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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344910/mimesis-and-clinical-pictures-thinking-with-plato-and-broekman-through-the-production-and-meaning-of-images-of-disease
#1
Marjolein Oele
This paper contends, following Plato and Broekman, that (1) seeing images as images is crucial to theorizing medicine and that (2) considering clinical pictures as images of images is a much-needed epistemic complement to the domineering view that sees clinical pictures as mirrors of disease. This does not only offer epistemic, but also ethical benefits to individual patients, especially in those cases where patients suffer from chronic, debilitating, and terminal illnesses and where medicine provides no, or limited, answers in terms of treatment, intervention, and meaning...
January 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334753/physicians-perceptions-of-hope-and-how-hope-informs-interactions-with-patients-a-qualitative-exploratory-study
#2
Airin Wolf, Catherine F Garlid, Kristiina Hyrkas
OBJECTIVES: Today some studies of physicians' perceptions of hope are available, but not studies of how hope informs patient care. The objectives of this qualitative study were to describe the ways physicians conceptualize hope and how these may inform interactions with their patients. METHODS: Ten physicians working in a large tertiary care teaching hospital were interviewed. They represented palliative care, oncology, and 7 other specialties. Minimal amount of background information was collected...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329163/the-importance-of-parental-connectedness-and-relationships-with-healthcare-professionals-in-end-of-life-care-in-the-picu
#3
Jeannette L Falkenburg, Dick Tibboel, Ruard R Ganzevoort, Saskia J Gischler, Monique van Dijk
OBJECTIVES: Support from healthcare professionals in a PICU is highly valuable for parents of dying children. The way they care for the patients and their families affects the parents' initial mourning process. This study explores what interaction with hospital staff is meaningful to parents in existential distress when their child is dying in the PICU. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Level 3 PICU in the Erasmus University Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, and the Netherlands...
January 11, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310541/family-members-existential-and-moral-dilemmas-with-coercion-in-mental-healthcare
#4
Reidun Norvoll, Marit Helene Hem, Hilde Lindemann
Coercion in mental healthcare does not only affect the patient, but also the patient's families. Using data from interviews with 36 family members of adult and adolescent people with mental health problems and coercion experiences, the present narrative study explores family members' existential and moral dilemmas regarding coercion and the factors influencing these dilemmas. Four major themes are identified: the ambiguity of coercion; struggling to stay connected and establishing collaboration; worries and distress regarding compulsory care; and dilemmas regarding initiating coercion...
January 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305795/patients-preferences-and-existential-perspective-what-to-consider-and-how-should-patient-s-expectations-be-guided
#5
E Holmes, P Crome, A Arora
With an ageing population, surgical procedures in older patients are becoming increasingly more common. This can pose clinical and ethical dilemmas, during which clinicians need to make complex decisions. In this paper we discuss the importance of assessing mental capacity to assess if the older patient can make his or her own decisions relating to surgery. We also discuss the importance of understanding ethical principles, in order that clinicians can better guide patient's decision-making. In addition, we look at ageism, frailty, and co-morbidities, and their influence on clinician's decisions regarding surgery in older patients...
January 5, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304741/inferring-ontology-graph-structures-using-owl-reasoning
#6
Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-García, Robert Hoehndorf
BACKGROUND: Ontologies are representations of a conceptualization of a domain. Traditionally, ontologies in biology were represented as directed acyclic graphs (DAG) which represent the backbone taxonomy and additional relations between classes. These graphs are widely exploited for data analysis in the form of ontology enrichment or computation of semantic similarity. More recently, ontologies are developed in a formal language such as the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and consist of a set of axioms through which classes are defined or constrained...
January 5, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303947/outcomes-of-acute-partial-hospital-treatment-comparison-of-two-programs-and-a-waiting-list-control
#7
Paul B Lieberman, Rendueles Villalba, Samantha G Farris
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of acute, very brief partial hospital treatment, and the comparative benefits of different types of partial hospitalization programs (PHPs), this exploratory study examined changes in psychiatric symptoms and elements of cognitive functioning during an acute PHP compared with a waiting list control, and also compared such changes in 2 PHPs that treated similar patient groups but used different treatment approaches. METHODS: Patients were admitted to 2 PHPs, one utilizing cognitive-behavioral therapy and the other interpersonal and existential psychotherapy...
