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Respiratory illness

Osvaldo P Almeida, Andrew H Ford, Graeme J Hankey, Bu B Yeap, Jonathan Golledge, Leon Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recent research has identified several potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia, including mental disorders. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder, have also been associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but currently available data difficult to generalise because of bias and confounding. We designed the present study to investigate if the presence of a psychotic disorder increased the risk of incident dementia in later life...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Fabienne D Simonis, Carmen S V Barbas, Antonio Artigas-Raventós, Jaume Canet, Rogier M Determann, James Anstey, Goran Hedenstierna, Sabrine N T Hemmes, Greet Hermans, Michael Hiesmayr, Markus W Hollmann, Samir Jaber, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Gary H Mills, Rupert M Pearse, Christian Putensen, Werner Schmid, Paolo Severgnini, Roger Smith, Tanja A Treschan, Edda M Tschernko, Marcos F Vidal Melo, Hermann Wrigge, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Paolo Pelosi, Marcus J Schultz, Ary Serpa Neto
BACKGROUND: The majority of critically ill patients do not suffer from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). To improve the treatment of these patients, we aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with outcome of these patients. METHODS: The PRoVENT was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study of consecutive patients under invasive mechanical ventilatory support. A predefined secondary analysis was to examine factors associated with mortality...
March 21, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Hongyan Li, Heng Weng, Changqing Lan, Hongying Zhang, Xinhang Wang, Jianguang Pan, Lulu Chen, Jinbao Huang
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).The clinical data of 18 cases of H7N9 and 26 cases of H1N1 with ARDS were collected and compared in the respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital of Fujian from March 2014 to December 2016.Patients with H7N9 had a higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score (P < .05) and lung injury score (P < ...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rimen Lim
Sleep disturbance is a significant issue for patients in intensive care units (ICUs), which can affect their health and recovery from illness. Therefore, it is important to consider ways to address sleep disturbance in these settings. One strategy that has been suggested is the use of 'quiet time' interventions, which involve a defined period where there is a reduction in controllable light and sound, and where interruptions at the patient's bedside are minimised. AIM: To determine the effectiveness of quiet time interventions in improving patients' sleep quality in ICUs; to investigate other potential clinical benefits of quiet time interventions; and to consider the effect of incorporating open visitation when implementing quiet time interventions...
March 21, 2018: Nursing Standard
Hongping Hu, Haiyan Wang, Feng Wang, Daniel Langley, Adrian Avram, Maoxing Liu
Because influenza is a contagious respiratory illness that seriously threatens public health, accurate real-time prediction of influenza outbreaks may help save lives. In this paper, we use the Twitter data set and the United States Centers for Disease Control's influenza-like illness (ILI) data set to predict a nearly real-time regional unweighted percentage ILI in the United States by use of an artificial neural network optimized by the improved artificial tree algorithm. The results show that the proposed method is an efficient approach to real-time prediction...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tamara L Sheldon, Chandini Sankaran
Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia lost nearly 25 percent of its forests, largely due to intentional burning to clear land for cultivation of palm oil and timber plantations.1 The neighboring "victim countries" experienced severe deteriorations in air quality as a result of these fires. For example, Singapore experienced record air pollution levels in June of 2013 and again in September of 2015 as a result of the Indonesian forest fires.2 This air pollution is associated with increased incidences of upper respiratory tract infections, acute conjunctivitis, lung disease, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and pneumonia, among other ailments...
May 2017: American Economic Review
John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes were distributed to: (1) Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members; (2) Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) Asia-Pacific members; and (3) divers who had received any PADI non-leadership certification within the previous four years...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Candice Bjornson, Parco Chan, Abby Li, Bosco Paes, Krista L Lanctôt, Ian Mitchell
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) infants is associated with significant morbidities. This study's objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and adverse events related to palivizumab (PVZ) in CF infants. Data on respiratory-related illness (RIH) and RSV hospitalizations (RSVH) were collected retrospectively in CF infants aged < 2 years in Alberta, Canada, from 2000 to 2017. Logistic regression models were used to compare the odds of RSVH or RIH in PVZ infants from the Canadian registry of palivizumab (CARESS) versus untreated (UPVZ) infants from Alberta, after adjusting for potential confounders...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Amanda Marie Blackmore, Natasha Bear, Eve Blair, Katherine Langdon, Lisa Moshovis, Kellie Steer, Andrew C Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the early predictors of respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN: A 3-year prospective cohort study using linked data. PATIENTS: Children and young people with CP, aged 1 to 26 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported and carer-reported respiratory symptoms were linked to respiratory hospital admissions (as defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision codes) during the following 3 years...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Sanna Selinheimo, Tuula Vasankari, Markus Jokela, Merja Kanervisto, Sami Pirkola, Jaana Suvisaari, Tiina Paunio
BACKGROUND: We examined the prevalence of self-perceived respiratory symptoms (SRS) in the absence of any objective findings of respiratory pathology, and the association of such prevalence with psychological factors and healthcare use in the general population. METHODS: The study was conducted among a nationally representative sample of Finnish adults (BRIF8901). Respiratory functioning was measured by a spirometry test. Structured questionnaires were used to measure SRS, physician visits and psychological factors of alexithymia, sense of coherence, illness worry and common mental disorders...
