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Sedative hypnotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435427/novel-4-thiazolidinone-derivatives-as-agonists-of-benzodiazepine-receptors-design-synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation
#1
Mehrdad Faizi, Reza Jahani, Seyed Abbas Ebadi, Sayyed Abbas Tabatabai, Elham Rezaee, Mehrnaz Lotfaliei, Mohsen Amini, Ali Almasirad
A new series of 4-chloro-N-(2-(substitutedphenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-phenoxybenzamide derivatives were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated as anticonvulsant agents. The designed compounds have the main essential functional groups for binding to the benzodiazepine receptors and 4-thiazolidinone ring as an anticonvulsant pharmacophore. Some of the new synthesized compounds showed considerable anticonvulsant activity in electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced lethal convulsion tests. Compound 5i, 4-chloro-N-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxothiazolidin-3-yl)-2-phenoxybenzamide, with the best activity was selected for evaluation of other benzodiazepine pharmacological effects...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430755/differentiating-delirium-from-sedative-hypnotic-related-iatrogenic-withdrawal-syndrome-lack-of-specificity-in-pediatric-critical-care-assessment-tools
#2
Kate Madden, Michele M Burns, Robert C Tasker
OBJECTIVES: To identify available assessment tools for sedative/hypnotic iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in PICU patients, the evidence supporting their use, and describe areas of overlap between the components of these tools and the symptoms of anticholinergic burden in children. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE from the earliest available date until July 3, 2016, using a combination of MeSH terms "delirium," "substance withdrawal syndrome," and key words "opioids," "benzodiazepines," "critical illness," "ICU," and "intensive care...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424537/awake-craniotomy-anesthetic-management-using-dexmedetomidine-propofol-and-remifentanil
#3
Andrea Prontera, Stefano Baroni, Andrea Marudi, Franco Valzania, Alberto Feletti, Francesca Benuzzi, Elisabetta Bertellini, Giacomo Pavesi
INTRODUCTION: Awake craniotomy allows continuous monitoring of patients' neurological functions during open surgery. Anesthesiologists have to sedate patients in a way so that they are compliant throughout the whole surgical procedure, nevertheless maintaining adequate analgesia and anxiolysis. Currently, the use of α2-receptor agonist dexmedetomidine as the primary hypnotic-sedative medication is increasing. METHODS: Nine patients undergoing awake craniotomy were treated with refined monitored anesthesia care (MAC) protocol consisting of a combination of local anesthesia without scalp block, low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine, propofol, and remifentanil, without the need of airways management...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414657/death-by-propofol
#4
James H Diaz, Alan David Kaye
Since its introduction in 1986, propofol ( two, 6-diisopropylphenol) , an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent, has been utilized for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia and conscious sedation in over 80 percent of cases; largely replacing thiopental ( sodium pentothal) over a decade ago. Unrestricted as a controlled substance, propofol's abuse potential emerged quickly and was highlighted by the death of pop singer, Michael Jackson, in 2009. In order to assess the epidemiological features of fatal propofol abuse, a descriptive analysis of the scientific literature was conducted using Internet search engines...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414209/polypharmacological-in-silico-bioactivity-profiling-and-experimental-validation-uncovers-sedative-hypnotic-effects-of-approved-and-experimental-drugs-in-rat
#5
Georgios Drakakis, Keith A Wafford, Suzanne C Brewerton, Michael J Bodkin, David A Evans, Andreas Bender
In this work, we describe the computational ('in silico') mode-of-action analysis of CNS-active drugs, which is taking both multiple simultaneous hypotheses as well as sets of protein targets for each mode-of-action into account, and which was followed by successful prospective in vitro and in vivo validation. Using sleep-related phenotypic readouts describing both efficacy and side-effects for 491 compounds tested in rat, we defined an 'optimal' (desirable) sleeping pattern. Compounds were subjected to in silico target prediction (which was experimentally confirmed for 21 out of 28 cases, corresponding to 75%), followed by the utilization of decision trees for deriving polypharmacological bioactivity profiles...
