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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636919/monitoring-quantitative-ultrasound-parameter-changes-in-a-cell-pellet-model-of-cell-starvation
#1
Lauren A Wirtzfeld, Elizabeth S L Berndl, Gregory J Czarnota, Michael C Kolios
Although it has previously been shown that the spectral analysis of ultrasound backscatter data is sensitive to the cellular changes caused by apoptosis, the sensitivity of spectral analysis to oncosis or ischemic cell death had not previously been studied. Whereas many anticancer treatments induce apoptosis, others induce cell starvation, or oncosis. HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells were formed into pellets and covered in phosphate-buffered saline at room temperature for 56 h. The pellets were imaged every 8 h with high-frequency (55 MHz) ultrasound and the raw radio-frequency data processed...
June 20, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635625/soil-moisture-content-estimation-based-on-sentinel-1-and-auxiliary-earth-observation-products-a-hydrological-approach
#2
Dimitrios D Alexakis, Filippos-Dimitrios K Mexis, Anthi-Eirini K Vozinaki, Ioannis N Daliakopoulos, Ioannis K Tsanis
A methodology for elaborating multi-temporal Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images for estimating topsoil Soil Moisture Content (SMC) to support hydrological simulation studies is proposed. After pre-processing the remote sensing data, backscattering coefficient, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), thermal infrared temperature and incidence angle parameters are assessed for their potential to infer ground measurements of SMC, collected at the top 5 cm. A non-linear approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is tested...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634759/current-applications-of-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-critical-review
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Pasin, Adam Cawley, Sergei Bidny, Shanlin Fu
The proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in recent years has resulted in the development of numerous analytical methods for the detection and identification of known and unknown NPS derivatives. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has been identified as the method of choice for broad screening of NPS in a wide range of analytical contexts because of its ability to measure accurate masses using data-independent acquisition (DIA) techniques. Additionally, it has shown promise for non-targeted screening strategies that have been developed in order to detect and identify novel analogues without the need for certified reference materials (CRMs) or comprehensive mass spectral libraries...
June 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634228/spatial-mapping-and-profiling-of-metabolite-distributions-during-germination
#4
Adam D Feenstra, Liza E Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R Korte, Marna Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee
Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids...
June 20, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#5
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633840/changes-in-pore-size-distribution-inside-sludge-under-various-ultrasonic-conditions
#6
Fang Zhao, Daolai Cheng
The pore size distribution is quite significant for determining the transport capacity of heat and moisture in sludge during the drying process. It is crucial to investigate the transformation of the pore size in sludge under sonication. In this paper, the microstructures of pores inside sludge before and after ultrasonic treatment with various ultrasonic conditions were observed using a microscope. Fractal geometry and image analysis were combined to quantitatively identify the evolution of pore size in sludge undergoing various acoustic energy densities and treatment times...
September 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633520/ion-selective-nanosensor-for-photoacoustic-and-fluorescence-imaging-of-potassium
#7
Chang Heon Lee, Jeff Folz, Wuliang Zhang, Janggun Jo, Joel W Y Tan, Xueding Wang, Raoul Kopelman
Ion-selective optodes (ISOs), the optical analog of ion-selective electrodes, have played an increasingly important role in chemical and biochemical analysis. Here we extend this technique to ion-selective photo-acoustic optodes (ISPAOs) that serve at the same time as fluorescence-based ISOs, and apply it specifically to potassium (K+). Notably, the potassium ion is one of the most abundant cations in biological systems, involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Furthermore, it has been recently reported that the presence of abnormal extracellular potassium concentrations in tumors suppresses the immune responses and thus suppresses immunotherapy...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633369/fine-subdivisions-of-the-semantic-network-supporting-social-and-sensory-motor-semantic-processing
#8
Nan Lin, Xiaoying Wang, Yangwen Xu, Xiaosha Wang, Huimin Hua, Ying Zhao, Xingshan Li
Neuroimaging studies have consistently indicated that semantic processing involves a brain network consisting of multimodal cortical regions distributed in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. However, little is known about how semantic information is organized and processed within the network. Some recent studies have indicated that sensory-motor semantic information modulates the activation of this network. Other studies have indicated that this network responds more to social semantic information than to other information...
