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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531092/effective-silicon-nanowire-arrays-wo3-core-shell-photoelectrode-for-neutral-ph-water-splitting
#1
Zhen Chen, Ning Minghui, Ge Ma, Qingguo Meng, Yongguang Zhang, Jinwei Gao, Mingliang Jin, Zhihong Chen, Mingzhe Yuan, Xin Wang, Junming Liu, Guofu Zhou
We report the first demonstration of a high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting reaction using a novel Si NWs/WO3 core/shell photoanode prepared by a mild and inexpensive metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) process followed by dip-coating, airing and annealing methods. The dense and vertically aligned Si NWs/WO3 core/shell nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In comparison to planar n-Si, Si NWs and planar Si/WO3, the Si NWs/WO3 samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrent over the entire potential sweep range...
May 22, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527873/comparison-of-xenon-with-led-illuminant-in-difficult-and-inhalation-injury-airway-scenario-a-randomized-crossover-manikin-study
#2
Andreas Moritz, Johannes Prottengeier, Joachim Schmidt
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a Xenon halogen with a light-emitting diode (LED) laryngoscope light handle in a difficult airway scenario, as well as in an inhalation injury airway scenario that combines a difficult airway and a limited view. METHODS: We recruited forty-two anesthetists into a randomized crossover trial. Each performed tracheal intubation (TI) with a Xenon halogen and a LED light handle in the two manikin scenarios...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516968/preliminary-experience-with-4k-ultra-high-definition-endoscope-analysis-of-pros-and-cons-in-skull-base-surgery
#3
M Rigante, G La Rocca, L Lauretti, G Q D'Alessandris, A Mangiola, C Anile, A Olivi, G Paludetti
During the last two decades endoscopic skull base surgery observed a continuous technical and technological development 3D endoscopy and ultra High Definition (HD) endoscopy have provided great advances in terms of visualisation and spatial resolution. Ultra-high definition (UHD) 4K systems, recently introduced in the clinical practice, will shape next steps forward especially in skull base surgery field. Patients were operated on through transnasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approaches performed using Olympus NBI 4K UHD endoscope with a 4 mm 0° Ultra Telescope, 300 W xenon lamp (CLV-S400) predisposed for narrow band imaging (NBI) technology connected through a camera head to a high-quality control unit (OTV-S400 - VISERA 4K UHD) (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan)...
June 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516958/the-origin-and-degassing-history-of-the-earth-s-atmosphere-revealed-by-archean-xenon
#4
Guillaume Avice, Bernard Marty, Ray Burgess
Xenon (Xe) is an exceptional tracer for investigating the origin and fate of volatile elements on Earth. The initial isotopic composition of atmospheric Xe remains unknown, as do the mechanisms involved in its depletion and isotopic fractionation compared with other reservoirs in the solar system. Here we present high precision analyses of noble gases trapped in fluid inclusions of Archean quartz (Barberton, South Africa) that reveal the isotopic composition of the paleo-atmosphere at ≈3.3 Ga. The Archean atmospheric Xe is mass-dependently fractionated by 12...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510483/improvement-in-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-after-bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-quantitative-image-analysis
#5
Sei Won Lee, Sang Min Lee, So Youn Shin, Tai Sun Park, Sang Young Oh, Namkug Kim, Yoonki Hong, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Joon Beom Seo
Purpose To evaluate whether bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) increases ventilation and therefore improves ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. Materials and Methods All patients provided written informed consent to be included in this study, which was approved by the Institutional Review Board (2013-0368) of Asan Medical Center. The physiologic changes that occurred after BLVR were measured by using xenon-enhanced ventilation and iodine-enhanced perfusion dual-energy computed tomography (CT). Patients with severe emphysema plus hyperinflation who did not respond to usual treatments were eligible...
May 16, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505626/discrimination-between-patients-with-alzheimer-disease-and-healthy-subjects-using-layer-analysis-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-xenon-solubility-coefficient-in-xenon-enhanced-computed-tomography
#6
Shigeru Sase, Homaro Yamamoto, Ena Kawashima, Xin Tan, Yutaka Sawa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a method for discriminating between patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy subjects using layer analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and xenon solubility coefficient (λ) in xenon-enhanced computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Xenon-enhanced CT was performed on 27 patients with AD (81.7 [3.3] years old) and 15 healthy volunteers (78.6 [4.0] years old) using a wide volume CT. For each subject, we created the first- (surface) to sixth-layer images of CBF and λ for the 6 viewing directions (layer thickness, 5 mm)...
May 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475947/depolarization-of-nuclear-spin-polarized-129-xe-gas-by-dark-rubidium-during-spin-exchange-optical-pumping
#7
M A Antonacci, Alex Burant, Wolfgang Wagner, Rosa T Branca
Continuous-flow spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) continues to serve as the most widespread method of polarizing (129)Xe for magnetic resonance experiments. Unfortunately, continuous-flow SEOP still suffers from as-yet unidentified inefficiencies that prevent the production of large volumes of xenon with a nuclear spin polarization close to theoretically calculated values. In this work we use a combination of ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) measurements to study the effects of dark Rb vapor on hyperpolarized (129)Xe in situ during continuous-flow SEOP...
