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image analysis and processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922974/training-and-validating-a-deep-convolutional-neural-network-for-computer-aided-detection-and-classification-of-abnormalities-on-frontal-chest-radiographs
#1
Mark Cicero, Alexander Bilbily, Errol Colak, Tim Dowdell, Bruce Gray, Kuhan Perampaladas, Joseph Barfett
OBJECTIVES: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are a subtype of artificial neural network that have shown strong performance in computer vision tasks including image classification. To date, there has been limited application of CNNs to chest radiographs, the most frequently performed medical imaging study. We hypothesize CNNs can learn to classify frontal chest radiographs according to common findings from a sufficiently large data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our institution's research ethics board approved a single-center retrospective review of 35,038 adult posterior-anterior chest radiographs and final reports performed between 2005 and 2015 (56% men, average age of 56, patient type: 24% inpatient, 39% outpatient, 37% emergency department) with a waiver for informed consent...
December 5, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922805/near-infrared-spectroscopy-analysis-of-coronary-chronic-total-occlusions
#2
Georgios E Christakopoulos, Judit Karacsonyi, Barbara Anna Danek, Aris Karatasakis, Aya Alame, Pratik Kalsaria, Atif Mohammed, Michele Roesle, Bavana V Rangan, Subhash Banerjee, Emmanouil S Brilakis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the presence and localization of lipid-core plaque (LCP) in coronary vessels with chronic total occlusions (CTOs) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: NIRS imaging was performed after guidewire crossing of the occlusion in 15 patients with CTOs. LCP was defined as ≥2 adjacent 2 mm yellow blocks on the block chemogram. We also measured the maximum lipid-core burden index (LCBI) in a 4 mm length of artery (maxLCBI4mm). Large LCP was defined as maxLCBI4mm ≥500...
December 2016: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922605/pattern-of-structural-brain-changes-in-social-anxiety-disorder-after-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-a-longitudinal-multimodal-mri-study
#3
V R Steiger, A B Brühl, S Weidt, A Delsignore, M Rufer, L Jäncke, U Herwig, J Hänggi
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM)...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922592/distributed-solar-photovoltaic-array-location-and-extent-dataset-for-remote-sensing-object-identification
#4
Kyle Bradbury, Raghav Saboo, Timothy L Johnson, Jordan M Malof, Arjun Devarajan, Wuming Zhang, Leslie M Collins, Richard G Newell
Earth-observing remote sensing data, including aerial photography and satellite imagery, offer a snapshot of the world from which we can learn about the state of natural resources and the built environment. The components of energy systems that are visible from above can be automatically assessed with these remote sensing data when processed with machine learning methods. Here, we focus on the information gap in distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays, of which there is limited public data on solar PV deployments at small geographic scales...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921071/validation-of-automatic-joint-space-width-measurements-in-hand-radiographs-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Olga Schenk, Yinghe Huo, Koen L Vincken, Mart A van de Laar, Ina H H Kuper, Kees C H Slump, Floris P J G Lafeber, Hein J Bernelot Moens
Computerized methods promise quick, objective, and sensitive tools to quantify progression of radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Measurement of joint space width (JSW) in finger and wrist joints with these systems performed comparable to the Sharp-van der Heijde score (SHS). A next step toward clinical use, validation of precision and accuracy in hand joints with minimal damage, is described with a close scrutiny of sources of error. A recently developed system to measure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints was validated in consecutive hand images of RA patients...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921066/review-of-imaging-network-activities-in-developing-rodent-cerebral-cortex-in-vivo
#6
REVIEW
Heiko J Luhmann
The combination of voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) with multielectrode array (MEA) recordings in the rodent cerebral cortex in vivo allows the simultaneous analysis of large-scale network interactions and electrophysiological single-unit recordings. Using this approach, distinct patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity can be recorded in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) of newborn rats. Already at the day of birth, gamma oscillations and spindle bursts in the barrel cortex synchronize the activity of a local columnar ensemble, thereby generating an early topographic representation of the sensory periphery...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920976/resting-state-theta-band-connectivity-and-graph-analysis-in-generalized-social-anxiety-disorder
#7
Mengqi Xing, Reza Tadayonnejad, Annmarie MacNamara, Olusola Ajilore, Julia DiGangi, K Luan Phan, Alex Leow, Heide Klumpp
