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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922256/statins-in-critical-care-to-give-or-not-to-give
#1
Amr S Omar, Samy Hanoura, Haifa M Aljanubi, Ahmed Mahfouz
Owing to statin's immune modulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic and endothelial function actions, they are widely used in the critical care settings in diverse disease scenarios. We aim to explore the evidence to globalize the utilization of statins in the intensive care practice for different indications. We carried out a search of the PubMed, Cochrane and EMBASE databases up to January 2016. We included review articles, meta-analyses, and original trials on the effects of statin therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) combining the following MESH terms: 'satins', 'intensive care, 'cardiac surgery', 'sepsis', 'acute respiratory distress syndrome' 'pneumonia', subarachnoid hemorrhage', traumatic brain injury and 'critical illness'...
December 6, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788932/causes-and-predictors-of-death-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-from-the-heart-and-soul-study
#2
Elizabeth Y Wang, Jeffrey Dixson, Nelson B Schiller, Mary A Whooley
Although the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States has increased during the past 25 years, cardiovascular mortality has decreased due to advances in CHD therapy and prevention. We sought to determine the proportion of patients with CHD who die from cardiovascular versus noncardiovascular causes and the causes and predictors of death, in a cohort of patients with CHD. The Heart and Soul Study enrolled 1,024 participants with stable CHD from 2000 to 2002 and followed them for 10 years...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720881/bronchiectasis-severity-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-vascular-disease-in-a-bronchiectasis-cohort
#3
Ieuan Edward Shepherd Evans, Pallavi Bedi, Tom M Quinn, Adam T Hill
BACKGROUND: There is increased interest in the association of vascular disease with COPD and pneumonia, but there is a lack of research in this area with patients with bronchiectasis. METHODS: A retrospective study of 400 patients attending a specialist bronchiectasis clinic in NHS Lothian, Edinburgh, UK between May 2013 and September 2014 was conducted. The study assessed the prevalence of vascular disease (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and atrial fibrillation)...
October 6, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686457/the-effect-of-statins-on-influenza-like-illness-morbidity-and-mortality
#4
Paul Brassard, Jennifer W Wu, Pierre Ernst, Sophie Dell'Aniello, Brielan Smiechowski, Samy Suissa
PURPOSE: The effect of statins on cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses may impact on the prognosis of influenza. We assessed whether statin use decreases the incidence of adverse influenza-related outcomes. Additionally, we used a new-user study design to minimize healthy user bias. We further examined the possibility of non-causal associations by using unrelated outcomes. METHODS: We used the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to identify all patients aged 30 or older diagnosed with influenza-like illness during 1997-2010...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583588/community-acquired-pneumonia-still-a-major-burden-of-disease
#5
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Describe recent studies that may impact on the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). RECENT FINDINGS: CAP continues to be associated with a considerable burden of disease. Diagnosis remains problematic, and various biomarkers are neither accurate in the diagnosis of the presence of CAP nor superior to standard severity of illness scores in predicting outcome. Current evidence indicates that patients with nonsevere CAP can be effectively treated with antibiotic monotherapy, whereas those with severe infection, particularly ICU cases, do best with early initiation of combination antibiotic therapy...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403321/statins-and-morbidity-and-mortality-in-copd-in-the-comic-study-a-prospective-copd-cohort-study
#6
Emanuel Citgez, Job van der Palen, Kirsten Koehorst-Ter Huurne, Kris Movig, Paul van der Valk, Marjolein Brusse-Keizer
BACKGROUND: Both chronic inflammation and cardiovascular comorbidity play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Statins could be a potential adjunct therapy. The additional effects of statins in COPD are, however, still under discussion. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association of statin use with clinical outcomes in a well-described COPD cohort. METHODS: 795 patients of the Cohort of Mortality and Inflammation in COPD (COMIC) study were divided into statin users or not...
2016: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220368/impact-of-hospitalization-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-on-adherence-to-statins-among-older-adults
#7
Ian M Kronish, Joseph S Ross, Hong Zhao, Paul Muntner
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of hospitalization for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on subsequent adherence to statins. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using administrative claims from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we identified a cohort of Medicare patients aged ≥65 years, hospitalized from 2007 to 2011, taking statins in the year before AMI hospitalization (n=6618). We then determined the proportion of patients nonadherent to statins (proportion of days covered <80%) in the year before AMI hospitalization who became statin adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) in the year after AMI hospitalization...