June 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467095/interfacial-growth-of-tio2-rgo-composite-by-pickering-emulsion-for-photocatalytic-degradation
#8
Shenping Zhang, Jian Xu, Jun Hu, Changzheng Cui, Honglai Liu
A 2D sandwich-like TiO2-rGO composite was fabricated by the Pickering emulsion approach to improve the photocatalytic efficiency. Through an in situ growth of antase-TiO2 nanoparticles on the interface of O/W type GO Pickering emulsion, TiO2 nanoparticles were closely and densely packed on the surface of well-exfoliated rGO sheets; meanwhile, many mesoporous voids acting as the adsorption chamber and microreactor were produced. Evaluated by methylene blue (MB) degradation, its photocatalytic activity was prominent compared with the common TiO2-based photocatalyst, with the rate constants 5 and 3...
May 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456263/note-energy-calibration-of-a-femtosecond-photoelectron-imaging-detector-with-correction-for-the-ponderomotive-shift-of-atomic-ionization-energies
#9
O Hüter, F Temps
Femtosecond photoelectron imaging spectroscopy is a powerful technique for following state-resolved molecular transformations in complex coupled potential energy landscapes. To avoid unwanted nonlinear side-effects, the employed laser pulse energies are usually reduced to minimal values. However, the energy calibration of the photoelectron imaging detector is ideally performed using multi-photon above-threshold ionization of suitable atomic species, for which rather high laser intensities are required. In this work, we show that the calibration spectra of xenon obtained with high laser pulse energies cannot be directly used for the evaluation of molecular photoelectron spectra recorded using low-energy laser pulses...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452761/respiratory-gated-kes-imaging-of-a-rat-model-of-acute-lung-injury-at-the-canadian-light-source
#10
P Deman, S Tan, G Belev, N Samadi, M Martinson, D Chapman, N L Ford
In this study, contrast-enhanced X-ray tomographic imaging for monitoring and quantifying respiratory disease in preclinical rodent models is proposed. A K-edge imaging method has been developed at the Canadian Light Source to very accurately obtain measurements of the concentration of iodinated contrast agent in the pulmonary vasculature and inhaled xenon in the airspaces of rats. To compare the iodine and xenon concentration maps, a scout projection image was acquired to define the region of interest within the thorax for imaging and to ensure the same locations were imaged in each K-edge subtraction (KES) acquisition...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432968/applicability-of-light-sources-and-the-inner-filter-effect-in-uv-acetylacetone-and-uv-h2o2-processes
#11
Bingdang Wu, Minghui Yang, Ran Yin, Shujuan Zhang
Light source is a crucial factor in the application of a photochemical process, which determines the energy efficiency. The performances of acetylacetone (AA) in conversion of aqueous contaminants under irradiation with a low-pressure mercury lamp, a medium-pressure mercury lamp, a xenon lamp, and natural sunlight were investigated and compared with those of H2O2 as reference. In all cases, AA was superior to H2O2 in the degradation of Acid Orange 7. Using combinations of the different light sources with various cut-off and band-pass filters, the spectra responses of the absorbed photons in the UV/AA and UV/H2O2 processes were determined for two colored and two colorless compounds...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422180/patterning-graphene-film-by-magnetic-assisted-uv-ozonation
#12
Yixuan Wu, Haihua Tao, Shubin Su, Huan Yue, Hao Li, Ziyu Zhang, Zhenhua Ni, Xianfeng Chen
Developing an alternative method for fabricating microscale graphene patterns that overcomes the obstacles of organic contamination, linewidth resolution, and substrate damaging is paramount for applications in optoelectronics. Here we propose to pattern chemical vapor deposition grown graphene film through a stencil mask by magnetic-assisted ultraviolet (UV) ozonation under irradiation of a xenon excimer lamp. In this process, the paramagnetic oxygen molecules and photochemically generated oxygen radicals are magnetized and attracted in an inhomogenous external magnetic field...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413526/neuroendoscopy-is-it-safe
#13
Manas Panigrahi, Bharat Gupta, Rajesh Reddy
BACKGROUND: The effect of heat in endoscopic instruments used for laparoscopy and hysteroscopy has been well-studied. Reports of thermal injury from nasal endoscopes have also been reported. However, there are no experimental studies, which have objectively documented and provided recommendations for safe use of endoscopes in neurosurgery. OBJECTIVES: To study the heat generated at the tip of the endoscope and the subsequent thermal damage caused to a cotton drape placed in proximity, by varying the intensity of light delivered through different optical cables, ambient (operating room) temperatures and working distances...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409925/conformational-changes-in-5-methoxyindole-effects-of-thermal-vibrational-and-electronic-excitations
#14
A J Lopes Jesus, R Fausto, I Reva
The molecule of 5-methoxyindole (5MOI) may adopt two conformational states, syn and anti, with respect to the relative orientation of the NH and OCH3 groups. The structure of monomeric 5MOI was characterized spectroscopically, in mid- and near-infrared domains. The conformational composition of 5MOI could be controlled in three different ways. Thermally, two conformers of 5MOI could be trapped in xenon matrixes at 16 K. Upon annealing the xenon matrix to temperatures about 30-40 K, the higher-energy syn form converted to the ground-state anti conformer...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402289/a-gas-scintillator-detector-for-2d-dose-profile-monitoring-in-pencil-beam-scanning-and-pulsed-beam-proton-radiotherapy-treatments
#15
S E Vigdor, A V Klyachko, K A Solberg, M Pankuch
In order to address dosimetry demands during proton therapy treatments utilizing pencil beam scanning and/or pulsed beam accelerators, we have developed a xenon-filled gas scintillation detector (GSD) that can monitor delivered dose and 2D beam centroid position pulse-by-pulse in real time, with high response linearity up to high instantaneous dose rates. We present design considerations for the GSD and results of beam tests carried out at operating proton therapy clinics. In addition to demonstrating spatial resolution with σ of a few hundred microns in each transverse dimension and relative dose precision better than 1% over large treatment areas, the test beam results also reveal the dependence of the GSD dose normalization on dose rate, beam energy, and gas impurities...