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state studies show generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with disturbances in networks involved in emotion regulation, emotion processing, and perceptual functions, suggesting a network framework is integral to elucidating the pathophysiology of gSAD. However, fMRI does not measure the fast dynamic interconnections of functional networks. Therefore, we examined whole-brain functional connectomics with electroencephalogram (EEG) during resting-state...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920955/patma-parser-of-archival-tissue-microarray
#8
Lukasz Roszkowiak, Carlos Lopez
Tissue microarrays are commonly used in modern pathology for cancer tissue evaluation, as it is a very potent technique. Tissue microarray slides are often scanned to perform computer-aided histopathological analysis of the tissue cores. For processing the image, splitting the whole virtual slide into images of individual cores is required. The only way to distinguish cores corresponding to specimens in the tissue microarray is through their arrangement. Unfortunately, distinguishing the correct order of cores is not a trivial task as they are not labelled directly on the slide...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920610/volumetric-image-guided-highly-conformal-radiotherapy-of-the-prostate-bed-toxicity-analysis
#9
Gianluca Ingrosso, Alessandra Carosi, Daniela di Cristino, Elisabetta Ponti, Andrea Lancia, Alessandra Murgia, Claudia Bruni, Pasquale Morelli, Franca Pietrasanta, Riccardo Santoni
AIM: To evaluate toxicity of high conformal image-guided radiotherapy of the prostate bed. BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy of the prostate bed has a pivotal role in the post-operative and salvage settings, but few clinical data are available on the use of daily image guidance in combination with highly conformal techniques, and data on long-term results are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 118 patients irradiated on the prostate bed using conformal plans processed with a micro-multileaf collimator, and daily checking treatment set-up with a cone-beam CT system...
January 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920570/formation-of-tight-junctions-between-neighboring-podocytes-is-an-early-ultrastructural-feature-in-experimental-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#10
Lena Succar, Ross A Boadle, David C Harris, Gopala K Rangan
PURPOSE: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14...
2016: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918893/spectrum-image-analysis-tool-a-flexible-matlab-solution-to-analyze-eel-and-cl-spectrum-images
#11
Franz-Philipp Schmidt, Ferdinand Hofer, Joachim R Krenn
Spectrum imaging techniques, gaining simultaneously structural (image) and spectroscopic data, require appropriate and careful processing to extract information of the dataset. In this article we introduce a MATLAB based software that uses three dimensional data (EEL/CL spectrum image in dm3 format (Gatan Inc.'s DigitalMicrograph(®))) as input. A graphical user interface enables a fast and easy mapping of spectral dependent images and position dependent spectra. First, data processing such as background subtraction, deconvolution and denoising, second, multiple display options including an EEL/CL moviemaker and, third, the applicability on a large amount of data sets with a small work load makes this program an interesting tool to visualize otherwise hidden details...
November 21, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918574/quantitative-laser-biospeckle-method-for-the-evaluation-of-the-activity-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-using-vdrl-plates-and-digital-analysis
#12
Hilda Cristina Grassi, Lisbette C García, María Lorena Lobo-Sulbarán, Ana Velásquez, Francisco A Andrades-Grassi, Humberto Cabrera, Jesús E Andrades-Grassi, Efrén D J Andrades
In this paper we report a quantitative laser Biospeckle method using VDRL plates to monitor the activity of Trypanosoma cruzi and the calibration conditions including three image processing algorithms and three programs (ImageJ and two programs designed in this work). Benznidazole was used as a test drug. Variable volume (constant density) and variable density (constant volume) were used for the quantitative evaluation of parasite activity in calibrated wells of the VDRL plate. The desiccation process within the well was monitored as a function of volume and of the activity of the Biospeckle pattern of the parasites as well as the quantitative effect of the surface parasite quantity (proportion of the object's plane)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917580/a-combined-registration-and-finite-element-analysis-method-for-fast-estimation-of-intraoperative-brain-shift-phantom-and-animal-model-study
#13
Amrollah Mohammadi, Alireza Ahmadian, Shahram Rabbani, Ehsan Fattahi, Shapour Shirani
BACKGROUND: Finite element models for estimation of intraoperative brain shift suffer from huge computational cost. In these models, image registration and finite element analysis are two time-consuming processes. METHODS: The proposed method is an improved version of our previously developed Finite Element Drift (FED) registration algorithm. In this work the registration process is combined with the finite element analysis. In the Combined FED (CFED), the deformation of whole brain mesh is iteratively calculated by geometrical extension of a local load vector which is computed by FED...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917502/relationship-between-increasing-concentrations-of-two-carcinogens-and-statistical-image-descriptors-of-foci-morphology-in-the-cell-transformation-assay
