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Yi-Feng Miao, Tao Peng, Melanie R Moody, Melvin E Klegerman, Jaroslaw Aronowski, James Grotta, David D McPherson, Hyunggun Kim, Shao-Ling Huang
Xenon (Xe), a noble gas, has promising neuroprotective properties with no proven adverse side-effects. We evaluated neuroprotective effects of Xe delivered by Xe-containing echogenic liposomes (Xe-ELIP) via ultrasound-controlled cerebral drug release on early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The Xe-ELIP structure was evaluated by ultrasound imaging, electron microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: Sham, SAH, SAH treated with Xe-ELIP, empty ELIP, or Xe-saturated saline...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
André Kristopher Eckhardt, Dennis Gerbig, Peter R Schreiner
Although frequently employed, heavy atom kinetic isotope effects (KIE) have not been reported for quantum mechanical tunneling reactions. Here we examine the secondary KIE through 13C substitution of the carbene atom in methylhydroxycarbene (H3C-C̈-OH) in its [1,2]H tunneling shift reaction to acetaldehyde (H3C-CHO). Our study employs matrix isolation IR spectroscopy in various inert gases and quantum chemical computations. Depending on the choice of the matrix host gas the KIE varies within a range of 1.0 in xenon and 1...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Peiqing Cai, Xiangfu Wang, Hyo Jin Seo
A Mn4+ doped Na2WO2F4 phosphor was synthesized through a two-step wet chemical method. The relationship between crystal structure and luminescence properties is discussed and unusual strong intense zero phonon lines (ZPLs) have been found in a distorted octahedral environment. The power dependent luminescence spectra exhibit the existence of down conversion luminescence intensity saturation under a high pumping power limit. The fluorescence intensity ratios of anti-Stokes bands to the ZPL and Stokes bands reveal an obvious temperature dependent relationship based on thermal de-population from the low states to the upper states of an intrinsic Mn4+ 2Eg → 4A2g transition...
January 4, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Rita Campos-Pires, Mariia Koziakova, Amina Yonis, Ashni Pau, Warren Macdonald, Katie Harris, Christopher Edge, Nicholas P Franks, Peter Mahoney, Robert Dickinson
The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of the inert gas xenon as a treatment for blast-induced traumatic brain injury in an in vitro laboratory model. We developed a novel blast traumatic brain injury model using C57BL/6N mouse organotypic hippocampal brain-slice cultures exposed to a single shockwave, with the resulting injury quantified using propidium iodide fluorescence. A shock tube blast generator was used to simulate open field explosive blast shockwaves, modeled by the Friedlander waveform...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jörg Döpfert, Matthias Schnurr, Martin Kunth, Honor May Rose, Andreas Hennig, Leif Schröder
We propose a method to dynamically monitor the progress of an enzymatic reaction using NMR of hyperpolarized 129 Xe in a host-guest system. It is based on a displacement assay originally designed for fluorescence experiments that exploits the competitive binding of the enzymatic product on the one hand and a reporter dye on the other hand to a supramolecular host. Recently, this assay has been successfully transferred to NMR, using xenon as a reporter, cucurbit[6]uril as supramolecular host, and Hyper-CEST as detection technique...
December 23, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Wei Yuan, Haibo Peng, Mengli Sun, Xin Du, Peng Lv, Yan Zhao, Fengfei Liu, Bingtao Zhang, Xiaoyang Zhang, Liang Chen, Tieshan Wang
Mechanical properties such as hardness and modulus of sodium borosilicate (NBS) glasses in irradiation conditions were studied extensively in recent years. With irradiation of heavy ions, a trend that the hardness of NBS glasses decreased and then stabilized with increase of dose has been reported. Variations in network structures were suggested for the decrease of hardness after irradiation. However, details of these variations in a network of glass are not clear yet. In this paper, molecular dynamics was applied to simulate the network variations in a type of NBS glass and the changes in hardness after xenon irradiation...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
F Labaye, M Gaponenko, V J Wittwer, A Diebold, C Paradis, N Modsching, L Merceron, F Emaury, I J Graumann, C R Phillips, C J Saraceno, C Kränkel, U Keller, T Südmeyer