April 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413325/the-psychopharmacological-activities-of-vietnamese-ginseng-in-mice-characterization-of-its-psychomotor-sedative-hypnotic-antistress-anxiolytic-and-cognitive-effects
#6
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Thi Hong Van Le, Minh Duc Nguyen, Jeong Hill Park, Jae Hoon Cheong
BACKGROUND: Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. or Vietnamese ginseng (VG) is a recently discovered ginseng species. Studies on its chemical constituents have shown that VG is remarkably rich in ginseng saponins, particularly ocotillol saponins. However, the psychopharmacological effects of VG have not been characterized. Thus, in the present study we screened the psychopharmacological activities of VG in mice. METHODS: VG extract (VGE) was orally administered to mice at various dosages to evaluate its psychomotor (open-field and rota-rod tests), sedative-hypnotic (pentobarbital-induced sleeping test), antistress (cold swimming test), anxiolytic (elevated plus-maze test), and cognitive (Y-maze and passive-avoidance tests) effects...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412576/the-occurrence-of-alcohol-drugs-by-toxicological-examination-of-selected-drivers-in-hong-kong
#7
Wing-Chi Cheng, Kwok-Leung Dao
The study is to investigate the extent of alcohol/drug(s) use among selected drivers, i.e. fatally injured drivers from traffic accidents (2006-2015), drink driving (2006-2015) and drug driving (2010-2015) cases, in Hong Kong. Between 2006 and 2015, specimens from a total of 223 fatally injured drivers were received for toxicological examination. Except for one driver, all other drivers with positive findings were male. Alcohol and/or drugs were detected in 60 (27%) cases where alcohol alone was detected in 40 cases (18%) while drugs with/without alcohol were detected in 20 cases (9%)...
April 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411520/the-relationship-between-mood-disorder-and-insomnia-depends-on-race-in-us-veterans-with-epilepsy
#8
Ima M Ebong, Maria R Lopez, Andres M Kanner, Douglas M Wallace
PURPOSE: Few data exist on race, medical/psychiatric comorbidities, and insomnia symptoms in US veterans with epilepsy. Our aims were to examine 1) whether insomnia symptom prevalence was different between Black and White veterans and 2) whether predictors of insomnia symptoms varied by race. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study included veterans evaluated in an epilepsy clinic over the course of 1.5years. Individuals completed standardized assessments for epilepsy and sleep complaints...
April 12, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403803/metabolic-profile-of-flunitrazepam-clinical-and-forensic-toxicological-aspects
#9
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Flunitrazepam is a potent hypnotic, sedative, and amnestic drug used to treat insomnia and as a pre-anesthetic agent. The illicit practice in drug-facilitated sexual assault has been implicating important clinical and forensic issues. OBJECTIVE: In this work the metabolism of flunitrazepam was fully reviewed. METHODS: Flunitrazepam and related known metabolizing enzymes and metabolites were searched in books and in PubMed (U.S...
April 7, 2017: Drug Metabolism Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399944/prospective-association-between-tobacco-smoking-and-death-by-suicide-a-competing-risks-hazard-analysis-in-a-large-twin-cohort-with-35-year-follow-up
#10
A E Evins, T Korhonen, T H Kinnunen, J Kaprio
BACKGROUND: The relationship between smoking and suicide remains controversial. METHOD: A total of 16 282 twin pairs born before 1958 in Finland and alive in 1974 were queried with detailed health and smoking questionnaires in 1975 and 1981, with response rates of 89% and 84%. Smoking status and dose, marital, employment, and socio-economic status, and indicators of psychiatric and somatic illness were assessed at both time points. Emergent psychiatric and medical illness and vital status, including suicide determined by forensic autopsy, were evaluated over 35-year follow-up through government registries...