July 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169476/statin-use-and-hospital-length-of-stay-among-adults-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Fiona Havers, Anna M Bramley, Lyn Finelli, Carrie Reed, Wesley H Self, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Robert Balk, D Mark Courtney, Timothy D Girard, Evan J Anderson, Carlos G Grijalva, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Seema Jain
BACKGROUND: Prior retrospective studies suggest that statins may benefit patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, prospective studies of the impact of statins on CAP outcomes are needed. We determined whether statin use was associated with improved outcomes in adults hospitalized with CAP. METHODS: Adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with CAP were prospectively enrolled at 3 hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, and 2 hospitals in Nashville, Tennessee, from January 2010-June 2012...
June 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26823081/statin-use-associated-with-a-reduced-risk-of-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction-a-nested-case-control-study
#9
Chao-Feng Lin, Ya-Hui Chang, Ju-Chi Liu, Ming-Tsang Chuang, Li-Nien Chien
BACKGROUND: Statins have been reported to prevent adverse cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). However, the association of statin use and the risk of pneumonia requiring hospitalization in MI patients remains unclear. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted by using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Among 24,975 patients with MI, 2686 case patients with pneumonia requiring hospitalization were age- and sex-matched with 10,726 control patients using the incidence density sampling approach...
2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26702235/serum-total-cholesterol-levels-would-predict-nosocomial-infections-after-gastrointestinal-surgery
#10
Mitsuaki Morimoto, Yoshikazu Nakamura, Yoshikazu Yasuda, Alan T Lefor, Takashi Nagaie, Naohiro Sata, Yoshinori Hosoya, Hisanaga Horie, Koji Koinuma
It has been suggested that total cholesterol levels and the use of statin medications are associated with the incidence of complications after gastrointestinal surgery. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative total cholesterol levels are associated with a higher risk of postoperative infections and mortality. A total of 2211 patients undergoing general surgical procedures between December 2006 and November 2008 at Iizuka Hospital and between January 2010 and March 2012 at Jichi Medical University Hospital were reviewed...
August 2015: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676277/the-effect-of-statins-use-on-the-risk-and-outcome-of-acute-bacterial-infections-in-adult-patients
#11
Mohammad Nassaji, Raheb Ghorbani, Reza Kiaee Afshar
BACKGROUND: Beyond their lipid-lowering abilities, statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. In view of these effects, a growing interest has emerged in the possible role of statins, in preventing or decreasing morbidity and mortality from infection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether previous statin use is associated with reduced risk of acute bacterial infections and better outcome of these infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this historical cohort study, consecutive adult patients admitted with acute bacterial infection were enrolled...
November 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26517133/statins-reduce-mortality-after-non-severe-but-not-after-severe-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Mingwang Jia, Wenjie Huang, Li Li, Zhong Xu, Lichan Wu
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of statins on mortality for patients with non-severe pneumonia or severe pneumonia. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched for the association between statins and non-severe/severe pneumonia. Eligible articles were analyzed in Stata 12.0. RESULTS: The database search yielded a total of 566 potential publications, 24 studies involving 312,309 patients met the eligibility criteria...
2015: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26484040/risk-factors-for-in-hospital-mortality-in-patients-starting-hemodialysis
#13
Eun Hui Bae, Ha Yeon Kim, Yong Un Kang, Chang Seong Kim, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
BACKGROUND: Incident hemodialysis patients have the highest mortality in the first several months after starting dialysis. This study evaluated the in-hospital mortality rate after hemodialysis initiation, as well as related risk factors. METHODS: We examined in-hospital mortality and related factors in 2,692 patients starting incident hemodialysis. The study population included patients with acute kidney injury, acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease, and chronic kidney disease...
