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Liping Yang, Maomao Wang, Paul M Slattum, Benjamin R Bunes, Yuanhao Wang, Chuanyi Wang, Ling Zang
Perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) derivatives have been extensively studied for one-dimensional self-assembled systems and for applications in photocatalysis. Herein, we constructed a PTCDI-based donor-acceptor (D-A) supramolecular system via in situ self-assembly on an indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass surface. The self-assembled PTCDI nanostructures exhibit well-defined nanofibril morphologies and strong photocurrents. Interestingly, a strong and reversible electrochromic color change was observed during cyclic voltammetry (CV)...
May 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lovisa Tobieson, Sandro Rossitti, Peter Zsigmond, Jan Hillman, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or energy metabolic disturbances exist in the tissue surrounding a surgically evacuated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). If present, such CBF and/or metabolic impairments may contribute to ongoing tissue injury and the modest clinical efficacy of ICH surgery. OBJECTIVE: To conduct an observational study of CBF and the energy metabolic state in the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) tissue and in seemingly normal cortex (SNX) by microdialysis (MD) following surgical ICH evacuation...
May 21, 2018: Neurosurgery
Amir Prior, Erik van de Nieuwenhuijzen, Gerhardus J de Jong, Govert W Somsen
Chiral analysis of dl-amino acids was achieved by micellar electrokinetic chromatography coupled with UV-excited fluorescence detection. The fluorescent reagent (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate was employed as chiral amino acid derivatizing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate served as pseudo-stationary phase for separating the formed amino acid diastereomers. Sensitive analysis of (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate-amino acids was achieved applying a xenon-mercury lamp for ultraviolet excitation, and a spectrograph and charge-coupled device for wavelength-resolved emission detection...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Serge D Zemerov, Benjamin W Roose, Mara L Greenberg, Yanfei Wang, Ivan J Dmochowski
Cryptophane-based biosensors are promising agents for the ultrasensitive detection of biomedically relevant targets via 129Xe NMR. Dynamic light scattering revealed that cryptophanes form water-soluble aggregates of tens-to-hundreds of nanometers in size. Acridine orange fluorescence quenching assays allowed quantitation of aggregation state, with critical concentration rang-ing from 200 to 600 nM, depending on the cryptophane species in solution. Addition of excess carbonic anhydrase (CA) pro-tein target to a benzenesulfonamide-functionalized cryptophane biosensor (C8B) led to C8B disaggregation and produced the expected 1:1 C8B-CA complex...
May 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Imran Hanif, Osmane Camara, Matheus Araújo Tunes, Robert William Harrison, Graeme Greaves, Stephen E Donnelly, Jonathan A Hinks
The miniaturization of technology increasingly requires the development of both new structures as well as novel techniques for their manufacture and modification. Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a prime example of this and as such have been the subject of intense scientific research for applications ranging from microelectronics to nano-electromechanical devices. Ion irradiation has long been a key processing step for semiconductors and the natural extension of this technique to the modification of semiconductor NWs has led to the discovery of ion-beam-induced deformation effects...
May 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Kohei Aoki, Yotaro Izumi, Wataru Watanabe, Yuji Shimizu, Hisato Osada, Norinari Honda, Toshihide Itoh, Mitsuo Nakayama
BACKGROUND: While many studies have evaluated the change in lung volume before and after lung resection and correlated this with pulmonary function test results, there is very little evidence on the changes in ventilation perfusion ratio (V/Q) before versus after lung resection. In the present pilot study, we evaluated if V/Q mapping can be constructed using dual energy CT images. METHODS: Thirty-one lung cancer patients planned for pulmonary resection were included in this study...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
J K Wahlstrand, S Zahedpour, A Bahl, M Kolesik, H M Milchberg
We present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, nitrogen, and oxygen up to ionization fractions of a few percent. These measurements enable determination of the strongly nonperturbative bound-electron nonlinear polarizability well beyond the ionization threshold, where it is found to remain approximately quadratic in the laser field, a result normally expected at much lower intensities where perturbation theory applies...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Yimeng Xia, Hongwei Fang, Jindong Xu, Chenfei Jia, Guorong Tao, Buwei Yu
BACKGROUND: Interest in the anesthetic use of xenon, a noble gas, has waxed and waned for decades, and the clinical effects of xenon are still debated. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the clinical efficacy of xenon with that of propofol. METHODS: Electronic searches were performed through December 2017 using various databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We identified thirteen trials that included a total of 817 patients. RESULTS: Patients treated with xenon had a lower bispectral index (BIS) (weighted mean difference (WMD): -6...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jérôme Baufreton, Tomislav Milekovic, Qin Li, Steve McGuire, Eduardo Martin Moraud, Grégory Porras, Shiqi Sun, Wai Kin D Ko, Marine Chazalon, Stéphanie Morin, Elisabeth Normand, Géraldine Farjot, Aude Milet, Jan Pype, Elsa Pioli, Gregoire Courtine, Baptiste Bessière, Erwan Bezard
Parkinson's disease motor symptoms are treated with levodopa, but long-term treatment leads to disabling dyskinesia. Altered synaptic transmission and maladaptive plasticity of corticostriatal glutamatergic projections play a critical role in the pathophysiology of dyskinesia. Because the noble gas xenon inhibits excitatory glutamatergic signaling, primarily through allosteric antagonism of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, we aimed to test its putative antidyskinetic capabilities. We first studied the direct effect of xenon gas exposure on corticostriatal plasticity in a murine model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia We then studied the impact of xenon inhalation on behavioral dyskinetic manifestations in the gold-standard rat and primate models of PD and levodopa-induced dyskinesia...