June 15, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633363/development-initial-testing-and-challenges-of-an-ecologically-valid-reward-prediction-error-fmri-task-for-alcoholism
#9
Anita Cservenka, Kelly E Courtney, Dara G Ghahremani, Kent E Hutchison, Lara A Ray
Aims: To advance translational studies of the role of reward prediction error (PE) in alcohol use disorder, the present study sought to develop and conduct an initial test of an alcohol-specific PE task paradigm using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. Methods: Alcohol dependent or social drinkers received small tastes of their preferred alcohol beverage or control beverage, with preceding visual cues indicating whether alcohol (or water) would be delivered...
June 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632774/short-term-eeg-dynamics-and-neural-generators-evoked-by-navigational-images
#10
Axelle Leroy, Carlos Cevallos, Ana-Maria Cebolla, Stéphanie Caharel, Bernard Dan, Guy Cheron
The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D virtual tunnels with respect to 2D checkerboard. For this, we characterized electroencephalograhy dynamics (EEG), the evoked potentials and related neural generators involved in various visual paradigms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632158/on-the-application-of-image-processing-methods-for-bubble-recognition-to-the-study-of-subcooled-flow-boiling-of-water-in-rectangular-channels
#11
Concepción Paz, Marcos Conde, Jacobo Porteiro, Miguel Concheiro
This work introduces the use of machine vision in the massive bubble recognition process, which supports the validation of boiling models involving bubble dynamics, as well as nucleation frequency, active site density and size of the bubbles. The two algorithms presented are meant to be run employing quite standard images of the bubbling process, recorded in general-purpose boiling facilities. The recognition routines are easily adaptable to other facilities if a minimum number of precautions are taken in the setup and in the treatment of the information...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630930/real-time-quantitative-analysis-of-metabolic-flux-in-live-cells-using-a-hyperpolarized-micromagnetic-resonance-spectrometer
#12
Sangmoo Jeong, Roozbeh Eskandari, Sun Mi Park, Julio Alvarez, Sui Seng Tee, Ralph Weissleder, Michael G Kharas, Hakho Lee, Kayvan R Keshari
Metabolic reprogramming is widely considered a hallmark of cancer, and understanding metabolic dynamics described by the conversion rates or "fluxes" of metabolites can shed light onto biological processes of tumorigenesis and response to therapy. For real-time analysis of metabolic flux in intact cells or organisms, magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and imaging methods have been developed in conjunction with hyperpolarization of nuclear spins. These approaches enable noninvasive monitoring of tumor progression and treatment efficacy and are being tested in multiple clinical trials...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630643/improved-classification-accuracy-of-powdery-mildew-infection-levels-of-wine-grapes-by-spatial-spectral-analysis-of-hyperspectral-images
#13
Uwe Knauer, Andrea Matros, Tijana Petrovic, Timothy Zanker, Eileen S Scott, Udo Seiffert
BACKGROUND: Hyperspectral imaging is an emerging means of assessing plant vitality, stress parameters, nutrition status, and diseases. Extraction of target values from the high-dimensional datasets either relies on pixel-wise processing of the full spectral information, appropriate selection of individual bands, or calculation of spectral indices. Limitations of such approaches are reduced classification accuracy, reduced robustness due to spatial variation of the spectral information across the surface of the objects measured as well as a loss of information intrinsic to band selection and use of spectral indices...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630355/apical-and-basal-epitheliomuscular-f-actin-dynamics-during-hydra-bud-evagination
#14
Roland Aufschnaiter, Roland Wedlich-Söldner, Xiaoming Zhang, Bert Hobmayer
Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analysed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630302/new-perspective-on-spring-vegetation-phenology-and-global-climate-change-based-on-tibetan-plateau-tree-ring-data
#15
Bao Yang, Minhui He, Vladimir Shishov, Ivan Tychkov, Eugene Vaganov, Sergio Rossi, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Achim Bräuning, Jussi Grießinger