We demonstrate a compact extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source based on high-harmonic generation (HHG) driven directly inside the cavity of a mode-locked thin-disk laser oscillator. The laser is directly diode-pumped at a power of only 51 W and operates at a wavelength of 1034 nm and a 17.35 MHz repetition rate. We drive HHG in a high-pressure xenon gas jet with an intracavity peak intensity of 2.8×1013  W/cm2 and 320 W of intracavity average power. Despite the high-pressure gas jet, the laser operates at high stability...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Yinyu Zhang, Philipp Kellner, Daniel Adolph, Danilo Zille, Philipp Wustelt, Daniel Würzler, Slawomir Skruszewicz, Max Möller, A Max Sayler, Gerhard G Paulus
A high-precision, single-shot, and real-time carrier-envelope phase (CEP) measurement at 1.8 μm laser wavelength based on stereographic photoelectron spectroscopy is presented. A precision of the CEP measurement of 120 mrad for each and every individual laser shot for a 1 kHz pulse train with randomly varying CEP is demonstrated. Simultaneous to the CEP measurement, the pulse lengths are characterized by evaluating the spatial asymmetry of the measured above-threshold ionization (ATI) spectra of xenon and referenced to a standard pulse-duration measurement based on frequency-resolved optical gating...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Brandon Zanette, Elaine Stirrat, Salomeh Jelveh, Andrew Hope, Giles Santyr
PURPOSE: To map physiological gas exchange parameters using dissolved hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe in a rat model of regional radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) with spiral-IDEAL and the model of xenon exchange (MOXE). Results are compared to quantitative histology of pulmonary tissue and red blood cell (RBC) distribution. METHODS: Two cohorts (n=6 each) of age-matched rats were used. One was irradiated in the right-medial lung, producing regional injury. Gas exchange was mapped four weeks post-irradiation by imaging dissolved-phase HP 129 Xe using spiral-IDEAL at five gas exchange timepoints using a clinical 1...
December 14, 2017: Medical Physics
K Yokawa, T Kagenishi, A Pavlovic, S Gall, M Weiland, S Mancuso, F Baluška
Background and Aims: Anaesthesia for medical purposes was introduced in the 19th century. However, the physiological mode of anaesthetic drug actions on the nervous system remains unclear. One of the remaining questions is how these different compounds, with no structural similarities and even chemically inert elements such as the noble gas xenon, act as anaesthetic agents inducing loss of consciousness. The main goal here was to determine if anaesthetics affect the same or similar processes in plants as in animals and humans...
December 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
Ram Prakash, Afaque M Hossain, U N Pal, N Kumar, K Khairnar, M Krishna Mohan
A structurally simple dielectric barrier discharge based mercury-free plasma UV-light source has been developed for efficient water disinfection. The source comprises of a dielectric barrier discharge arrangement between two co-axial quartz tubes with an optimized gas gap. The outer electrode is an aluminium baked foil tape arranged in a helical form with optimized pitch, while the inner electrode is a hollow aluminium metallic rod, hermetically sealed. Strong bands peaking at wavelengths 172 nm and 253 nm, along with a weak band peaking at wavelength 265 nm have been simultaneously observed due to plasma radiation from the admixture of xenon and iodine gases...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rattawan Poodproh, Supavadee Kaewmeechai, Ladda Leelawatwattana, Porntip Prapunpoj
Transthyretin (TTR) is a transporter for thyroid hormone (TH) and retinol, the latter via binding with retinol binding protein (RBP). Both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the TTR subunit are located in close proximity to the central binding channel for ligands. During the evolution of vertebrates, these regions changed in length and hydropathy. The changes in the N-terminal sequence were demonstrated to affect the binding affinities for THs and RBP. Here, the effects of changes in the C-terminal sequence were determined...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
Yoshiharu Ohno, Yasuko Fujisawa, Daisuke Takenaka, Shigeo Kaminaga, Shinichiro Seki, Naoki Sugihara, Takeshi Yoshikawa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the capability of xenon-enhanced area-detector CT (ADCT) performed with a subtraction technique and coregistered 81mKr-ventilation SPECT/CT for the assessment of pulmonary functional loss and disease severity in smokers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-six consecutive smokers (32 men and 14 women; mean age, 67.0 years) underwent prospective unenhanced and xenon-enhanced ADCT, 81mKr-ventilation SPECT/CT, and pulmonary function tests...
