mar Sánchez-Huertas, Luis Miguel Pastor
Syrian hamsters are photoperiodic rodents in which reproduction, including testicular function, is stimulated by long photoperiod exposure and curtailed by exposure to a short photoperiod. The objectives of this study were to characterize the testis histomorphometrically and to determine the role of the proliferation and apoptosis phenomena in the recovery of the seminiferous epithelium during spontaneous recrudescence after exposure to short photoperiod. The study was performed using conventional light microscopy, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling staining, image analysis software, and transmission electron microscopy in three recrudescence groups: initial recrudescence (IR), advanced recrudescence (AR) and total recrudescence (TR)...
May 21, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781234/the-unsafe-haven-eating-disorders-as-attachment-relationships
#8
Emma Forsén Mantilla, David Clinton, Andreas Birgegård
OBJECTIVES: Some patients with eating disorders (EDs) seem to experience their illness as an entity, a symbolic other to whom they relate, and which may influence both symptom levels and self-image. Extending previous research, this study investigated whether the patient-ED relationship has attachment qualities. DESIGN: Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour was used to operationalize the patient-ED relationship, and the Attachment Style Questionnaire was used to measure attachment...
May 21, 2018: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779671/resting-state-connectivity-biomarkers-of-cognitive-performance-and-social-function-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-control-subjects
#9
Joseph D Viviano, Robert W Buchanan, Navona Calarco, James M Gold, George Foussias, Nikhil Bhagwat, Laura Stefanik, Colin Hawco, Pamela DeRosse, Miklos Argyelan, Jessica Turner, Sofia Chavez, Peter Kochunov, Peter Kingsley, Xiangzhi Zhou, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Deficits in neurocognition and social cognition are drivers of reduced functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, with potentially shared neurobiological underpinnings. Many studies have sought to identify brain-based biomarkers of these clinical variables using a priori dichotomies (e.g., good vs. poor cognition, deficit vs. nondeficit syndrome). METHODS: We evaluated a fully data-driven approach to do the same by building and validating a brain connectivity-based biomarker of social cognitive and neurocognitive performance in a sample using resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (n = 74 healthy control participants, n = 114 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 188 total)...
April 13, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777323/andriod-device-based-cervical-cancer-screening-for-resource-poor-settings
#10
Vidya Kudva, Keerthana Prasad, Shyamala Guruvare
Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is an effective, affordable and simple test for cervical cancer screening in resource-poor settings. But considerable expertise is needed to differentiate cancerous lesions from normal lesions, which is lacking in developing countries. Many studies have attempted automation of cervical cancer detection from cervix images acquired during the VIA process. These studies used images acquired through colposcopy or cervicography. However, colposcopy is expensive and hence is not feasible as a screening tool in resource-poor settings...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777141/quantum-optically-enhanced-storm-quest-for-multi-emitter-localization
#11
Marc Aßmann
Super-resolution imaging has introduced new capabilities to investigate processes at the nanometer scale by optical means. However, most super-resolution techniques require either sparse excitation of few emitters or analysis of high-order cumulants in order to identify several emitters in close vicinity. Here, we present an approach that draws upon methods from quantum optics to perform localization super-resolution imaging of densely packed emitters and determine their number automatically: Quantum-optically enhanced STORM (QUEST)...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776969/identifying-genetic-players-in-cell-sheet-morphogenesis-using-a-drosophila-deficiency-screen-for-genes-on-chromosome-2r-involved-in-dorsal-closure
#12
Richard D Mortensen, Regan P Moore, Stephanie M Fogerson, Hellen Y Chiou, Chimdindu V Obinero, Neel K Prabhu, Angela H Wei, Janice M Crawford, Daniel P Kiehart
Cell sheet morphogenesis characterizes key developmental transitions and homeostasis, in vertebrates and throughout phylogeny, including gastrulation, neural tube formation and wound healing. Dorsal closure, a process during Drosophila embryogenesis, has emerged as a model for cell sheet morphogenesis. ∼140 genes are currently known to affect dorsal closure and new genes are identified each year. Many of these genes were identified in screens that resulted in arrested development. Dorsal closure is remarkably robust and many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in this complex biological process remain...
May 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776862/social-participation-social-support-and-body-image-in-the-first-year-of-rehabilitation-in-burn-survivors-a-longitudinal-three-wave-cross-lagged-panel-analysis-using-structural-equation-modeling
#13
Fardin Ajoudani, Madineh Jasemi, Mojgan Lotfi
INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial outcomes of burn survivors in the first year of rehabilitation are not well studied. Considering the interrelationships among psychosocial processes in burn survivors, we assessed three psychosocial variables (i.e., social support, social participation, and body image) simultaneously in a longitudinal study. AIMS: This study aimed at identifying the developmental trajectory of the main study variables and also discovering the causal pathways between social support, body image, and social participation of burn survivors in the first year of rehabilitation...