Phenological responses of vegetation to climate, in particular to the ongoing warming trend, have received much attention. However, divergent results from the analyses of remote sensing data have been obtained for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the world's largest high-elevation region. This study provides a perspective on vegetation phenology shifts during 1960-2014, gained using an innovative approach based on a well-validated, process-based, tree-ring growth model that is independent of temporal changes in technical properties and image quality of remote sensing products...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629974/the-effects-of-changes-in-object-location-on-object-identity-detection%C3%AF-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#16
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Noa Fogelson, Ling Li
Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629555/evaluating-the-ability-to-detect-pancreatic-lesions-using-a-special-ultrasonography-examination-focusing-on-the-pancreas
#17
Miho Nakao, Kazuhiro Katayama, Junko Fukuda, Suetsumi Okagaki, Kozo Misu, Sayako Miyazaki, Noritoshi Matsuno, Reiko Ashida, Tatsuya Ioka, Yuri Ito, Kazuyoshi Ohkawa
PURPOSE: The ability to detect pancreatic cysts was compared between special ultrasonography (US) examination focusing on the pancreas (special pancreatic US) and routine upper abdominal ultrasonography to objectively assess the ability of the former to detect cysts. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Of 3704 patients who underwent special pancreatic US at our hospital, 186 underwent routine upper abdominal US within six months, had pancreatic cysts, and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629355/biologically-constrained-optimization-based-cell-membrane-segmentation-in-c-elegans-embryos
#18
Yusuke Azuma, Shuichi Onami
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in bioimaging and automated analysis methods have enabled the large-scale systematic analysis of cellular dynamics during the embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans. Most of these analyses have focused on cell lineage tracing rather than cell shape dynamics. Cell shape analysis requires cell membrane segmentation, which is challenging because of insufficient resolution and image quality. This problem is currently solved by complicated segmentation methods requiring laborious and time consuming parameter adjustments...
June 19, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629130/optimization-of-polyplex-formation-between-dna-oligonucleotide-and-poly-%C3%AA-lysine-experimental-study-and-modeling-approach
#19
Tudor Vasiliu, Corneliu Cojocaru, Alexandru Rotaru, Gabriela Pricope, Mariana Pinteala, Lilia Clima
The polyplexes formed by nucleic acids and polycations have received a great attention owing to their potential application in gene therapy. In our study, we report experimental results and modeling outcomes regarding the optimization of polyplex formation between the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and poly(ʟ-Lysine) (PLL). The quantification of the binding efficiency during polyplex formation was performed by processing of the images captured from the gel electrophoresis assays. The design of experiments (DoE) and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to investigate the coupling effect of key factors (pH and N/P ratio) affecting the binding efficiency...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629003/a-simple-semi-quantitative-approach-studying-the-in-vivo-degradation-of-regenerated-silk-fibroin-scaffolds-with-different-pore-sizes
#20
Yongwei Guo, Zhongchun Chen, Jianchuan Wen, Minghui Jia, Zhengzhong Shao, Xia Zhao
The biocompatibility and in vivo degradation rate of biomaterials represent critical control points in the long-term success of scaffolds for tissue restoration. In this study, new three-dimensional (3D) regenerated silk fibroin scaffolds (RSFs) were prepared by the freezing-defrosting procedure, and then were implanted beneath the dorsal skin of rats. This study aims to develop a kinetic semi-quantitative approach to assess in vivo degradation rate and biocompatibility of this kind of RSFs with different pore sizes for the first time, and to evaluate the relationship between the biodegradation and tissue responses by measuring the thickness of residual scaffolds, fibrous capsules and infiltrated tissues through integrated techniques of histology, optical imaging and image analysis...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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