March 20, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Amanda M Rojek, Kassiani Gkolfinopoulou, Apostolos Veizis, Angeliki Lambrou, Lyndsey Castle, Theano Georgakopoulou, Karl Blanchet, Takis Panagiotopoulos, Peter W Horby
BACKGROUND: Refugees may have an increased vulnerability to infectious diseases, and the consequences of an outbreak are more severe in a refugee camp. When an outbreak is suspected, access to clinical information is critical for investigators to verify that an outbreak is occurring, to determine the cause and to select interventions to control it. Experience from previous outbreaks suggests that the accuracy and completeness of this information is poor. This study is the first to assess the adequacy of clinical characterisation of acute medical illnesses in refugee camps...
March 19, 2018: BMC Medicine
Anwar E Ahmed, Hamdan Al-Jahdali, Abeer N Alshukairi, Mody Alaqeel, Salma S Siddiq, Hanan A Alsaab, Ezzeldin A Sakr, Hamed A Alyahya, Munzir M Alandonisi, Alaa T Subedar, Nouf M Aloudah, Salim Baharoon, Majid A Alsalamah, Sameera Al Johani, Mohammed G Alghamdi
BACKGROUND: Rapidly and accurately identifying individuals who are at high risk for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains a major challenge for the medical and scientific communities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for the screening of suspected cases of MERS-CoV infection in patients who had developed pneumonia. METHODS: A two-center retrospective case-control study was done, including 360 patients with confirmed pneumonia who were evaluated for MERS-CoV infection by Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from September 1, 2012 to June 1, 2016 at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh (KAMC-R) and King Fahd General Hospital in Jeddah (KFGH-JED)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Eashaa Kumar, Michael T McCurdy, Christian A Koch, Abdurrahman Hamadah, Tibor Fülöp, Kamel A Gharaibeh
Unexplained hypotension in the intensive care unit is commonly attributed to volume depletion, cardiorespiratory failure, sepsis, or relative adrenal insufficiency. In these acute conditions, thyroid hormone levels measured in blood, serum or plasma are often altered and solely attributed to critical illness. We report a series of 3 critically ill patients with prolonged respiratory failure, suppressed mental status and unexplained hypotension. Thyroid stimulating hormone levels ranged from normal to mildly elevated (2...
March 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Nathaly M Sweeney, Shareef A Nahas, Shimul Chowdhury, Miguel Del Campo, Marilyn C Jones, David P Dimmock, Stephen F Kingsmore, Rcigm Investigators
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results from incomplete formation of the diaphragm leading to herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. CDH is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Genetically, it is associated with aneuploidies, chromosomal copy number variants, and single gene mutations. CDH is the most expensive non-cardiac congenital defect: Management frequently requires implementation of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), which increases management expenditures 2...
March 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing titers and IgG to RSV F, Ga and Gb proteins, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
William Schaffner, Wilbur H Chen, Robert H Hopkins, Kathleen Neuzil
The 2017-18 influenza season reminds us that it is important for healthcare professionals to be prepared for the annual onslaught of this contagious respiratory disease associated with potentially serious complications. Vaccination is by far the best method to prevent and control influenza, reducing illness, hospitalizations, and mortality. The highest rates of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality are observed in older adults. The immune function of older adults decreases with increasing age, a phenomenon termed immunosenescence...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Ana Carolina Lima Cavaletti, Célia Pereira Caldas, Kenio Costa de Lima
OBJECTIVES: To identify the diseases that lead older persons to hospitalizations in the public health system in the state of Rio de Janeiro and, through a study of spatial distribution among hospitalization rates of the municipal districts, discuss the social contexts involved in the hospitalization of the elderly. METHODS: An ecological cross-sectional study using secondary data from the Brazilian hospital information system from the period 2009 to 2015 was performed...
March 12, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
F L Chan, R House, I Kudla, J C Lipszyc, N Rajaram, S M Tarlo
Background: 3D printers emit potentially hazardous ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds. Workers using 3D printing technologies may be at risk of respiratory illness from occupational exposure. Aims: To assess whether 3D printing is associated with health effects in occupational users. Methods: This was a preliminary survey. Workers in 17 companies using 3D printing, including commercial prototyping businesses, educational institutions and public libraries, in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada, were asked to complete survey questionnaires concerning demographic, occupational and health information...
March 10, 2018: Occupational Medicine
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