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Daniela Rupp, Leonie Flückiger, Marcus Adolph, Tais Gorkhover, Maria Krikunova, Jan Philippe Müller, Maria Müller, Tim Oelze, Yevheniy Ovcharenko, Benjamin Röben, Mario Sauppe, Sebastian Schorb, David Wolter, Rolf Mitzner, Michael Wöstmann, Sebastian Roling, Marion Harmand, Rolf Treusch, Mathias Arbeiter, Thomas Fennel, Christoph Bostedt, Thomas Möller
We studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Le Zhang, Alex Burant, Andrew McCallister, Victor Zhao, Karl M Koshlap, Simone Degan, Michael Antonacci, Rosa Tamara Branca
PURPOSE: To investigate the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency of lipid-dissolved xenon (LDX) and to assess the accuracy of LDX-based MR thermometry. METHODS: The chemical shift temperature dependence of water protons, methylene protons, and LDX was measured from samples containing tissues with varying fat contents using a high-resolution NMR spectrometer. LDX results were then used to acquire relative and absolute temperature maps in vivo and the results were compared with PRF-based MR thermometry...
October 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Ross T Howie, Robin Turnbull, Jack Binns, Mungo Frost, Philip Dalladay-Simpson, Eugene Gregoryanz
Molecular nitrogen exhibits one of the strongest known interatomic bonds, while xenon possesses a closed-shell electronic structure: a direct consequence of which renders both chemically unreactive. Through a series of optical spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction experiments, we demonstrate the formation of a novel van der Waals compound formed from binary Xe-N2 mixtures at pressures as low as 5 GPa. At 300 K and 5 GPa Xe(N2)2-I is synthesised, and if further compressed, undergoes a transition to a tetragonal Xe(N2)2-II phase at 14 GPa; this phase appears to be unexpectedly stable at least up to 180 GPa even after heating to above 2000 K...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Taeko Mizutani, Hijiri Sumida, Yuki Sagawa, Yuri Okano, Hitoshi Masaki
BACKGROUND: Carbonylated proteins (CPs) are generated by the reaction of basic amino acid residues in proteins with aldehyde compounds produced during lipid peroxidation. CPs in the stratum corneum (SC) impact skin conditions such as skin moisture functions including water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In addition, CPs can be frequently seen in the SC from sun-exposed sites compared with sun-protected sites. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to reveal whether CPs could be a generation source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the SC following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and to identify the type of ROS and its generation mechanism...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Tahreema N Matin, Najib Rahman, Annabel H Nickol, Mitchell Chen, Xiaojun Xu, Neil J Stewart, Tom Doel, Vicente Grau, James M Wild, Fergus V Gleeson
Purpose To compare lobar ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with hyperpolarized xenon 129 ((129)Xe) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to quantitative computed tomography (CT) metrics on a lobar basis and pulmonary function test (PFT) results on a whole-lung basis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee; written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Twenty-two patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) underwent hyperpolarized (129)Xe MR imaging at 1...
October 12, 2016: Radiology
Sergey N Britvin, Sergei A Kashtanov, Sergey V Krivovichev, Nikita V Chukanov
The tendency of high-valence xenon to form consolidated oxide structures is herein supported by the study of K4Xe3O12, the first example of a layered xenon perovskite. Xenon seems to be the only non-transition element which can adopt single-cation oxide perovskite frameworks. At the same time, peculiarities of electronic structure of xenon impose specific features on the bonding within a perovskite structure. Weak supramolecular interactions known as aerogen bonds are the linkers maintaining structural integrity of perovskite slabs in K4Xe3O12...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Paolo Restuccia, Mauro Ferrario, Pier Luigi Sivestrelli, Giampaolo Mistura, Maria Clelia Righi
Recent nanofriction experiments of xenon on graphene revealed that the slip onset can be induced by increasing the adsorbate coverage above a critical value, which depends on temperature. Moreover, the xenon slippage on gold is much higher than on graphene in spite of the same physical nature of the interactions. To shed light on these intriguing results we have performed molecular dynamics simulations relying on ab initio derived potentials. By monitoring the interfacial structure factor as a function of coverage and temperature, we show that the key mechanism to interpret the observed frictional phenomena is the size-dependence of the island commensurability...
