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pneumonia statin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224355/structural-features-and-domain-movements-controlling-substrate-binding-and-cofactor-specificity-in-class-ii-hmg-coa-reductase
#1
Bradley R Miller, Yan Kung
The key mevalonate pathway enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGR) uses the cofactor NAD(P)H to reduce HMG-CoA to mevalonate in the production of countless metabolites and natural products. Although HMGR inhibition by statin drugs is well understood, several mechanistic details of HMGR catalysis remain unresolved, and the structural basis for the wide range in cofactor specificity for either NADH or NADPH among HMGRs from different organisms is also unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of HMGR from Streptococcus pneumoniae (SpHMGR) alongside kinetic data on the enzyme's cofactor preferences...
December 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149185/linezolid-and-atorvastatin-impact-on-pneumonia-caused-by-staphyloccocus-aureus-in-rabbits-with-or-without-mechanical-ventilation
#2
Laure-Anne Pauchard, Mathieu Blot, Rémi Bruyere, Saber-Davide Barbar, Delphine Croisier, Lionel Piroth, Pierre-Emmanuel Charles
Pneumonia may involve methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with elevated rates of antibiotics failure. The present study aimed to assess the effect of statins given prior to pneumonia development. Spontaneously breathing (SB) or mechanically ventilated (MV) rabbits with pneumonia received atorvastatin alone, linezolid (LNZ) alone, or a combination of both (n = 5 in each group). Spontaneously breathing and MV untreated infected animals (n = 11 in each group), as well as uninfected animals (n = 5 in each group) were used as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119848/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-immunocompetent-adults-updated-swedish-guidelines-2017
#3
Simon Athlin, Christer Lidman, Anders Lundqvist, Pontus Naucler, Anna C Nilsson, Carl Spindler, Kristoffer Strålin, Jonas Hedlund
Based on expert group work, Swedish recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults are here updated. The management of sepsis-induced hypotension is addressed in detail, including monitoring and parenteral therapy. The importance of respiratory support in cases of acute respiratory failure is emphasized. Treatment with high-flow oxygen and non-invasive ventilation is recommended. The use of statins or steroids in general therapy is not found to be fully supported by evidence. In the management of pleural infection, new data show favourable effects of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease installation...
November 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092734/predictors-of-functional-outcome-and-hemorrhagic-complications-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients-treated-with-intravenous-thrombolysis-a-retrospective-analysis%C3%A2
#4
Qinqin Zhao, Wenya Shan, Li Liu, Xuchun Fu, Ping Liu, Yunzhen Hu
Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4.5 hours is an effective and routine therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The purpose of the study was to identify predictors of functional outcome at 3 months and hemorrhagic complications after IVT. A total of 123 AIS patients treated with intravenous alteplase within 4.5 hours after stroke were enrolled. Baseline clinical characteristics, medication and disease history, radiographic and laboratory data were collected...
December 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072176/premature-coronary-artery-disease-due-to-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-a-12-year-old-girl
#5
Filiz Ekici, Salih Özçobanoğlu, Fırat Kardelen
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) is a rare inherited metabolic disease, caused by low-density lipoprotein receptor abnormality. Patients with HoFH have an increased risk for cardiovascular complication (CVC) that usually occurs in the first decade of life. We report a twelve years-old girl with unpredicted presentation for coronary artery disease (CAD) and she was found to have HoFH. CASE REPORT: A 12 years old girl was admitted to our unit with syncope...
October 26, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058516/clinician-initiated-research-on-treating-the-host-response-to-pandemic-influenza
#6
David S Fedson
To prepare for the next influenza pandemic and other emerging virus diseases, scientists and health officials are focused on developing new vaccines and treatments that target these viruses. Ideally, these interventions could be highly effective, but for many practical reasons these "top down" efforts are unlikely to provide clinicians with what they will need to manage their patients. As a "bottom up" alternative, combinations of generic drugs like statins and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) might be used to treat the host response to infection...
