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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332648/prevalence-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases-from-a-rural-area-in-kerala-southern-india
#1
Krishnaveni Viswanathan, P S Rakesh, Shibu Balakrishnan, A Shanavas, Varun Dharman
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity in developing countries. A community based survey was undertaken with an objective to estimate the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases and to describe the profile of people with CRDs in the rural area Nilamel health block in Kollam district, Kerala, southern India. METHODS: A household information sheet and a translated respiratory symptom questionnaire based on International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) bronchial symptoms questionnaire was administered to 12,556 people above 15 years, selected randomly from Nilamel health block...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332209/the-rapid-diagnosis-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-and-its-impact-on-antimicrobial-stewardship-programs
#2
Şiran Keske, Önder Ergönül, Faik Tutucu, Doruk Karaaslan, Erhan Palaoğlu, Füsun Can
We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016...
January 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331008/atypical-presentation-of-rickettsial-spotted-fever
#3
Uday Prabhakar, Anup Singh
Acute febrile illness is a common entity in tropics and often is challenging due a host of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. Extensive work up is required for better management. Rickettsiosis is uncommon and hence comes lower down in the differentials of multiorgan failure being superseded by the more common diseases as malaria, enteric fever and Dengue. We document a case of young male presenting with high grade fever, multiorgan dysfunction (hepatic, renal, neurological and respiratory involvement), conjunctival suffusion, retiform rash and without lymphadenopathy...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330715/case-series-analysis-of-new-zealand-reports-of-rapid-intense-potentiation-of-warfarin-by-roxithromycin
#4
Ruth L Savage, Michael V Tatley
INTRODUCTION: We undertook an analysis of all the reports to the New Zealand Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring of a roxithromycin/warfarin interaction after two recent reports described intense rapid warfarin potentiation. The interaction was first published in 1995. Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition has been the proposed mechanism but has limited biologic plausibility. There are suggestions that the clinical significance of the interaction may be increased by severe illness, polypharmacy, renal dysfunction, older age and increased warfarin sensitivity...
January 12, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330010/nasopharyngeal-lactobacillus-is-associated-with-childhood-wheezing-illnesses-following-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-infancy
#5
Christian Rosas-Salazar, Meghan H Shilts, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Seth Schobel, James D Chappell, Emma K Larkin, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Rebecca A Halpin, Karen E Nelson, Martin L Moore, Larry J Anderson, R Stokes Peebles, Suman R Das, Tina V Hartert
BACKGROUND: Early-life acute respiratory infection (ARI) with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been strongly associated with the development of childhood wheezing illnesses, but the pathways underlying this association are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of the nasopharyngeal microbiome in the development of childhood wheezing illnesses following RSV ARI in infancy. METHODS: We conducted a nested cohort study of 118 previously healthy, term infants with confirmed RSV ARI by RT-PCR...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330009/the-almanach-project-preliminary-results-and-potentiality-from-afghanistan
#6
A Bernasconi, F Crabbé, R Rossi, I Qani, A Vanobberghen, M Raab, S Du Mortier
INTRODUCTION: ALMANACH (ALgorithms for the MANagement of Acute CHildhood illnesses) is an electronic version of IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) running on tablets. ALMANACH enhances its concept, it integrates well into health staff's daily consultation work and facilitates diagnosis and treatment. ALMANACH informs when to refer a child or to perform a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), recommends the right treatment dosage and synchronizes collected data real time with a Health Management Information System (DHIS2) for epidemiological evaluation and decision making...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329957/safety-and-tolerability-of-a-novel-polyclonal-human-anti-mers-coronavirus-antibody-produced-from-transchromosomic-cattle-a-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-single-dose-escalation-study
#7
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329508/hospital-readmissions-and-the-day-of-the-week
#8
Aman Verma, Christian Rochefort, Guido Powell, David Buckeridge
Objectives Patients discharged from hospitals on a Friday (Friday discharges) are readmitted sooner (a shorter time-to-emergency-readmission) than those discharged on any other day of the week. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of increasing weekend capacity, the effect estimate of Friday discharge on time-to-emergency-readmission needs to be precise. However, precise effect estimation is complicated by the confounding effect of differing healthcare-seeking behaviour and admission practices, and therefore different admission probability, by day of the week...