October 11, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lukas Ebner, Jeff Kammerman, Bastiaan Driehuys, Mark L Schiebler, Robert V Cadman, Sean B Fain
In the last two decades, functional imaging of the lungs using hyperpolarized noble gases has entered the clinical stage. Both helium ((3)He) and xenon ((129)Xe) gas have been thoroughly investigated for their ability to assess both the global and regional patterns of lung ventilation. With advances in polarizer technology and the current transition towards the widely available (129)Xe gas, this method is ready for translation to the clinic. Currently, hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas lung MRI is limited to selected academic institutions; yet, the promising results from initial clinical trials have drawn the attention of the pulmonary medicine community...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Dong-Po Song, Aditi Naik, Shengkai Li, Alexander Ribbe, James J Watkins
We report a simple strategy for the creation of large-area nanoporous hybrid films of silica, carbon, and gold on polyethylene terephthalate via photothermal processing. This method enables the selective heating of light-absorbing thin films on low-temperature substrates using submillisecond light pulses generated by a xenon flash lamp. The film contains gold nanoparticles as the nano-heaters to convert light energy into heat, a sacrificial block copolymer surfactant to generate mesopores, and cross-linked polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as the silica source to form the skeleton of the porous structure...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Melvin E Klegerman, Melanie R Moody, Jermaine R Hurling, Tao Peng, Shao-Ling Huang, David D McPherson
RATIONALE: We have produced a liposomal formulation of xenon (Xe-ELIP) as a neuroprotectant for inhibition of brain damage in stroke patients. This mandates development of a reliable assay to measure the amount of dissolved xenon released from Xe-ELIP in water and blood samples. METHODS: Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify xenon gas released into the headspace of vials containing Xe-ELIP samples in water or blood. In order to determine blood concentration of xenon in vivo after Xe-ELIP administration, 6 mg Xe-ELIP lipid was infused intravenously into rats...
September 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
James T Goettel, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Hélène P A Mercier, Gary J Schrobilgen
The potent oxidizer and highly shock-sensitive binary noble-gas oxide XeO3 interacts with CH3 CN and CH3 CH2 CN to form O3 XeNCCH3 , O3 Xe(NCCH3 )2 , O3 XeNCCH2 CH3 , and O3 Xe(NCCH2 CH3 )2 . Their low-temperature single-crystal X-ray structures show that the xenon atoms are consistently coordinated to three donor atoms, which results in pseudo-octahedral environments around the xenon atoms. The adduct series provides the first examples of a neutral xenon oxide bound to nitrogen bases. Raman frequency shifts and Xe-N bond lengths are consistent with complex formation...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Ayman S El-Said, Richard A Wilhelm, Rene Heller, Michael Sorokin, Stefan Facsko, Friedrich Aumayr
Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (^{129}Xe^{Q+}) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q=15 to Q=36, the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Andi Tan, Mengjiao Xiao, Xiangyi Cui, Xun Chen, Yunhua Chen, Deqing Fang, Changbo Fu, Karl Giboni, Franco Giuliani, Haowei Gong, Xuyuan Guo, Ke Han, Shouyang Hu, Xingtao Huang, Xiangdong Ji, Yonglin Ju, Siao Lei, Shaoli Li, Xiaomei Li, Xinglong Li, Hao Liang, Qing Lin, Huaxuan Liu, Jianglai Liu, Wolfgang Lorenzon, Yugang Ma, Yajun Mao, Kaixuan Ni, Xiangxiang Ren, Michael Schubnell, Manbin Shen, Fang Shi, Hongwei Wang, Jimin Wang, Meng Wang, Qiuhong Wang, Siguang Wang, Xuming Wang, Zhou Wang, Shiyong Wu, Xiang Xiao, Pengwei Xie, Binbin Yan, Yong Yang, Jianfeng Yue, Xionghui Zeng, Hongguang Zhang, Hua Zhang, Huanqiao Zhang, Tao Zhang, Li Zhao, Jing Zhou, Ning Zhou, Xiaopeng Zhou
We report the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter search results using the first physics-run data of the PandaX-II 500 kg liquid xenon dual-phase time-projection chamber, operating at the China JinPing underground laboratory. No dark matter candidate is identified above background. In combination with the data set during the commissioning run, with a total exposure of 3.3×10^{4}  kg day, the most stringent limit to the spin-independent interaction between the ordinary and WIMP dark matter is set for a range of dark matter mass between 5 and 1000  GeV/c^{2}...