October 23, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049325/effect-of-therapeutic-interchange-on-medication-reconciliation-during-hospitalization-and-upon-discharge-in-a-geriatric-population
#7
Jessica S Wang, Robert L Fogerty, Leora I Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic interchange of a same class medication for an outpatient medication is a widespread practice during hospitalization in response to limited hospital formularies. However, therapeutic interchange may increase risk of medication errors. The objective was to characterize the prevalence and safety of therapeutic interchange. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Secondary analysis of a transitions of care study. We included patients over age 64 admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2009-2010 with heart failure, pneumonia, or acute coronary syndrome who were taking a medication in any of six commonly-interchanged classes on admission: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2 blockers), hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974587/statin-therapy-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Frances S Grudzinska, Davinder Ps Dosanjh, Dhruv Parekh, Rachel Ca Dancer, Jaimin Patel, Peter Nightingale, Georgia M Walton, Elizabeth Sapey, David R Thickett
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death from infection in developed countries. There is evidence of an association between improved survival from infection and statin use. The possible beneficial effects of statins are complicated by the common use of macrolide antibiotics for pneumonia, with current guidance suggesting that concurrent macrolide and statin use is contraindicated.We conducted an observational study of statin use in patients with CAP. Of 2,067 patients with CAP, 30.4% were on statin therapy at admission...
October 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657793/pulmonary-infections-in-the-elderly-lead-to-impaired-neutrophil-targeting-improved-by-simvastatin
#9
Elizabeth Sapey, Jaimin M Patel, Hannah L Greenwood, Georgia M Walton, Jon Hazeldine, Charendeep Sadhra, Dhruv Parekh, Rachel Ca Dancer, Peter Nightingale, Janet M Lord, David R Thickett
RATIONALE: Dysregulated neutrophil functions are described with age and sepsis. Statins are associated with improved infection survival in some observational studies but trials in critically ill patients have not shown benefit. Statins also alter neutrophil responses in vitro. OBJECTIVE: To assess neutrophil migratory accuracy with age during respiratory infections and determine if and how a statin intervention could alter these blunted responses. METHODS: Migratory accuracy of blood neutrophils from young (aged<35) and old (aged>60) patients in health, during a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), pneumonia (CAP) and pneumonia associated sepsis (S-CAP) was assessed with and without simvastatin...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639080/the-use-of-statins-and-risk-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#10
REVIEW
Mohammed A Batais, Abdur Rahman Khan, Aref A Bin Abdulhak
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still associated with a large burden and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Besides universal vaccination and antibiotic treatment, statins as adjunctive therapy may also have a beneficial role in the prevention and treatment of CAP. Our goal from this review is to discuss the epidemiology of CAP, and role of statins as adjunctive therapy in the development of CAP. RECENT FINDINGS: Statins are lipid-lowering medications characterized by their ability to control hypercholesterolemia in addition to other pleiotropic effects that could explain their role in the pathogenesis of CAP...
August 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469499/a-case-of-statin-associated-autoimmune-myopathy
#11
Alexander J Sweidan, Anthony Leung, Cassandra J Kaiser, Sarah J Strube, Andrei N Dokukin, Stephen Romansky, Sassan Farjami
A 70-year-old previously independent man developed progressive proximal leg weakness resulting in a fall at home suffering traumatic brain injury. He was prescribed a statin medication two years prior, but this was discontinued on admission to the hospital due to concern for statin myopathy. His weakness continued to progress while in acute rehabilitation, along with the development of dysphagia requiring placement of gastrostomy tube and respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy. Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin were administered without response...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450174/atorvastatin-as-a-promising-anticryptococcal-agent
#12
Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro, Marliete Carvalho Costa, Thaís Furtado Ferreira Magalhães, Hellem Cristina Silva Carneiro, Lorena Vívien Oliveira, Alide Caroline Lima Fontes, Julliana Ribeiro Alves Santos, Gabriela Freitas Ferreira, Glauber Ribeiro de Sousa Araujo, Vinícius Alves, Susana Frases, Tatiane Alves Paixão, Maria Aparecida de Resende Stoianoff, Daniel Assis Santos
Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii leads to pneumonia and meningoencephalitis, and has a high mortality rate worldwide due to the inadequacy of available therapy and increasing drug resistance. There is a need to develop effective treatments, and drug repositioning is an interesting alternative to achieve new strategies to treat cryptococcosis. Atorvastatin (ATO), a statin currently used to treat hypercholesterolaemia, was tested in this study as an adjuvant to control infections caused by C. gattii...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357403/effect-of-prior-atorvastatin-treatment-on-the-frequency-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-and-evolution-of-biomarkers-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#13
Yuetian Yu, Cheng Zhu, Chunyan Liu, Yuan Gao
Objective. To investigate whether prior treatment of atorvastatin reduces the frequency of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). Methods. Totally, 492 patients with acute ischemic stroke and Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were assigned to prior atorvastatin treatment group (n = 268, PG) and no prior treatment group (n = 224, NG). All the patients were given 20 mg atorvastatin every night during their hospital stay. HAP frequency and 28-day mortality were measured. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers [white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] were tested...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238924/postoperative-infections-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-cardiac-events-in-vascular-patients
#14
Tristen T Chun, Manuel Garcia-Toca, James F Eng, Jeffrey Slaiby, Edward J Marcaccio, William G Cioffi, Daithi S Heffernan
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in perioperative care, the rate of cardiac events in vascular patients remains high. We have previously shown that infections in trauma patients are associated with higher rates of subsequent cardiac complications, likely due to the additive effect of a second hit of an infection following the trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between postoperative infections and subsequent cardiac events in vascular patients...
