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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727995/physician-perceptions-about-living-organ-donation-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
S Ansari, M B Bromberg, S B Gibson
OBJECTIVES: Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) have expressed desire to become living organ donors but are unable to do so with current organ donation policies. Our objective is to assess ALS patient's interest in organ donation, and perceived concerns of this practice by ALS neurologists. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An electronic survey was administered to ALS neurologists across the United States regarding living organ donation in ALS patients prior to respiratory failure...
July 5, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726613/human-metapneumovirus-and-other-respiratory-viral-infections-during-pregnancy-and-birth-nepal
#2
Jennifer L Lenahan, Janet A Englund, Joanne Katz, Jane Kuypers, Anna Wald, Amalia Magaret, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Stephen C LeClerq, Laxman Shrestha, Mark C Steinhoff, Helen Y Chu
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a respiratory virus that can cause severe lower respiratory tract disease and even death, primarily in young children. The incidence and characteristics of HMPV have not been well described in pregnant women. As part of a trial of maternal influenza immunization in rural southern Nepal, we conducted prospective, longitudinal, home-based active surveillance for febrile respiratory illness during pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. During 2011-2014, HMPV was detected in 55 of 3,693 women (16...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724579/novel-bivalent-viral-vectored-vaccines-induce-potent-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-conferring-protection-against-stringent-influenza-a-virus-challenge
#3
Claire M Tully, Senthil Chinnakannan, Caitlin E Mullarkey, Marta Ulaszewska, Francesca Ferrara, Nigel Temperton, Sarah C Gilbert, Teresa Lambe
Seasonal influenza viruses are a common cause of acute respiratory illness worldwide and generate a significant socioeconomic burden. Influenza viruses mutate rapidly, necessitating annual vaccine reformulation because traditional vaccines do not typically induce broad-spectrum immunity. In addition to seasonal infections, emerging pandemic influenza viruses present a continued threat to global public health. Pandemic influenza viruses have consistently higher attack rates and are typically associated with greater mortality compared with seasonal strains...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720723/profile-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-children-in-a-lower-middle-income-country
#4
Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood A Khan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill children presenting to a paediatric ED in a lower middle-income country. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of children (<14 years) presenting to the ED of the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, between January and December 2014 who were assigned to acuity 1 (requiring immediate life-saving interventions) according to the Emergency Severity Index. Data included demographic variables, presenting complaints, interventions and outcomes in the ED...
July 18, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720671/the-impact-of-ventilator-associated-events-in-critically-ill-subjects-with-prolonged-mechanical-ventilation
#5
Hidetsugu Kobayashi, Shigehiko Uchino, Masanori Takinami, Shoichi Uezono
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released a surveillance definition for respiratory complications in ventilated patients, ventilator-associated events (VAE), to replace ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAE consists of ventilator-associated conditions (VAC), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC), and possible VAP. A duration of mechanical ventilation of at least 4 d is required to diagnose VAE. However, the observed duration of mechanical ventilation was < 4 d in many previous studies...
July 18, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720600/is-the-mechanism-of-re-expansion-pulmonary-oedema-in-a-heart-lung-interaction
#6
Candy Masego Mokotedi, Martin Balik
The mechanism of re-expansion pulmonary oedema (Re-PE) is unclear. There are multiple variables in play when evaluating the response to evacuation of pleural fluid. We present an educational case of a critically ill patient admitted for respiratory failure who was fully dependent on ventricular pacing set at a constant rate throughout the episode of Re-PE. The transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed an ejection fraction of 38%, moderate mitral regurgitation (MR), mildly dilated right ventricle and moderate pulmonary hypertension...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719693/effect-of-high-dose-vs-standard-dose-wintertime-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-viral-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-young-healthy-children
#7
Mary Aglipay, Catherine S Birken, Patricia C Parkin, Mark B Loeb, Kevin Thorpe, Yang Chen, Andreas Laupacis, Muhammad Mamdani, Colin Macarthur, Jeffrey S Hoch, Tony Mazzulli, Jonathon L Maguire