November 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302226/minding-the-brain-the-role-of-pharmacotherapy-in-substance-use-disorder-treatment
#8
Dakwar Elias, Herbert D Kleber
With its medicalization as a brain-based disease, addiction has come to be regarded as amenable to biomedical treatment approaches, most commonly pharmacotherapy. Various vulnerabilities are recognized to contribute to maladaptive substance use, and have been linked to diverse neurobiological alterations that may be targeted with pharmacotherapy: withdrawal, craving and cue reactivity, and aberrant reward processing are the most significant. Here, we summarize current thinking regarding pharmacotherapy for substance-use disorders, grouping medications by the type of vulnerability they propose to address and providing insight into their neurobiological mechanisms...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301543/towards-evidence-based-palliative-care-in-nursing-homes-in-sweden-a-qualitative-study-informed-by-the-organizational-readiness-to-change-theory
#9
Per Nilsen, Birgitta Wallerstedt, Lina Behm, Gerd Ahlström
BACKGROUND: Sweden has a policy of supporting older people to live a normal life at home for as long as possible. Therefore, it is often the oldest, most frail people who move into nursing homes. Nursing home staff are expected to meet the existential needs of the residents, yet conversations about death and dying tend to cause emotional strain. This study explores organizational readiness to implement palliative care based on evidence-based guidelines in nursing homes in Sweden. The aim was to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing evidence-based palliative care in nursing homes...
January 4, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284475/existential-decision-making-in-a-fatal-progressive-disease-how-much-do-legal-and-medical-frameworks-matter
#10
Christian Weber, Barbara Fijalkowska, Katarzyna Ciecwierska, Anna Lindblad, Gisela Badura-Lotter, Peter M Andersen, Magdalena Kuźma-Kozakiewicz, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé, Tomasz Pasierski, Niels Lynöe
BACKGROUND: Healthcare legislation in European countries is similar in many respects. Most importantly, the framework of informed consent determines that physicians have the duty to provide detailed information about available therapeutic options and that patients have the right to refuse measures that contradict their personal values. However, when it comes to end-of-life decision-making a number of differences exist in the more specific regulations of individual countries. These differences and how they might nevertheless impact patient's choices will be addressed in the current debate...
December 28, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284353/-going-to-the-gym-is-not-congolese-s-culture-examining-attitudes-toward-physical-activity-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-among-congolese-immigrants
#11
Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka, Kelechi D Ibe-Lamberts, Guy-Lucien S Whembolua, Abi Fapohunda, Eugene S Tull
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and attitudes around physical activity among immigrants from the Democratic Republic of Congo and examine the influence of Congolese cultural beliefs on physical activity practice. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted and augmented by photo-elicitation among 20 Congolese immigrants, distributed equally by gender, aged 35 years or older. The PEN-3 model was used as the cultural conceptual framework. Results Using both the Relationships and Expectations dimension (Perceptions, Enablers, and Nurturers) and Cultural Empowerment dimension (Positive, Existential, and Negative) of the PEN-3 model, emergent themes were categorized around knowing the benefits of being physically active (perceptions), doctor encouragement to be more physically active (enablers), and the habit and local tradition of consuming beer after a soccer match (nurturers)...
December 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283634/award-for-distinguished-scientific-early-career-contributions-to-psychology-mark-j-landau
#12
(no author information available yet)
The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers and have held a doctoral degree for no more than 9 years. One of the 2017 award winners is Mark J. Landau, for "his innovative contributions to understanding how existential concerns drive people toward particular conceptions of their world and how metaphors are used to imbue reality with meaning." Landau's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here...
