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Elissaios Stavrou, Yansun Yao, Alexander F Goncharov, Sergey S Lobanov, Joseph M Zaug, Hanyu Liu, Eran Greenberg, Vitali B Prakapenka
Using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy in concert with first principles calculations we demonstrate the synthesis of stable Xe(Fe,Fe/Ni)_{3} and XeNi_{3} compounds at thermodynamic conditions representative of Earth's core. Surprisingly, in the case of both the Xe-Fe and Xe-Ni systems Fe and Ni become highly electronegative and can act as oxidants. The results indicate the changing chemical properties of elements under extreme conditions by documenting that electropositive at ambient pressure elements could gain electrons and form anions...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Juan J Duchimaza Heredia, Klaus Ruedenberg, Mark S Gordon
The origin of bonding in the rare gas containing molecules HXeCCH, HXeCCXeH, and HXeOXeH is explored using a quasi-atomic orbital (QUAO) analysis. The QUAOs provide qualitative and quantitative data about bonding through transformations of the density matrix. Bond orders, kinetic bond orders, and the extent of transfer of charge are analyzed. Localized molecular orbitals formed from the QUAOs provide additional insights about the relative polarity of bonds formed by xenon. The analysis suggests significant covalent bonding for Xe-Y (Y = C, O) as well as Xe-H, both bonds using the same pσ-type orbital on Xe...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Xiangyun Yin, Jixiu Zhao, Hong Jiang, Liangliang Li, Jian Jiang, Hongmin Xi, Xiangli Peng, Xiaohang Yin, Xiaotong Shi, Lulu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Premature birth is a significant health care burden. Xenon (Xe) is a general anesthetic with neuroprotective effects. OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigate the neuroprotective role of Xe in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced white matter damage (WMD) model. METHODS: Three-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group (group A, n = 24), an LPS + HI group (group B, n = 24), and an LPS + HI + Xe group (group C, n = 72)...
March 8, 2018: Neonatology
Hao Wang, Jing Li
In this frontier article, we provide a brief overview of recent progress in capture and separation of noble gases by microporous metal-organic framework-based adsorbents, with an emphasis on xenon and krypton. Our discussions include separation mechanisms and strategies applied to enhance the MOF performance. Existing issues are also reviewed and potential solutions are proposed.
March 7, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
David V Bekaert, Michael W Broadley, Frédéric Delarue, Guillaume Avice, Francois Robert, Bernard Marty
Understanding the composition of the Archean atmosphere is vital for unraveling the origin of volatiles and the environmental conditions that led to the development of life. The isotopic composition of xenon in the Archean atmosphere has evolved through time by mass-dependent fractionation from a precursor comprising cometary and solar/chondritic contributions (referred to as U-Xe). Evaluating the composition of the Archean atmosphere is challenging because limited amounts of atmospheric gas are trapped within minerals during their formation...
February 2018: Science Advances
Bernhard Bereiter, Kenji Kawamura, Jeffrey P Severinghaus
RATIONALE: The global ocean constitutes the largest heat buffer in the global climate system, but little is known about its past changes. The isotopic and elemental ratios of heavy noble gases (krypton and xenon), together with argon and nitrogen in trapped air from ice cores can be used to reconstruct past mean ocean temperatures (MOTs). Here we introduce two successively developed methods to measure these parameters with a sufficient precision to provide new constraints on past MOT changes...
March 3, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Zhu-Wei Zhang, Dong-Ping Zhang, Hai-Ying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Stroke that is caused by poor blood flow into the brain results in cell death, including ischemia stroke due to lack of blood into brain tissue, and hemorrhage due to bleeding. Both of them will give rise to the dysfunction of brain. In general, the signs and symptoms of stroke are the inability of feeling or moving on one side of body, sometimes loss of vision to one side. Above symptoms will appear soon after the stroke has happened. If the symptoms and signs happen in 1 or 2 hours, we often call them as transient ischemic attack...
October 2017: Medical Gas Research
Sunil Pandey, Krishna Hari Sharma, Amit Kumar Sharma, Yowan Nerthigan, Da-Ren Hang, Hui-Fen Wu
The present study deals with photothermal therapy of solid tumors using different forms oxygen deficient sub-stoichiometric two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum oxide nanoflakes (α-MoO3-x). Upon exfoliation of molybdenum oxide power using fine gridding followed by ultrasonication, bluish green molybdenum oxide (BG α-MoO3) was obtained. The oxygen vacancies in BG was generated by irradiating it using intense xenon lamp (600-900W, 200-1500nm) for 3-5 hours. Irradiating the BG for 3 and 5 hours, deep blue (B) and olive green (G) oxygen deficient nanoflakes were obtained respectively...
March 1, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tae Hoon Kong, Sunkon Yu, Byungjo Jung, Jin Sil Choi, Young Joon Seo
Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) enables continuous high-resolution assessment of microcirculation in real-time. We applied an endoscope to LSCI to measure cochlear blood-flow in an ischemia-reperfusion mouse model. We also explored whether using xenon light in combination with LSCI facilitates visualization of anatomical position. Based on a previous preliminary study, the appropriate wavelength for penetrating the thin bony cochlea was 830 nm. A 2.7-mm-diameter endoscope was used, as appropriate for the size of the mouse cochlea...