#14
Giulia Callegaro, Raffaella Corvi, Susan Salovaara, Chiara Urani, Federico M Stefanini
Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) have long been proposed for the identification of chemical carcinogenicity potential. The endpoint of these in vitro assays is represented by the phenotypic alterations in cultured cells, which are characterized by the change from the non-transformed to the transformed phenotype. Despite the wide fields of application and the numerous advantages of CTAs, their use in regulatory toxicology has been limited in part due to concerns about the subjective nature of visual scoring, i...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917244/la-images-a-software-for-elemental-distribution-bioimaging-using-la-icp-ms-data
#15
Hugo López-Fernández, Gustavo de S Pessôa, Marco A Z Arruda, José L Capelo-Martínez, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Daniel Glez-Peña, Miguel Reboiro-Jato
The spatial distribution of chemical elements in different types of samples is an important field in several research areas such as biology, paleontology or biomedicine, among others. Elemental distribution imaging by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is an effective technique for qualitative and quantitative imaging due to its high spatial resolution and sensitivity. By applying this technique, vast amounts of raw data are generated to obtain high-quality images, essentially making the use of specific LA-ICP-MS imaging software that can process such data absolutely mandatory...
2016: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916682/adaptive-optics-optical-coherence-tomography-in-glaucoma
#16
REVIEW
Zachary M Dong, Gadi Wollstein, Bo Wang, Joel S Schuman
Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916658/referenceless-one-dimensional-nyquist-ghost-correction-in-multicoil-single-shot-spatiotemporally-encoded-mri
#17
Ying Chen, Yupeng Liao, Lisha Yuan, Hui Liu, Seong Dae Yun, Nadim Joni Shah, Zhong Chen, Jianhui Zhong
Single-shot spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) MRI is a novel fast imaging method capable of retaining the time efficiency of single-shot echo planar imaging (EPI) but with distortion artifacts significantly reduced. Akin to EPI, the phase inconsistencies between mismatched even and odd echoes also result in the so-called Nyquist ghosts. However, the characteristic of the SPEN signals provides the possibility of obtaining ghost-free images directly from even and odd echoes respectively, without acquiring additional reference scans...
December 1, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915065/assessment-of-white-matter-transgression-during-neuroendoscopic-procedures-using-dti-fiber-tracking
#18
Sergio García, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Arnau Benet, Laura Oleaga, José Juan González Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Presurgical planning allows anticipating intraoperative difficulties, increasing efficiency, and reducing risks. Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive technique whose related complications have been focused on cortical function and surface vessels injury. However, white matter disruption has been insufficiently acknowledged. OBJECTIVE: To present a new surgical planning method based on diffusion tensor image that allows quantifying subcortical transgression and optimizing neuroendoscopic trajectories...
November 30, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914078/computer-vision-based-image-analysis-of-bacteria
#19
Jonas Danielsen, Pontus Nordenfelt
Microscopy is an essential tool for studying bacteria, but is today mostly used in a qualitative or possibly semi-quantitative manner often involving time-consuming manual analysis. It also makes it difficult to assess the importance of individual bacterial phenotypes, especially when there are only subtle differences in features such as shape, size, or signal intensity, which is typically very difficult for the human eye to discern. With computer vision-based image analysis - where computer algorithms interpret image data - it is possible to achieve an objective and reproducible quantification of images in an automated fashion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913838/isolated-transverse-process-fractures-insignificant-injury-or-marker-of-complex-injury-pattern
#20
G Lombardo, P Petrone, K Prabhakaran, C P Marini
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates the incidence of isolated transverse process fractures (ITPFx) amongst vertebral fractures in trauma patients, and specific-associated injury patterns present in patients with ITPFx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, 4-year review of our Level 1 Trauma Center registry was performed. Patients with blunt spinal column fractures were identified. Data collected included patient demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), type of imaging obtained, and concomitant injuries, including rib and pelvic fractures, liver, spleen, and kidney injury (SOI)...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
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