Importance: Epidemiological studies support a link between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and a higher risk of viral upper respiratory tract infections. However, whether winter supplementation of vitamin D reduces the risk among children is unknown. Objective: To determine whether high-dose vs standard-dose vitamin D supplementation reduces the incidence of wintertime upper respiratory tract infections in young children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted during the winter months between September 13, 2011, and June 30, 2015, among children aged 1 through 5 years enrolled in TARGet Kids!, a multisite primary care practice-based research network in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
July 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719323/burden-and-seasonality-of-viral-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-among-outpatients-in-southern-sri-lanka
#8
David Shapiro, Champica K Bodinayake, Ajith Nagahawatte, Vasantha Devasiri, Ruvini Kurukulasooriya, Jeremy Hsiang, Bradley Nicholson, Aruna Dharshan De Silva, Truls Østbye, Megan E Reller, Christopher W Woods, L Gayani Tillekeratne
In tropical and subtropical settings, the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory tract infections varies widely between countries. We determined the etiology, seasonality, and clinical presentation of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern Sri Lanka. From March 2013 to January 2015, we enrolled outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). Nasal/nasopharyngeal samples were tested in duplicate using antigen-based rapid influenza testing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719302/a-fatal-hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome-misdiagnosed-as-dengue-an-investigation-into-the-first-reported-case-in-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil
#9
Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Alexandro Guterres, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Jorlan Fernandes, João Marcos Penna Júnior, Reynaldo de Jesus Oliveira Júnior, Liana Strecht Pereira, João Bosco Júnior, Patrícia Soares Meneguete, Cristina Maria Giordano Dias, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
We report the results of an investigation into a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where the disease had not been reported previous to 2015. Following the notification of an HPS case, serum samples were collected from the household members and work contacts of the HPS patient and tested for antibody to hantaviruses. Seroprevalence of 22% (10/45) was indicated for hantavirus out of 45 human samples tested. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 72 rodents during fieldwork to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG, and to characterize the rodent hantavirus reservoir(s), by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718257/risk-factors-for-heat-related-deaths-during-the-june-2015-heat-wave-in-karachi-pakistan
#10
Syed Ghazanfar Saleem, Tehreem Ansari, Ashraf Shamshad Ali, Sara Fatima, Mariam Hassan Rizvi, Muhammad Abdul Samad
BACKGROUND: Mortality as a consequence of heat related illness is a public health concern. Emergency department (ED) experiences increased patients' flow and decreased survival as a consequence of heat stroke during the episodes of heat wave. The present study was conducted to identify the risk factors for mortality among victims of heat wave (17th - 23rd June), 2015 evaluated in the Emergency Department of The Indus Hospital (TIH), Karachi. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data was retrospectively collected...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716935/severe-viral-respiratory-infections-in-children-with-ifih1-loss-of-function-mutations
#11
Samira Asgari, Luregn J Schlapbach, Stéphanie Anchisi, Christian Hammer, Istvan Bartha, Thomas Junier, Geneviève Mottet-Osman, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, David Longchamp, Martin Stocker, Samuel Cordey, Laurent Kaiser, Thomas Riedel, Tony Kenna, Deborah Long, Andreas Schibler, Amalio Telenti, Caroline Tapparel, Paul J McLaren, Dominique Garcin, Jacques Fellay
Viral respiratory infections are usually mild and self-limiting; still they exceptionally result in life-threatening infections in previously healthy children. To investigate a potential genetic cause, we recruited 120 previously healthy children requiring support in intensive care because of a severe illness caused by a respiratory virus. Using exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified and characterized three rare loss-of-function variants in IFIH1, which encodes an RIG-I-like receptor involved in the sensing of viral RNA...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716451/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#12
Trang D Trinh, Evan J Zasowski, Kimberly C Claeys, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Shravya Kidambi, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is a risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but factors specific to critically ill pneumonia patients are not fully characterized. Objective was to determine risk factors associated with MDR P. aeruginosa pneumonia among ICU patients. This was a retrospective case-control study of P. aeruginosa pneumonia in the ICU; cystic fibrosis and colonizers were excluded. Risk factors included comorbid conditions and prior healthcare exposure (anti-pseudomonal antibiotics, hospitalizations, nursing home, P...
June 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716290/yarsagumba-fungus-health-problems-in-the-himalayan-gold-rush
#13
Pranawa Koirala, Bidur Pandit, Pratibha Phuyal, Ken Zafren
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. METHODS: In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. RESULTS: There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus...