January 2018: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327810/nebulized-hypertonic-saline-in-infants-hospitalized-with-moderately-severe-bronchiolitis-due-to-rsv-infection-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yoshihiko Morikawa, Masaru Miura, Megumi Y Furuhata, Saeko Morino, Tae Omori, Masahiro Otsuka, Michiko Chiga, Toshimasa Obonai, Hiroshi Hataya, Tetsuji Kaneko, Kenji Ishikura, Masataka Honda, Yukihiro Hasegawa
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) therapy for shortening hospital length of stay (LOS) or improving bronchiolitic symptoms remains controversial. Most studies enrolled small numbers of subjects and did not consider the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common cause of acute bronchiolitis. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nebulized HS therapy for acute bronchiolitis due to RSV in moderately ill hospitalized infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing a nebulized HS treatment group with a normal saline (NS) group...
January 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326294/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-southern-china-retrospective-analysis-of-hospitalised-patients-from-14-provinces-in-the-area-south-of-the-huaihe-river
#10
Shuping Liu, Zheman Xiao, Min Lou, Fang Ji, Bei Shao, Hongyuan Dai, Can Luo, Bo Hu, Ruiling Zhou, Zhangyu Zou, Jing Li, Xiaoyi Li, Jun Xu, Fan Hu, Chao Qin, Lian Wang, Tao Liu, Runtao Bai, Yangmei Chen, Haiyan Lv, Ruxu Zhang, Xiaoming Wang, Yunfu Wang, Shanling Ren, Xiaoming He, Zhenwei Jiang, Huiwen Wu, Donghui Yu, Wenqiong Yang, Wenjing Luo, Daokai Gong, Bin Chen, Yin Liu, Jiajia Yao, Yujie Yang, Jingxia Guan, Mingzhen Zhu, Xiujuan Fu, Genshan Gao, Hong Zhang, Man Ding, Shanghua Fan, Qian Cao, Jingyi Lu, Zuneng Lu
OBJECTIVES: The clinical and epidemiological profiles of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in southern China have yet to be fully recognised. We aimed to investigate the subtypes of GBS in southern China, compare the clinical features of demyelinating form with that of axonal form and test whether preceding infections and age have influence on the clinical phenotype, disease course and severity of GBS. METHODS: Medical records of patients with a diagnosis of GBS admitted to 31 tertiary hospitals, located in 14 provinces in southern China, from 1 January 2013 to 30 September 2016, were collected and retrospectively reviewed...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326010/genomics-of-corynebacterium-striatum-an-emerging-multi-drug-resistant-pathogen-of-immunocompromised-patients
#11
Kathleen Nudel, Xiaomin Zhao, Sankha Basu, Xiaoxi Dong, Maria Hoffmann, Michael Feldgarden, Marc Allard, Michael Klompas, Lynn Bry
OBJECTIVES: Corynebacterium striatum is an emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogen of immunocompromised and chronically ill patients. The objective of these studies was to provide a detailed genomic analysis of disease causing C. striatum and determine the genomic drivers of resistance and resistance-gene transmission. METHODS: A multi-institutional and prospective pathogen genomics program flagged seven MDR C. striatum infections occurring close in time, and specifically in immunocompromised patients with underlying respiratory diseases...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323621/vaccines-for-the-paramyxoviruses-and-pneumoviruses-successes-candidates-and-hurdles
#12
Charles J Russell, Eric A F Simões, Julia L Hurwitz
Human parainfluenza viruses (family Paramyxoviridae), human metapneumovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (family Pneumoviridae) infect most infants and children within the first few years of life and are the etiologic agents for many serious acute respiratory illnesses. These virus infections are also associated with long-term diseases that impact quality of life, including asthma. Despite over a half-century of vaccine research, development, and clinical trials, no vaccine has been licensed to date for the paramyxoviruses or pneumoviruses for the youngest infants...
January 11, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323105/enterovirus-d68-virus-like-particles-expressed-in-pichia-pastoris-potently-induce-neutralizing-antibody-responses-and-confer-protection-against-lethal-viral-infection-in-mice
#13
Chao Zhang, Xueyang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Wenlong Dai, Jing Xie, Liping Ye, Hongli Wang, Huan Chen, Qingwei Liu, Sitang Gong, Lanlan Geng, Zhong Huang
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has been increasingly associated with severe respiratory illness and neurological complications in children worldwide. However, no vaccine is currently available to prevent EV-D68 infection. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of developing a virus-like particle (VLP)-based EV-D68 vaccine. We found that co-expression of the P1 precursor and 3CD protease of EV-D68 in Pichia pastoris yeast resulted in the generation of EV-D68 VLPs, which were composed of processed VP0, VP1, and VP3 capsid proteins and were visualized as ~30 nm spherical particles...