May 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207437/lack-of-association-between-preoperative-statin-use-and-respiratory-and-neurologic-complications-after-cardiac-surgery
#15
Ryu Komatsu, Huseyin Oguz Yilmaz, Jing You, C Allen Bashour, Shobana Rajan, Edward G Soltesz, Daniel I Sessler, Alparslan Turan
BACKGROUND: Statins may reduce the risk of pulmonary and neurologic complications after cardiac surgery. METHODS: The authors acquired data for adults who had coronary artery bypass graft, valve surgery, or combined procedures. The authors matched patients who took statins preoperatively to patients who did not. First, the authors assessed the association between preoperative statin use and the primary outcomes of prolonged ventilation (more than 24 h), pneumonia (positive cultures of sputum, transtracheal fluid, bronchial washings, and/or clinical findings consistent with the diagnosis of pneumonia), and in-hospital all-cause mortality, using logistic regressions...
May 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148539/dtb-select-2-february-2017
#16
(no author information available yet)
MHRA clarifies spironolactone advice ● Statin dosing: morning or evening? ● PPI use and risk of community-acquired pneumonia ● Non-inferiority trials: caution needed ● CV safety of celecoxib? ● ADRs and emergency department visits ● Study questions use of duloxetine in stress incontinence ● New oral anticoagulants: more on GI bleeding risk.
February 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051279/carotid-intima-media-thickness-and-blood-biomarkers-of-atherosclerosis-in-patients-after-stroke-or-myocardial-infarction
#17
Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzebska, Michał A Karlinski, Beata Błazejewska-Hyzorek, Iwona Sarzynska-Dlugosz, Krzysztof J Filipiak, Anna Czlonkowska
AIM: To test if circulating levels of markers of inflammation, endothelial function, and chronic infections, as well as association between these markers and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), depend on the stage of atherosclerosis expressed as a history of a major vascular event. METHODS: The associations were analyzed separately in 75 healthy controls, 79 patients 3-6 months after the first-ever non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke (IS), and 37 patients 3-6 months after the first-ever myocardial infarction (MI)...
December 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960215/nonantibiotic-adjunctive-therapies-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-corticosteroids-and-beyond-where-are-we-with-them
#18
Oriol Sibila, Ana Rodrigo-Troyano, Antoni Torres
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. Despite advances in antibiotic treatments, mortality among patients with CAP is still high. For this reason, interest has been focused on nonantibiotic therapeutic measures directed to the host response rather than the microorganism. The development of an efficacious adjunctive treatment has important implications for reducing mortality in CAP. Some clinical studies performed in the last decade have shown a clinically beneficial effect of corticosteroids, possibly by diminishing local and systemic inflammatory host response...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943383/statin-potency-and-the-risk-of-hospitalization-for-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Ju-Young Shin, Maria Eberg, Pierre Ernst, Kristian B Filion
AIM: Previous studies suggest that statins may have beneficial respiratory effects. However, it is unclear if these purported benefits vary with statin potency. Our objective was to determine if higher potency statins, compared with lower potency statins, were associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (HCAP). METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control analysis of a retrospective, population-based cohort of new users of statins using data extracted from the UK's Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics...
June 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942512/treating-the-host-response-to-emerging-virus-diseases-lessons-learned-from-sepsis-pneumonia-influenza-and-ebola
#20
REVIEW
David S Fedson
There is an ongoing threat of epidemic or pandemic diseases that could be caused by influenza, Ebola or other emerging viruses. It will be difficult and costly to develop new drugs that target each of these viruses. Statins and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been effective in treating patients with sepsis, pneumonia and influenza, and a statin/ARB combination appeared to dramatically reduce mortality during the recent Ebola outbreak. These drugs target (among other things) the endothelial dysfunction found in all of these diseases...
November 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
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