July 14, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714002/identification-of-key-genes-in-gram%C3%A2-positive-and-gram%C3%A2-negative-sepsis-using-stochastic-perturbation
#14
Zhenliang Li, Ying Zhang, Yaling Liu, Yanchun Liu, Youyi Li
Sepsis is an inflammatory response to pathogens (such as Gram‑positive and Gram‑negative bacteria), which has high morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. The present study aimed to identify the key genes in Gram‑positive and Gram‑negative sepsis. GSE6535 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, containing 17 control samples, 18 Gram‑positive samples and 25 Gram‑negative samples. Subsequently, the limma package in R was used to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Hierarchical clustering was conducted for the specific DEGs in Gram‑negative and Gram‑negative samples using cluster software and the TreeView software...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713779/ifitm3-rs12252-c-variant-increases-potential-risk-for-severe-influenza-virus-infection-in-chinese-population
#15
Yang Pan, Peng Yang, Tao Dong, Yi Zhang, Weixian Shi, Xiaomin Peng, Shujuan Cui, Daitao Zhang, Guilan Lu, Yimeng Liu, Shuangsheng Wu, Quanyi Wang
Background: Interferon Inducible Transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) is a key factor in interferon pathway and it involves host's immune response against multiple viruses. IFITM3 rs12252-C was associated with severe influenza virus infection in several studies, however whether this association is universal to all types of influenza virus or diverse ethnic populations remain controversial. Method: A case-control genetic association study was performed from September 2013 to April 2014 and September 2014 to April 2015. All samples were tested for influenza using RT-PCR, and genotyped by High Resolution Melting assay...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713217/the-burden-of-illness-related-to-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations-in-qu%C3%A3-bec-canada
#16
Tam Dang-Tan, Shiyuan Zhang, Ruben V Tavares, Melissa Stutz, Afisi S Ismaila, Julie Vaillancourt, Diane Corriveau, Richard H Stanford, Xiwu Lin, Gilbert A Nadeau, Alexander Simidchiev, Daria Parsons, John S Sampalis
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence in Canada has risen over time. COPD-related exacerbations contribute to the increased health care utilization (HCU) in this population. This study investigated the impact of exacerbations on COPD-related HCU. METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study used patient data from the Québec provincial health insurance databases. Eligible patients with a new HCU claim with a diagnostic billing for COPD during 2001-2010 were followed until March 31, 2011...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712204/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-corona-virus-alert-verification-in-mirpur-azad-kashmir
#17
Mumtaz Ali Khan, Muhammad Ishaq, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Asim Altaf, Mirza Aamir Baig, Safdar Rana, Jaleel Kamran, Muazam Abbas Ranjha, Jawad Asgher Rana
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory-Corona virus (MERS-CoV), SARS like virus, identified in September 2012 in Middle-East. February 2013, an elderly man, who visited Pakistan and KSA, was confirmed as MRS-CoV in UK. A team visited Mirpur to assess current and past SARI trends in major indoor facilities, to explore possible contact of the patient with known or suspected SARI case during his stay in Pakistan and enlist close contacts. METHODS: Review of indoor records in hospitals, interviews with relatives & physicians and active contact tracing using operational case definition...
January 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711676/should-we-consider-fecal-colonization-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-empiric-therapy-of-community-onset-sepsis
#18
Daša Stupica, Lara Lusa, Mirijam Nahtigal Klevišar, Sara Terzić, Mateja Pirš, Manica Mueller Premru, Franc Strle
In patients colonized with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), the preference for carbapenems (CRB) over non-CRB antibiotics for empiric therapy of sepsis is questionable from an ecologic perspective and also how well colonization actually predicts an ESBL-E etiology of infection has been poorly investigated. The purpose of this retrospective observational study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of ESBL-E fecal colonization for ESBL-E etiology of sepsis and the impact of empiric therapy on treatment outcome...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711371/extubation-to-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-critically-ill-surgical-patients
#19
Navpreet K Dhillon, Eric J T Smith, Ara Ko, Megan Y Harada, Danielle Polevoi, Richard Liang, Galinos Barmparas, Eric J Ley
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly used to reduce reintubations in patients with respiratory failure. Benefits include providing positive end expiratory pressure, reducing anatomical dead space, and decreasing work of breathing. We sought to compare outcomes of critically ill surgical patients extubated to HFNC versus conventional therapy. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted in the surgical intensive care unit of an academic center during August 2015 to February 2016...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709460/semi-quantitative-influenza-a-population-averages-from-a-multiplex-respiratory-viral-panel-rvp-potential-for-reflecting-target-sequence-changes-affecting-the-assay
#20
Kenneth H Rand, Maura Pieretti, Rodney Arcenas, Stacy G Beal, Herbert Houck, Emma Boslet, John A Lednicky
BACKGROUND: Yearly influenza virus mutations potentially affect the performance of molecular assays, if nucleic acid changes involve the sequences in the assay. Because individual patient viral loads depend on variables such as duration of illness, specimen type, age, and immunosuppression, we examined seasonal population averages of positive tests to smooth inherent variability. METHODS: We studied the population seasonal averages of the semi-quantitative nAMPs for the influenza matrix and hemagglutinin genes in the GenMark (Carlsbad, CA) Respiratory Viral Panel assay between 3 institutions over 3 Influenza seasons...
July 14, 2017: Virology Journal
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