April 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400024/impact-of-a-combined-processing-technology-involving-ultrasound-and-pulsed-light-on-structural-and-physiological-changes-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ke-162-in-apple-juice
#16
Mariana Ferrario, Sandra Guerrero
This study analyzed the effect of single ultrasound (US) (600 W, 20 kHz and 95.2 μm wave amplitude, 10 or 30 min at 20 or 44 ± 1 °C), or combined with pulsed light technology (PL) with controlled heat build-up (Xenon lamp, 3 pulses/s, 71.6 J/cm(2), temperature ranges: 2-20 ± 1 °C and 44-56 ± 1 °C) on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE 162 cells in commercial (pH: 3.5 ± 0.1; 12.5 ± 0.1 °Brix) and freshly pressed (pH: 3.4 ± 0.1; 12.6 ± 0.1 °Brix) apple juices...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398653/the-noble-gas-xenon-provides-protection-and-trophic-stimulation-to-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#17
Jérémie Lavaur, Déborah Le Nogue, Marc Lemaire, Jan Pype, Géraldine Farjot, Etienne C Hirsch, Patrick P Michel
Despite its low chemical reactivity, the noble gas xenon possesses a remarkable spectrum of biological effects. In particular, xenon is a strong neuroprotectant in preclinical models of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we wished to determine whether xenon retained its neuroprotective potential in experimental settings that model the progressive loss of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Using rat midbrain cultures, we established that xenon was partially protective for DA neurons through either direct or indirect effects on these neurons...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394036/role-of-the-methoxy-groups-in-cryptophanes-for-complexation-of-xenon-conformational-selection-evidence-from-129-xe-1-h-nmr-spinoe-experiments
#18
Patrick Berthault, Céline Boutin, Estelle Léonce, Erwann Jeanneau, Thierry Brotin
We report the laser-polarized (129) Xe and (1) H NMR spectra of a series of cryptophane derivatives that differ only by the number of methoxy groups attached on their benzene rings and the syn or anti arrangement of the linkers (compounds 6 a-s, 9 a-s, 12 a-s). All these compounds bind xenon even though the characteristic signal of the gas encapsulated in the cavity of the cage-molecule cannot always be detected. Interestingly, the exchange dynamics of xenon strongly depends on the degree of substitution and is different from that of the cryptophane derivatives studied previously...
April 10, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391073/structural-optical-and-photoluminescence-properties-of-eu-3-doped-zno-nanoparticles
#19
Odireleng Martin Ntwaeaborwa, Sefako J Mofokeng, Vinod Kumar, Robin E Kroon
The structure, particle morphology and luminescent properties of europium (Eu(3+)) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by co-precipitation method are discussed. When excited using a 325nm He-Cd laser, undoped ZnO NPs exhibited weakly the well-known ultraviolet excitonic recombination emission (at ~384nm) and strongly broad band visible emissions associated with defects (at ~600nm). In addition, the ZnO NPs exhibited green emission at ~600nm associated with defects when excited using a monochromatized xenon lamp...
July 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384123/magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-hyperpolarized-agents-methods-and-applications
#20
Erin Adamson, Kai Ludwig, David Mummy, Sean B Fain
In the past decade, hyperpolarized (HP) contrast agents have been under active development for MRI applications to address the twin challenges of functional and quantitative imaging. Both HP helium (<sup>3</sup>He) and xenon (<sup>129</sup>Xe) gases have reached the stage where they are under study in clinical research. HP <sup>129</sup>Xe, in particular, is poised for larger scale clinical research to investigate asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and fibrotic lung diseases...
April 6, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
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