September 2015: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26023727/lipidome-and-transcriptome-profiling-of-pneumolysin-intoxication-identifies-networks-involved-in-statin-conferred-protection-of-airway-epithelial-cells
#14
Sarah Statt, Jhen-Wei Ruan, Chih-Ting Huang, Reen Wu, Cheng-Yuan Kao
Pneumonia remains one of the leading causes of death in both adults and children worldwide. Despite the adoption of a wide variety of therapeutics, the mortality from community-acquired pneumonia has remained relatively constant. Although viral and fungal acute airway infections can result in pneumonia, bacteria are the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, with Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated in nearly 50% of cases. Pneumolysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin or pore-forming toxin produced by Streptococcus pneumonia and has been shown to play a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25951315/community-acquired-pneumonia-pathogenesis-of-acute-cardiac-events-and-potential-adjunctive-therapies
#15
REVIEW
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and access to sophisticated intensive care facilities, bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to carry an unacceptably high mortality rate of 10% to 15% in hospitalized cases. CAP, considered by many to be the most underestimated disease worldwide, poses a particular threat to the elderly whose numbers are steadily increasing in developed countries. Indeed, elderly patients with severe CAP, as well as those with other risk factors, are at significant risk for development of inflammation-mediated acute cardiac events that may undermine the success of antimicrobial therapy...
August 2015: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25875913/panniculectomy-in-end-stage-renal-disease-six-year-experience-of-performing-panniculectomy-in-preparation-for-renal-transplant
#16
Chad M Bailey, Christoph Troppmann, Jennifer Kuo, Michael S Wong
BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease evaluated for renal transplantation are frequently declined secondary to obesity and decreased functional status. As a result, many of these patients lose weight intentionally in an effort to gain candidacy on the transplant waiting list. This frequently produces a panniculus encompassing the lower abdominal surgical site used for renal transplantation. These patients are declined for renal transplantation secondary to predictable wound-healing complications...
May 2015: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25874372/statin-conferred-enhanced-cellular-resistance-against-bacterial-pore-forming-toxins-in-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Sarah Statt, Jhen-Wei Ruan, Li-Yin Hung, Ching-Yun Chang, Chih-Ting Huang, Jae Hyang Lim, Jian-Dong Li, Reen Wu, Cheng-Yuan Kao
Statins are widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition to their inhibitory effects on cholesterol synthesis, statins have beneficial effects in patients with sepsis and pneumonia, although molecular mechanisms have mostly remained unclear. Using human airway epithelial cells as a proper in vitro model, we show that prior exposure to physiological nanomolar serum concentrations of simvastatin (ranging from 10-1,000 nM) confers significant cellular resistance to the cytotoxicity of pneumolysin, a pore-forming toxin and the main virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae...
November 2015: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25798054/no-significant-detectable-anti-infection-effects-of-aspirin-and-statins-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Josef Yayan
BACKGROUND: Past studies have shown that aspirin and statins decrease the rate and severity of exacerbation, the rate of hospitalization, and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although these studies are relatively new, there is evidence that new therapeutic strategies could prevent exacerbation of COPD. TRIAL DESIGN: This article examines retrospectively the possibility of using aspirin and statins to prevent exacerbation and infection in patients with COPD...
2015: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25759433/increased-statin-prescribing-does-not-lower-pneumonia-risk
#19
Linnea A Polgreen, Elizabeth A Cook, John M Brooks, Yuexin Tang, Philip M Polgreen
BACKGROUND: Investigators have attributed protective effects of statins against pneumonia and other infections. However, these reports are based on observational data where treatments are not assigned randomly. We aimed to determine if the protective effects of statins against pneumonia are due to nonrandom treatment assignment. METHODS: We built a cohort consisting of 124 695 Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for which we had complete claims data...
June 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25673981/cardiovascular-and-inflammatory-effects-of-simvastatin-therapy-in-patients-with-copd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michelle E John, John R Cockcroft, Tricia M McKeever, William R Coward, Dennis J Shale, Simon R Johnson, Jim G Thornton, Timothy W Harrison, Alan J Knox, Charlotte E Bolton
BACKGROUND: There is excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Aortic stiffness, an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, and systemic and airway inflammation are increased in patients with the disease. Statins modulate aortic stiffness and have anti-inflammatory properties. A proof-of-principle, double-blind, randomized trial determined if 6 weeks of simvastatin 20 mg once daily reduced aortic stiffness and systemic and airway inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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