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image analysis and processing

Min Cheng, Guangming Zeng, Danlian Huang, Cui Lai, Yang Liu, Chen Zhang, Jia Wan, Liang Hu, Chengyun Zhou, Weiping Xiong
The presence of antibiotics in aquatic environments has attracted global concern. Fenton process is an attractive yet challenging method for antibiotics degradation, especially when such a reaction can be conducted at neutral pH values. In this study, a novel composite Fe/Co catalyst was synthesized via the modification of steel converter slag (SCS) by salicylic acid-methanol (SAM) and cobalt nitrate (Co(NO3 )2 ). The catalysts were characterized by N2 -Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)...
March 10, 2018: Water Research
Defne Alfandari, Chris Vriend, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Niek J Versfeld, Sophia E Kramer, Adriana A Zekveld
Speech comprehension depends on the successful operation of a network of brain regions. Processing of degraded speech is associated with different patterns of brain activity in comparison with that of high-quality speech. In this exploratory study, we studied whether processing degraded auditory input in daily life because of hearing impairment is associated with differences in brain volume. We compared T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images of 17 hearing-impaired (HI) adults with those of 17 normal-hearing (NH) controls using a voxel-based morphometry analysis...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Yoshitaka Inui, Takashi Ichihara, Masaki Uno, Masanobu Ishiguro, Kengo Ito, Katsuhiko Kato, Hajime Sakuma, Hidehiko Okazawa, Hiroshi Toyama
OBJECTIVE: Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Chunyao Zhou, Yongheng Wang, Xing Liu, Yuchao Liang, Ziwen Fan, Tao Jiang, Yinyan Wang, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: The newly proposed putamen classification system shows good prognostic value in patients with insular LGGs, yet no study towards the molecular profiles of putamen involved LGGs has been proposed. METHODS: Clinical information and imaging data of patients diagnosed with insular low-grade gliomas were collected retrospectively. Genetic information of the 34 tumors was assessed using RNA-sequencing. Gene set enrichment analysis was further performed to identify the genes showing differential expression between putamen-involved tumors and putamen non-involved tumors...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Michael Lehrer, Anindya Bhadra, Sathvik Aithala, Visweswaran Ravikumar, Youyun Zheng, Basak Dogan, Emerlinda Bonaccio, Elizabeth S Burnside, Elizabeth Morris, Elizabeth Sutton, Gary J Whitman, Jose Net, Kathy Brandt, Marie Ganott, Margarita Zuley, Arvind Rao
Background: Imaging features derived from MRI scans can be used for not only breast cancer detection and measuring disease extent, but can also determine gene expression and patient outcomes. The relationships between imaging features, gene/protein expression, and response to therapy hold potential to guide personalized medicine. We aim to characterize the relationship between radiologist-annotated tumor phenotypic features (based on MRI) and the underlying biological processes (based on proteomic profiling) in the tumor...
January 2018: Oncoscience
Chao Nie, Huimin Wang, Rui Wang, David Ginsburg, Xiao-Wei Chen
The flow of cargo vesicles along the secretory pathway requires concerted action among various regulators. The COPII complex, assembled by the activated SAR1 GTPases on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum, orchestrates protein interactions to package cargos and generate transport vesicles en route to the Golgi. The dynamic nature of COPII, however, hinders analysis with conventional biochemical assays. Here we apply proximity-dependent biotinylation labeling to capture the dynamics of COPII transport in cells...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kristoffer H Madsen, Laerke G Krohne, Xin-Lu Cai, Yi Wang, Raymond C K Chan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is capable of estimating functional activation and connectivity in the human brain, and lately there has been increased interest in the use of these functional modalities combined with machine learning for identification of psychiatric traits. While these methods bear great potential for early diagnosis and better understanding of disease processes, there are wide ranges of processing choices and pitfalls that may severely hamper interpretation and generalization performance unless carefully considered...
March 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Melih Velipasaoglu, Metin Sentürk, Reyhan Ayaz, Barbaros Atesli, H Mete Tanir
This study aimed to elucidate the diagnostic process, the associated anomalies and the perinatal outcomes of right aortic arch (RAA) in a group of low-risk patients. The obstetric imaging database and digital patient files were reviewed between January 2015 and June 2016. There were 12 RAA cases detected prenatally. Seven foetuses had an aberrant left subclavian artery and one foetus had mirror image branching. The prevalence of RAA was 1.8 in 1000. Invasive prenatal diagnosis was offered to patients and seven tests were performed...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jing Huang, Peng Guo, Marsha A Moses
The acquisition of the angiogenic phenotype is an essential component of the escape from tumor dormancy. Although several classic in vitro assays (e.g., proliferation, migration, and others) and in vivo models have been developed to investigate and characterize angiogenic and non-angiogenic cell phenotypes, these methods are time and labor intensive, and often require expensive reagents and instruments, as well as significant expertise. In a recent study, we used a novel quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique to conduct time-lapse and labeling-free characterizations of angiogenic and non-angiogenic human osteosarcoma KHOS cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yu-Cherng Chang, Keke Liu, Florence Cabot, Sonia H Yoo, Marco Ruggeri, Arthur Ho, Jean-Marie Parel, Fabrice Manns
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers new options for imaging the ciliary muscle allowing direct in vivo visualization. However, variation in image quality along the length of the muscle prevents accurate delineation and quantification of the muscle. Quantitative analyses of the muscle are accompanied by variability in segmentation between examiners and between sessions for the same examiner. In processes such as accommodation where changes in muscle thickness may be tens of microns- the equivalent of a small number of image pixels, differences in segmentation can influence the magnitude and potentially the direction of thickness change...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Mandy Berndt-Paetz, Luise Herbst, Annett Weimann, Andreas Gonsior, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Jochen Neuhaus
PURPOSE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e...