May 14, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
M Sabzian, M N Nasrabadi, M Haji-Hosseini
The dynamic adsorption of xenon on molecular sieve packed columns was investigated. The modified Wheeler-Jonas equation was used to describe adsorption parameters such as adsorption capacity and adsorption rate coefficient. Different experimental conditions were accomplished to study their effects and to touch appropriate adsorbing circumstances. Respectable consistency was reached between experimental and modeled values. A purification and analysis setup was developed for radioactive xenon gas determination...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Haixia Tong, Xiaojun Zhan, Xiong Tian, Junhua Li, Dong Qian, Daoxin Wu
In this work, representative semiconductors CdS, V2 O5 , WO3 and P25 (Degussa TiO2 consisting of 80 wt% anatase and 20 wt% rutile) were chosen as the photocatalysts, and the common phenol along with its derivatives (p-nitrophenol, p-chlorophenol and hydroquinone) were designated as the probe pollutants. The energy levels of the frontier molecular orbitals (EHOMO and ELUMO ) of organics, and the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) energy levels (EVB and ECB ) of photocatalysts were obtained through experiments and calculations...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Turgay Şimşek, Oğuzhan Büyükgebiz, Deniz Şahin, Abdullah Güneş, Yeşim Gürbüz
Laparoscopy systems possess remarkable heat production. Video-laparoscopy was used for colonoscopy intraoperatively in rabbits. Rod lens type laparoscopes 5 and 10 mm in diameter connected with 175 and 300-W xenon light sources were used in combination. Physiological parameters including blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturations, and luminal temperatures were investigated during 20 minutes of colonoscopy. Thermal damage scores were obtained by histopathologic analysis of the intestinal wall. The changes were categorized as physiological and structural...
May 9, 2018: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Kai Ruppert, Hooman Hamedani, Faraz Amzajerdian, Yi Xin, Ian F Duncan, Harrilla Profka, Sarmad Siddiqui, Mehrdad Pourfathi, Stephen Kadlecek, Rahim R Rizi
Many forms of lung disease manifest themselves as pathological changes in the transport of gas to the circulatory system, yet the difficulty of imaging this process remains a central obstacle to the comprehensive diagnosis of lung disorders. Using hyperpolarized xenon-129 as a surrogate marker for oxygen, we derived the temporal dynamics of gas transport from the ratio of two lung images obtained with different timing parameters. Additionally, by monitoring changes in the total hyperpolarized xenon signal intensity in the left side of the heart induced by depletion of xenon signal in the alveolar airspaces of interest, we quantified the contributions of selected lung volumes to the total pulmonary gas transport...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alex Burant, Michael Antonacci, Drew McCallister, Le Zhang, Rosa Tamara Branca
SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are often used in magnetic resonance imaging experiments to enhance Magnetic Resonance (MR) sensitivity and specificity. While the effect of SPIONs on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation time of 1 H spins has been well characterized, their effect on highly diffusive spins, like those of hyperpolarized gases, has not. For spins diffusing in linear magnetic field gradients, the behavior of the magnetization is characterized by the relative size of three length scales: the diffusion length, the structural length, and the dephasing length...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
C Johnson, S R Biegalski, J D Lowrey, M L Rockhold, D A Haas