September 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Lukas Ebner, Mu He, Rohan S Virgincar, Timothy Heacock, Suryanarayanan S Kaushik, Matthew S Freemann, H Page McAdams, Monica Kraft, Bastiaan Driehuys
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate ventilation in mild to moderate asthmatic patients and age-matched controls using hyperpolarized (HP) Xenon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlate findings with pulmonary function tests (PFTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study was approved by our institutional review board. Thirty subjects (10 young asthmatic patients, 26 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 older asthmatic patients, 64 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 healthy controls) were enrolled...
September 22, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Jinhai Li, Fei Wang, Lingjun Meng, Mengshu Han, Yang Guo, Cheng Sun
The presence of antibiotics in surface waters is paid more and more attention, which is difficult to be removed by conventional treatment technology, and photocatalytic technology is considered to be a promising method for antibiotics pollutant removal. In the present work, a novel heterojunction photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by self-template method under hydrothermal condition. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples was investigated by degradation of sulfamethoxazole in aqueous solution...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Olga Rodenko, Henrik Fodgaard, Peter Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Paul Michael Petersen, Christian Pedersen
We report on the design, development and investigation of an optical system based on UV light emitting diode (LED) excitation at 340 nm for time-resolved fluorescence detection of immunoassays. The system was tested to measure cardiac marker Troponin I with a concentration of 200 ng/L in immunoassay. The signal-to-noise ratio was comparable to state-of-the-art Xenon flash lamp based unit with equal excitation energy and without overdriving the LED. We performed a comparative study of the flash lamp and the LED based system and discussed temporal, spatial, and spectral features of the LED excitation for time-resolved fluorimetry...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Hiromasa Yamashita, Hisae Aoki, Kenkichi Tanioka, Toshiyuki Mori, Toshio Chiba
BACKGROUND: We have started clinical application of 8K ultra-high definition (UHD; 7680 × 4320 pixels) imaging technology, which is a 16-fold higher resolution than the current 2K high-definition (HD; 1920 × 1080 pixels) technology, to an endoscope for advanced laparoscopic surgery. RESULTS: Based on preliminary testing experience and with subsequent technical and system improvements, we then proceeded to perform two cases of cholecystectomy and were able to achieve clinical success with an 8K UHD endoscopic system, which consisted of an 8K camera, a 30-degrees angled rigid endoscope with a lens adapter, a pair of 300-W xenon light sources, an 85-inch 8K LCD and an 8K video recorder...
2016: SpringerPlus
Ryuta Shigefuku, Hideaki Takahashi, Hiroyasu Nakano, Tsunamasa Watanabe, Kotaro Matsunaga, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Masaki Kato, Ryo Morita, Yousuke Michikawa, Tomohiro Tamura, Tetsuya Hiraishi, Nobuhiro Hattori, Yohei Noguchi, Kazunari Nakahara, Hiroki Ikeda, Toshiya Ishii, Chiaki Okuse, Shigeru Sase, Fumio Itoh, Michihiro Suzuki
The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daisuke Sakota, Tatsuki Fujiwara, Katsuhiro Ouchi, Katsuyuki Kuwana, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Osamu Maruyama
Continuous optical monitoring of thrombus formation in extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support (EMCS) devices will contribute to safe, long-term EMCS. A clinically applicable optical detector must be able to distinguish among the optical characteristics of oxygen saturation (SaO2 ), hematocrit (Hct), and thrombus formation. In vitro studies of spectral changes at wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm associated with SaO2 , Hct, and thrombus formed around the top pivot bearing of a Gyro C1E3 pump were conducted...
September 2016: Artificial Organs
Yanfei Wang, Ivan J Dmochowski
Molecular imaging holds considerable promise for elucidating biological processes in normal physiology as well as disease states, by determining the location and relative concentration of specific molecules of interest. Proton-based magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H MRI) is nonionizing and provides good spatial resolution for clinical imaging but lacks sensitivity for imaging low-abundance (i.e., submicromolar) molecular markers of disease or environments with low proton densities. To address these limitations, hyperpolarized (hp) (129)Xe NMR spectroscopy and MRI have emerged as attractive complementary methodologies...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
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