2018: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are infections that patients contract while in the hospital that were neither present nor developing at the time of admission. In Canada an estimated 10% of adults with short-term hospitalization have HAIs. According to 2003 Canadian data, between 4% and 6% of these patients die from these infections. The most common HAIs in Ontario are caused by Clostridium difficile . The standard method of reducing and preventing these infections is decontamination of patient rooms through manual cleaning and disinfection...
2018: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
Bo-Han Chen, Martin Kretschmar, Dominik Ehberger, Andreas Blumenstein, Peter Simon, Peter Baum, Tamas Nagy
We investigate two approaches for the spectral broadening and compression of 1-ps long pulses of a thin-disk laser amplifier running at 50 kHz repetition rate at 1030 nm wavelength. We find that with a single, 2.66-m long stretched flexible hollow fiber filled with xenon gas, Fourier transform limited output pulse duration of 66 fs can be directly reached. For larger pulse shortening, we applied a hybrid cascaded approach involving a BBO-based pre-compressor and a long hollow fiber. We could achieve 33-times temporal shortening of 1-ps pulses down to a duration of 30 fs at an overall efficiency of ~29% with an output power level of 3...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
Ricky Dippenaar, Johan Smith
BACKGROUND: Expressed human milk (EHM) feed preparation areas represent a potential source of unintentional nosocomial infection. Daily disinfection of environmental surfaces remains an essential intervention to mitigate nosocomial infections. The inefficiency of conventional cleaning and disinfection contributes to an increased risk for the acquisition of multi-drug resistant pathogens. "Non touch" technologies such as the pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UVD) light device have documented sustained reduction in surface bacterial colonization and reduced cross contamination...
February 23, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anna Rylova, Mervyn Maze
Xenon possesses some, but not all, of the clinical features of an ideal anesthetic agent. Besides well-known advantages of rapid awakening, stable hemodynamics and lack of biotransformation, preclinical data lead to the expectation of xenon's advantageous use for settings of acute ongoing brain injury; a single randomized clinical trial using an imaging biomarker for assessing brain injury corroborated xenon's preclinical efficacy in protecting the brain from further injury. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and hence the putative applications of xenon for brain protection in neurosurgery...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
A J Gardner, D K Menon
Despite the global burden of brain injury, neuroprotective agents remain elusive. There are no clinically effective therapies which reduce mortality or improve long-term cognitive outcome. Ventilation could be an easily modifiable variable in resuscitation; gases are relatively simple to administer. Xenon is the prototypic agent of a new generation of experimental treatments which show promise. However, use is hindered by its prohibitive cost and anaesthetic properties. Argon is an attractive option, being cheaper, easy to transport, non-sedating, and mechanistically distinct from xenon...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Zhen Hu, Qing Shao, Yudong Huang, Long Yu, Dayu Zhang, Xirong Xu, Jing Lin, Hu Liu, Zhanhu Guo
The interfacial microcracks in the resin matrix composites are difficult to be detected and repaired. However, the self-healing concept provides opportunities to fabricate composites with unusual properties. In the present study, photothermal conversion Ag-Cu2S nanoparticles were immobilized onto poly(p‑phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO) fibers via a polydopamine chemistry. Benefit from the photothermal effects of Ag-Cu2S, the obtained PBO fibers (Ag-Cu2S-PBO) efficiently converted the light energy into heat under a Xenon lamp irradiation...
February 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
M J Paul, S R Biegalski, D A Haas, H Jiang, H Daigle, J D Lowrey
The detection of radioactive noble gases is a primary technology for verifying compliance with the pending Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A fundamental challenge in applying this technology for detecting underground nuclear explosions is estimating the timing and magnitude of the radionuclide signatures. While the primary mechanism for transport is advective transport, either through barometric pumping or thermally driven advection, diffusive transport in the surrounding matrix also plays a secondary role...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Seongmin Ju, Kadathala Linganna, Bok Hyeon Kim, Seongjae Boo, Yong Ho An, Won-Taek Han
Alumino-germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with Gd2O3 nano-particles (NPs) was developed by using the modified chemical vapor deposition and the drawing process. The formation of spherical Gd2O3 NPs in the fiber core with average diameter of 10.8 nm was confirmed by the TEM. The distinct absorption peaks in the fiber preform appearing in the UV region at 205, 247, 253, 274, and 312 nm were due to the incorporated Gd2O3 NPs via reorganization of the seven 4f electrons into various multiplets of Gd ions...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Xiujuan Wu, Yu Cai, Chao Wang, Li Fan, Qianyun Tang, Xiaochen Dong, Qi Zhang
Herein, an small-molecule organic nanoparticles, BNTP NPs, has been synthesized. Due to its strong and broad absorption spectra and tumor targeting, BNTP NPs is used as a photothermal agent with photothermal conversion efficiency of 23.2%. BNTP NPs can target tumors, realize tumor diagnosis and suppress the growth of tumor effectively both in vitro and in vivo. Xenon lamp instead of laser is used as light source of BNTP NPs to make PTT safer. No obvious toxicity reaction is observed from histologic analysis and body weight of mice...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Huixuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Deng, Qiuling Ma, Yuqi Cui, Xiuwen Cheng, Mingzheng Xie, Xiaoli Li, Qingfeng Cheng
In this study, silver decorated graphene oxide (Ag/GO) composite was fabricated through a reduction process in the presence of potassium borohydride solution. Subsequently, physicochemical properties of the resulting Ag/GO composite were studied by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum. Results indicated that Ag species existed in the form of Ag0, which greatly facilitated the visible light absorbance ability...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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