December 8, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
E Aprile, J Aalbers, F Agostini, M Alfonsi, F D Amaro, M Anthony, F Arneodo, P Barrow, L Baudis, B Bauermeister, M L Benabderrahmane, T Berger, P A Breur, A Brown, A Brown, E Brown, S Bruenner, G Bruno, R Budnik, L Bütikofer, J Calvén, J M R Cardoso, M Cervantes, D Cichon, D Coderre, A P Colijn, J Conrad, J P Cussonneau, M P Decowski, P de Perio, P Di Gangi, A Di Giovanni, S Diglio, G Eurin, J Fei, A D Ferella, A Fieguth, W Fulgione, A Gallo Rosso, M Galloway, F Gao, M Garbini, R Gardner, C Geis, L W Goetzke, L Grandi, Z Greene, C Grignon, C Hasterok, E Hogenbirk, J Howlett, R Itay, B Kaminsky, S Kazama, G Kessler, A Kish, H Landsman, R F Lang, D Lellouch, L Levinson, Q Lin, S Lindemann, M Lindner, F Lombardi, J A M Lopes, A Manfredini, I Mariş, T Marrodán Undagoitia, J Masbou, F V Massoli, D Masson, D Mayani, M Messina, K Micheneau, A Molinario, K Morå, M Murra, J Naganoma, K Ni, U Oberlack, P Pakarha, B Pelssers, R Persiani, F Piastra, J Pienaar, V Pizzella, M-C Piro, G Plante, N Priel, L Rauch, S Reichard, C Reuter, B Riedel, A Rizzo, S Rosendahl, N Rupp, R Saldanha, J M F Dos Santos, G Sartorelli, M Scheibelhut, S Schindler, J Schreiner, M Schumann, L Scotto Lavina, M Selvi, P Shagin, E Shockley, M Silva, H Simgen, M V Sivers, A Stein, S Thapa, D Thers, A Tiseni, G Trinchero, C Tunnell, M Vargas, N Upole, H Wang, Z Wang, Y Wei, C Weinheimer, J Wulf, J Ye, Y Zhang, T Zhu
We report the first dark matter search results from XENON1T, a ∼2000-kg-target-mass dual-phase (liquid-gas) xenon time projection chamber in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy and the first ton-scale detector of this kind. The blinded search used 34.2 live days of data acquired between November 2016 and January 2017. Inside the (1042±12)-kg fiducial mass and in the [5,40]  keV_{nr} energy range of interest for weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter searches, the electronic recoil background was (1...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Gaspard Huber, Estelle Léonce, Orsola Baydoun, Nicolas De Rycke, Thierry Brotin, Patrick Berthault
Cryptophanes, cage-molecules constituted of aromatic bowls, are now well recognized as powerful xenon hosts in 129 Xe NMR-based biosensing. In the quest of a dual probe that can be addressed only by NMR we have studied three cryptophanes bearing a tether with an unsaturated bond. The idea behind this is to build probes that can be detected both via hyperpolarised 129 Xe NMR and Para-Hydrogen Induced Polarisation (PHIP) 1 H NMR. Only two of the three cryptophanes experience a sufficiently fast hydrogenation enabling the PHIP effect...
December 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Sergey V Ryazantsev, Jan Lundell, Vladimir I Feldman, Leonid Khriachtchev
We report on the complex of a noble-gas hydride HXeOH with carbon monoxide. This species is prepared via the annealing-induced H + Xe + OH···CO reaction in a xenon matrix, the OH···CO complexes being produced by VUV photolysis of the H2O···CO complexes. The H-Xe stretching mode of the HXeOH···CO complex absorbs at 1590.3 cm-1 and it is blue-shifted by 12.7 cm-1 from the H-Xe stretching band of HXeOH monomer. The observed blue shift indicates the stabilization of the H-Xe bond upon complexation, which is characteristic of complexes of noble-gas hydrides...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
M Sabzian, M N Nasrabadi, M Haji-Hosseini
A xenon dynamic adsorption setup based on granular activated carbon packed column was developed. The adsorption behavior of xenon under different experimental conditions was studied and the results used to design an appropriate adsorber column for specific conditions. The resulting radioxenon gas extraction and quantification setup was evaluated based on an inter-comparison exercise and standard sample analysis results. The results showed that the quantification setup achieves experimental rules with uncertainty of ±3%...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Samira Ebdali, Bijan Hashemi, Hassan Hashemi, Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur, Soheila Asgari
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) on time, frequency, and time-frequency components of Xenon flash ERG signals using Fourier and wavelet transforms. METHODS: Xenon flash ERG was done in 18 eyes of nine RP patients and 20 normal eyes. After examining latency and amplitude, Fourier and wavelet transforms were performed using MATLAB software. Then, we extracted the mode frequency from the Fourier transform and main frequencies and their occurrence time from the wavelet transform...
November 30, 2017: International Ophthalmology
Anita J Crompton, Kelum A A Gamage, Steven Bell, Andrew P Wilson, Alex Jenkins, Divyesh Trivedi
In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC) wavelength range (180-280 nm). A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
Taye B Demissie, Kenneth Ruud, Jørn Hedløy Hansen
The host-guest chemistry of cryptophanes is an active research area because of its applications in sensor design targetting small molecules and atoms in environmental and medical sciences. As such, the computational prediction of binding energies and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of different cryptophane complexes are of interest to both theoreticians and experimentalists working in host-guest based sensor development. Herein we present a study of 10 known and some newly proposed cryptophanes using density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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