Radioactive isotopes of the noble gases xenon and argon are considered primary indicators of an underground nuclear explosion. However, high atmospheric concentrations from other anthropogenic sources may lead to an elevation in the underground levels of these gases, particularly in times of increasing atmospheric pressure. In 2014, a week long sampling campaign near Canadian Nuclear Laboratories in the Ottawa River Valley resulted in first of their kind measurements of atmospheric 133 Xe that had been pressed into the subsurface...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A D McDonald, B J P Jones, D R Nygren, C Adams, V Álvarez, C D R Azevedo, J M Benlloch-Rodríguez, F I G M Borges, A Botas, S Cárcel, J V Carrión, S Cebrián, C A N Conde, J Díaz, M Diesburg, J Escada, R Esteve, R Felkai, L M P Fernandes, P Ferrario, A L Ferreira, E D C Freitas, A Goldschmidt, J J Gómez-Cadenas, D González-Díaz, R M Gutiérrez, R Guenette, K Hafidi, J Hauptman, C A O Henriques, A I Hernandez, J A Hernando Morata, V Herrero, S Johnston, L Labarga, A Laing, P Lebrun, I Liubarsky, N López-March, M Losada, J Martín-Albo, G Martínez-Lema, A Martínez, F Monrabal, C M B Monteiro, F J Mora, L M Moutinho, J Muñoz Vidal, M Musti, M Nebot-Guinot, P Novella, B Palmeiro, A Para, J Pérez, M Querol, J Repond, J Renner, S Riordan, L Ripoll, J Rodríguez, L Rogers, F P Santos, J M F Dos Santos, A Simón, C Sofka, M Sorel, T Stiegler, J F Toledo, J Torrent, Z Tsamalaidze, J F C A Veloso, R Webb, J T White, N Yahlali
A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double-beta decay of ^{136}Xe is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba^{++}) resolution at a transparent scanning surface is demonstrated. A single-step photobleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with superresolution (∼2  nm), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9σ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double-beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kai Ruppert, Faraz Amzajerdian, Hooman Hamedani, Yi Xin, Luis Loza, Tahmina Achekzai, Ian F Duncan, Harrilla Profka, Sarmad Siddiqui, Mehrdad Pourfathi, Maurizio F Cereda, Stephen Kadlecek, Rahim R Rizi
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of using a 3D radial double golden-means acquisition with variable flip angles to monitor pulmonary gas transport in a single breath hold with hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI. METHODS: Hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI scans with interleaved gas-phase and dissolved-phase excitations were performed using a 3D radial double golden-means acquisition in mechanically ventilated rabbits. The flip angle was either held fixed at 15 ° or 5 °, or it was varied linearly in ascending or descending order between 5 ° and 15 ° over a sampling interval of 1000 spokes...
April 22, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Luisa Prasetyo, Quang K Loi, Shiliang Johnathan Tan, D D Do, D Nicholson
We have carried out an extensive grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the adsorption of neon and xenon on graphite. The adsorbate collision diameters of neon and xenon are smaller and greater respectively, than the commensurate graphite lattice spacing λ=3×3R300 of 0.426 nm. Simulated isotherms and isosteric heats were obtained using a graphite model that has been shown to describe successfully the adsorbate transitions for krypton, methane and nitrogen by Prasetyo et al. (2017), which have collision diameters close to λ...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Cécile Frampas, Julia Ney, Mark Coburn, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Xenon is a rare, mostly inert, noble gas that has applications in a wide range of fields, including medicine. Xenon acts on the human body as a useful organ-protective and anesthetic agent and has also been previously studied for potential applications in fields such as optics, aerospace and medical imaging. Recently, it was discovered that xenon can boost erythropoietin production, and it has been used as a performance-enhancing agent in international sports competitions such as the Sochi Olympic Games. Therefore, screening methods to detect the misuse of xenon by analysis of biological samples and to monitor anesthesia kinetics and efficiency are being investigated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Viveca Björnhagen, Kristina Schüldt Ekholm, Flemming Larsen, Jan Ekholm
OBJECTIVE: To follow up the long-term outcome in return-to-work (RTW) rate in burn-injury patients, and to determine the degree of impairment in pulmonary and muscular function and exercise tolerance. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study without a control group. PATIENTS: Twenty-five burn-injury patients referred for medical-vocational rehabilitation. METHODS: Return-to-work rate was followed after completed medical-vocational rehabilitation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
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