January 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321935/desquamative-interstitial-pneumonia-complicated-by-diffuse-alveolar-haemorrhage
#14
Ayako Matsuo, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Akiko Kitamura, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Shigehisa Yanagi, Masamitsu Nakazato
We report a rare case of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) with diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH). A 56-year-old man diagnosed with DIP by surgical lung biopsy 2 years ago was admitted to our hospital because of severe acute respiratory failure. The DIP had progressed despite smoking cessation. On admission, the patient appeared extremely ill, and physical examination revealed respiratory distress. The patient required mechanical ventilation. High-resolution computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacity in both lungs...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320737/genomic-circuitry-underlying-immunological-response-to-pediatric-acute-respiratory-infection
#15
Sarah E Henrickson, Sasikanth Manne, Douglas V Dolfi, Kathleen D Mansfield, Kaela Parkhouse, Rakesh D Mistry, Elizabeth R Alpern, Scott E Hensley, Kathleen E Sullivan, Susan E Coffin, E John Wherry
Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319760/acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-obstetric-patients-a-cross-sectional-study-in-an-intensive-care-unit-in-northeast-brazil
#16
Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Suzanne Vieira Saintrain, Gabriel de Castro Castelo, Vanessa Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Juliana Gomes Ramalho de Oliveira, Amanda Maria Timbó Rocha, Adolfo Gomes Vasconcelos Júnior, Maria Vieira de Lima Saintrain, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication still poorly studied in the setting of obstetric patients, which is associated with increased mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors of AKI among critically ill obstetric patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with all patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) due to obstetric complications, in Fortaleza, Brazil, in the period between January 2012 and December 2014...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319723/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-intensive-care-unit-survivors-experience-of-a-multidisciplinary-outpatient-clinic-in-a-teaching-hospital
#17
Péricles A D Duarte, Jaquilene Barreto Costa, Silvana Trilo Duarte, Sheila Taba, Claudia Regina Felicetti Lordani, Erica Fernanda Osaku, Claudia Rejane Lima Macedo Costa, Dalas Cristina Miglioranza, Daniela Prochnow Gund, Amaury Cesar Jorge
OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience of an outpatient clinic with the multidisciplinary evaluation of intensive care unit survivors and to analyze their social, psychological, and physical characteristics in a low-income population and a developing country. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Adult survivors from a general intensive care unit were evaluated three months after discharge in a post-intensive care unit outpatient multidisciplinary clinic over a period of 6 years (2008-2014) in a University Hospital in southern Brazil...
December 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318997/screening-of-returned-travelers
#18
Orçun Zorbozan, Ayşegül Ünver, Adnan Yüksel Gürüz
Travel-related health problems have been reported in 22-64% of travelers to developing countries. Approximately 8% of these patients are moderately ill and are referred to health facilities. Post-travel infections are usually symptomatic in the early stages, but they may last for up to months or even years, depending on the incubation period. It has been reported that it is not necessary to have extensive knowledge on tropical diseases to be able to make a clinical evaluation after the trip. All post-travel consultations should be performed by physicians and should include travel-related illness identification, timely medical intervention, and, if necessary, referral to a senior hospital...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318106/pneumococcal-vaccination-in-older-persons-where-are-we-today
#19
REVIEW
Paul Van Buynder, Robert Booy
Disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, remains a major source of illness in older persons. Globally, it remains the most important pathogen in respiratory infection deaths. Conjugated pneumococcal vaccines are used extensively in national pediatric programs, whereas a polysaccharide vaccine is used in all age groups, but mainly in the elderly and for high-risk groups. Recent data from the Netherlands led to the licensing in many countries of conjugated pneumococcal vaccines for older persons...
2018: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317845/pyomyositis-in-the-setting-of-complicated-diverticulitis-case-report
#20
James Sun, David Leor Kashan, Jolita Marie Auguste, Akella Chendrasekhar
Pyomyositis is typically thought of as a disease of the tropics. However, it is becoming more prevalent in temperate regions, and may be underdiagnosed. Here, pyomyositis is encountered as a complication of perforated diverticulitis, which has not been previously reported. A 61-year-old Caucasian man initially presented in respiratory distress and was diagnosed with respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbation. The patient was taking high-dose prednisone, 60 mg daily for the past 2 years. Initially, he was afebrile, normotensive, tachycardic to 178 beats/minute and tachypneic to 28 breaths/minute, requiring noninvasive ventilation to maintain oxygenation...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
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