December 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281944/unveiling-the-maelstrom-of-the-early-breast-cancer-trajectory
#13
Mary Godfrey, Sarah Price, Andrew Long
Length and complexity of illness and treatment in early breast cancer mean that the acute phase may extend over months. Employing concepts of "trajectory" and "work" from chronic illness, we explored the temporality of the illness experience for women as it unfolded from diagnosis through acute treatment. We performed multiple, qualitative interviews with 14 women at critical points in their first year postdiagnosis. We differentiated between subphases of the acute breast cancer trajectory: becoming a person with breast cancer: a turning point; first steps in treatment: struggling to protect self-concept; being and feeling ill: "cure" as suffering; and conditional "recovering": an uncertain future...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279037/how-to-increase-the-quality-of-a-suffering-experience-lessons-derived-from-the-diary-narratives-of-a-dying-adolescent-girl
#14
Mustafa Volkan Kavas
Personal narratives are assumed to be primary sources of the essential meaning of lived experiences of dying. In this study, I analyzed the personal diary of Miraç Fidan, a terminally ill adolescent with advanced cancer who kept a diary until her death at the age of 15. Miraç's Diary, also published as a book, was subjected to hermeneutic phenomenological narrative analysis. Inferences were drawn regarding the following basic elements: (a) The dynamics in which Miraç lived and (2) her perceptions of herself, her immediate environment, and her experiences...
February 2018: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279006/between-living-well-and-dying-well-existential-ambivalence-and-keeping-promises-alive
#15
Devin Flaherty
I explore the complexities of moral experience during the phase of life after a terminal diagnosis by examining the experiences of one woman living as a hospice patient in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Introducing the notion of "existential ambivalence," I show that this can be a period of deep uncertainty, in which what matters to individuals can shift and fluctuate through time, not necessarily lining up with collective ideals of "the good death." I focus on a promise this woman made that continued to pull her toward a version of living well while she was also pulled toward dying...
December 26, 2017: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277430/challenges-facing-palliative-neurology-practice-a-qualitative-analysis
#16
T E Gofton, M Chum, V Schulz, B T Gofton, A Sarpal, C Watling
PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a conceptual understanding of the specific characteristics of palliative care in neurology and the challenges of providing palliative care in the setting of neurological illness. METHOD: The study was conducted at London Health Sciences Centre in Canada using grounded theory methodology. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied to focus group (health care providers physicians, nursing, allied health, trainees) and semi-structured interview (patient-caregiver dyads) data to explore challenges facing the delivery of palliative care in neurology...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276345/the-psychology-of-conspiracy-theories
#17
Karen M Douglas, Robbie M Sutton, Aleksandra Cichocka
What psychological factors drive the popularity of conspiracy theories, which explain important events as secret plots by powerful and malevolent groups? What are the psychological consequences of adopting these theories? We review the current research and find that it answers the first of these questions more thoroughly than the second. Belief in conspiracy theories appears to be driven by motives that can be characterized as epistemic (understanding one's environment), existential (being safe and in control of one's environment), and social (maintaining a positive image of the self and the social group)...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259994/perceptions-of-dietary-habits-and-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-among-congolese-immigrants
#18
Daudet Ilunga Tshiswaka, Kelechi D Ibe-Lamberts, Dyna Miandabu Mulunda, Juliet Iwelunmor
Objective: To explore the perceptions of dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk among Congolese immigrants living in the US. Methods: Data were collected from 20 in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation techniques conducted with Congolese immigrants. The PEN-3 cultural model was used as a guide to analyze the data collected. Results: Participants identified positive, existential, and negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers associated with dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251694/existential-distress-and-meaning-focused-interventions-in-cancer-survivorship
#19
Sigrun Vehling, Rebecca Philipp
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer can challenge fundamental assumptions about security, controllability and life priorities, which may lead to clinically relevant existential distress. We review recent studies on the prevalence of existential distress in cancer survivors, its distinctness from other distress concepts and interventions to address cancer-specific existential challenges. We further describe psychological mechanisms that may underlie change resulting from such interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: One-third to one-half of cancer survivors experienced existential fears and concerns related to reduced control, identity and uncertainty about the future...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249868/making-dialogue-with-an-existential-voice-in-transition-from-military-to-civilian-life
#20
Jan Grimell
Dialogical Self Theory has contributed to the endeavors to map and grid self-identity work in transition from military to civilian life throughout an empirical and longitudinal research project which focuses on existential dimensions. This article is based on a case study from this project and centers upon Sergeant Jonas, who, upon his return from deployment in Afghanistan, struggled with his transition as a new existential position was vocalized throughout the following annual interviews. This voice narrated feelings of meaninglessness, emptiness, and of having been deceived...
December 2017: Theory & Psychology
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