May 15, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776427/rheumatoid-meningitis-developed-in-patient-with-stable-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-myasthenia-gravis-detailed-analysis-of-intracranial-inflammation-using-flow-cytometry
#14
Miki Oono, Yoshimasa Fujita, Nobuaki Uchida, Ukichiro Kawai, Michiyo Fujita-Nakata, Megumi Nakanishi, Mitsuru Sanada, Shigemi Nagayama, Makoto Matsui
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is a rare disorder that often develops during a remission phase of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This is the first study to demonstrate differences in regard to immunological disturbance between blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from a patient with RM using flow cytometry. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old woman with RA and generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) developed RM during a remission phase. Although both RA and MG were stable and well controlled, she noticed fever, headache, and transient sensory disturbance...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776037/zero-crossing-statistics-for-non-markovian-time-series
#15
Markus Nyberg, Ludvig Lizana, Tobias Ambjörnsson
In applications spanning from image analysis and speech recognition to energy dissipation in turbulence and time-to failure of fatigued materials, researchers and engineers want to calculate how often a stochastic observable crosses a specific level, such as zero. At first glance this problem looks simple, but it is in fact theoretically very challenging, and therefore few exact results exist. One exception is the celebrated Rice formula that gives the mean number of zero crossings in a fixed time interval of a zero-mean Gaussian stationary process...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775822/nanocomposite-thin-films-ag-0-np-tio-2-in-the-efficient-removal-of-micro-pollutants-from-aqueous-solutions-a-case-study-of-tetracycline-and-sulfamethoxazole-removal
#16
Alka Tiwari, Alok Shukla, Lalliansanga, Diwakar Tiwari, Seung Mok Lee
The aim of this communication is to synthesize novel Nanocomposite thin film materials (Ag0 (NP)/TiO2 ) using the template process. Surface morphology of materials was obtained by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses. The presence of doped Ag-nanoparticles was confirmed by the TEM images along with the SEM-EDX analyses. The Atomic Force Microscopic images were demonstrated the surface roughness and thickness of Nanocomposite thin films. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that TiO2 was predominantly present to its anatase mineral phase...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775151/selection-of-endoscopic-or-transcranial-surgery-for-tuberculum-sellae-meningiomas-according-to-specific-anatomical-features-a-retrospective-multicenter-analysis-kosen-002
#17
Doo-Sik Kong, Chang-Ki Hong, Sang Duk Hong, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Ho Jun Seol, Jiwoong Oh, Dong Gyu Kim, Yong Hwy Kim
OBJECTIVE The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) and the transcranial approach (TCA) are good options for the treatment of tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas. The objective of this study was to identify the key anatomical features in TS meningiomas and compare the two surgical approaches. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed clinical data in 178 patients with TS meningiomas treated at 3 institutions between January 2010 and July 2016. Patients with tumors encasing the internal carotid artery or anterior cerebral artery or involving the anterior clinoid process or cavernous sinus were excluded...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775065/maldi-imaging-analysis-of-neuropeptides-in-africanized-honeybee-apis-mellifera-brain-effect-of-aggressiveness
#18
Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Franciele Grego Esteves, Kenny Umino Sato, Osmar Malaspina, Mario Sérgio Palma
The aggressiveness in honeybees seems to be regulated by multiple genes, under the influence of different factors, such as polyethism of workers, environmental factors, and response to alarm pheromones, creating a series of behavioral responses. It is suspected that neuropeptides seem to be involved with the regulation of the aggressive behavior. The role of allatostatin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides in honeybee brain during the aggressive behavior is unknown; thus, worker honeybees were stimulated to attack and to sting leather targets hanged in front of the colonies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774184/a-systematic-review-of-clinical-value-of-three-dimensional-printing-in-renal-disease
#19
Zhonghua Sun, Dongting Liu
The aim of this systematic review is to analyse current literature related to the clinical value of three-dimensional (3D) printed models in renal disease. A literature search of PubMed and Scopus databases was performed to identify studies reporting the clinical application and usefulness of 3D printed models in renal disease. Fifteen studies were found to meet the selection criteria and were included in the analysis. Eight of them provided quantitative assessments with five studies focusing on dimensional accuracy of 3D printed models in replicating renal anatomy and tumour, and on measuring tumour volume between 3D printed models and original source images and surgical specimens, with mean difference less than 10%...
April 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774075/plectin-targeted-liposomes-enhance-the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-a-parp-inhibitor-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#20
Siva Sai Krishna Dasa, Galina Diakova, Ryo Suzuki, Anne M Mills, Michael F Gutknecht, Alexander L Klibanov, Jill K Slack-Davis, Kimberly A Kelly
Advances in genomics and proteomics drive precision medicine by providing actionable genetic alterations and molecularly targeted therapies, respectively. While genomic analysis and medicinal chemistry have advanced patient stratification with treatments tailored to the genetic profile of a patient's tumor, proteomic targeting has the potential to enhance the therapeutic index of drugs like poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP inhibitors in breast and ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations have shown promise...
2018: Theranostics
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