March 15, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Nils Gessert, Matthias Schlüter, Alexander Schlaefer
Tracking the pose of instruments is a central problem in image-guided surgery. For microscopic scenarios, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is increasingly used as an imaging modality. OCT is suitable for accurate pose estimation due to its micrometer range resolution and volumetric field of view. However, OCT image processing is challenging due to speckle noise and reflection artifacts in addition to the images' 3D nature. We address pose estimation from OCT volume data with a new deep learning-based tracking framework...
March 10, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Pernille Hagland, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Gerd Kvale, Bjarne Hansen, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience aversive emotions in response to obsessions, motivating avoidance and compulsive behaviors. However, there is considerable ambiguity regarding the brain circuitry involved in emotional processing in OCD, especially whether activation is altered in the amygdala. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis-seed-based d mapping-of 25 whole-brain neuroimaging studies (including 571 patients and 564 healthy control subjects) using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography, comparing brain activation of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects during presentation of emotionally valenced versus neutral stimuli...
February 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Laura E Downie, Cecilia Naranjo Golborne, Merry Chen, Ngoc Ho, Cam Hoac, Dasun Liyanapathirana, Carol Luo, Ruo Bing Wu, Holly R Chinnery
Our aim was to compare regeneration of the sub-basal nerve plexus (SBNP) and superficial nerve terminals (SNT) following corneal epithelial injury. We also sought to compare agreement when quantifying nerve parameters using different image-analysis techniques. Anesthetized, female C57BL/6 mice received central 1-mm corneal epithelial abrasions. Four-weeks post-injury, eyes were enucleated and processed for PGP9.5 to visualize the corneal nerves using wholemount immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Mahsa Dadar, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins
INTRODUCTION: Linear registration to a standard space is one of the major steps in processing and analyzing magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the brain. Here we present an overview of linear stereotaxic MRI registration and compare the performance of 5 publicly available and extensively used linear registration techniques in medical image analysis. METHODS: A set of 9693 T1-weighted MR images were obtained for testing from 4 datasets: ADNI, PREVENT-AD, PPMI, and HCP, two of which have multi-center and multi-scanner data and three of which have longitudinal data...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
René Ledesma-Alonso, Romeli Barbosa, Jaime Ortegón
The characterization and reconstruction of heterogeneous materials, such as porous media and electrode materials, involve the application of image processing methods to data acquired by scanning electron microscopy or other microscopy techniques. Among them, binarization and decimation are critical in order to compute the correlation functions that characterize the microstructure of the above-mentioned materials. In this study, we present a theoretical analysis of the effects of the image-size reduction, due to the progressive and sequential decimation of the original image...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Keith A Seffen
In their study, Duncan and Duncan [Proc. R. Soc. London A 383, 191 (1982)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1982.0126] calculate the shape of an inextensible surface folded in two about a general curve. They find the analytical relationships between pairs of generators linked across the fold curve, the shape of the original path, and the fold angle variation along it. They present two special cases of generator layouts for which the fold angle is uniform or the folded curve remains planar, for simplifying practical folding in sheet-metal processes...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Oriol Blázquez, Gemma Martín, Ivan Camps, Antonio Mariscal, Julian López-Vidrier, Joan Manel Ramirez, Sergi Hernández, Sonia Estrade, Francesca Peiro, Rosalía Serna, Blas Garrido
The resistive switching properties of silicon-aluminium oxynitride (SiAlON) based devices have been studied. Electrical transport mechanisms at both resistance states were determined, exhibiting an ohmic behaviour at low resistant state and a defect-related Poole-Frenkel mechanism at high resistant state. Nevertheless, some features on the Al top-electrode are generated during the initial electroforming, suggesting some material modifications. An in-depth microscopic study at the nanoscale have been performed after the electroforming process, by acquiring scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Peter Bond, David B Parkinson
The use of electron microscopy allows analysis of the microarchitecture of peripheral nerves both during development and in the processes of nerve regeneration and repair.We describe a novel method for the rapid analysis and quantification of myelin in peripheral nerve using a low vacuum scanning electron microscopy protocol. For this methodology, excised nerves are prepared for traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging, but at the stage where semi-thin sections would be taken, the resin block is instead imaged at low vacuum in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) using the backscattered electron signal...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaopeng Yang, Jae Do Yang, Hee Chul Yu, Younggeun Choi, Kwangho Yang, Tae Beom Lee, Hong Pil Hwang, Sungwoo Ahn, Heecheon You
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. METHODS: The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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