April 12, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396328/risk-of-pneumonia-associated-with-incident-benzodiazepine-use-among-community-dwelling-adults-with-alzheimer-disease
#11
Heidi Taipale, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Piia Lavikainen, Reijo Sund, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen
BACKGROUND: Knowledge regarding whether benzodiazepines and similarly acting non-benzodiazepines (Z-drugs) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among older adults is lacking. We sought to investigate this association among community-dwelling adults with Alzheimer disease, a condition in which both sedative/hypnotic use and pneumonia are common. METHODS: We obtained data on all community-dwelling adults with a recent diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in Finland (2005-2011) from the Medication use and Alzheimer disease (MEDALZ) cohort, which incorporates national registry data on prescriptions, reimbursement, hospital discharges and causes of death...
April 10, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389998/psychotropic-drug-related-fall-incidents-in-nursing-home-residents-living-in-the-eastern-part-of-the-netherlands
#12
Sarah I M Janus, Gezinus H Reinders, Jeannette G van Manen, Sytse U Zuidema, Maarten J IJzerman
BACKGROUND: Older people are more susceptible to falls than younger people. Therefore, as the Dutch population ages, the total number of falls and costs associated with them will rise. The use of psychotropic drugs is associated with an increased risk of falling. To create tailored fall-prevention programmes, information on the magnitude of the association between fall incidents and specific psychotropic drugs or drug classes is needed. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to delineate the associations between fall incidents and specific psychotropic drugs or drug classes...
April 8, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380152/incontinence-associated-dermatitis-a-cohort-study-in-critically-ill-patients
#13
Tânia Couto Machado Chianca, Paula Caroline Gonçales, Patrícia Oliveira Salgado, Beatriz de Oliveira Machado, Gilmara Lopes Amorim, Carla Lúcia Goulart Constant Alcoforado
Objectives: Estimate incidence, determine risk factors and propose a prediction model for the development of incontinence- associated dermatitis critically ill adult patients. Method: Concurrent cohort study with 157 critically ill patients. Data collection was daily performed between February and July 2015, at a public teaching hospital of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Data was entered in a database and subjected to descriptive, survival and multivariate analysis...
March 30, 2017: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366347/sleep-disturbance-in-pediatric-patients-on-automated-peritoneal-dialysis
#14
Cláudia Gomes, Lia Oliveira, Rosário Ferreira, Carla Simão
OBJECTIVE: There are few reports describing sleep disturbance (SD) in children on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD), and they are mostly based on the application of questionnaires. As far as we know, only two studies used polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard for the diagnosis of SD. This is the first study assessing SD in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on APD in our country. METHODS: This was an observational and descriptive study. Children up to 18 years of age who had undergone APD for a minimum of three months were considered eligible...
April 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350411/employees-drug-purchases-before-and-after-organizational-downsizing-a-natural-experiment-on-the-norwegian-working-population-2004-2012
#15
Silje L Kaspersen, Kristine Pape, Fredrik Carlsen, Solveig Osborg Ose, Johan Håkon Bjorngaard
Objectives This study investigated the association between organizational downsizing and purchases of prescribed drugs by private sector employees in Norway. Methods A natural experiment was constructed using individual-level employer and employee data linked to the national prescription database for the period 2004-2012. The study population comprised 144 089 employees who had been exposed to major downsizing in the same period. Random effects logistic regression models were used to investigate relative changes in drug purchases (antidepressants, hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics, and anti-psychotics, as well as anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, cardiovascular, and thyroid drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and analgesics/antipyretics) in the five-year-period before and after exposure to downsizing...
March 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346773/noninterventional-naturalistic-retrospective-study-to-describe-prescription-patterns-of-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotics-and-the-impact-of-introducing-a-new-atypical-antipsychotic-in-the-spanish-province-of-tarragona-catchment-area
#16
Ana M Gaviria, José Franco, Guillem Rico, Gerard Muntané, Cristina Sáez, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Joan de Pablo, Elisabet Vilella
Background: We studied the patterns and predictors of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic (AP) use in the treatment of schizophrenia and the effect of introducing a new LAI (paliperidone palmitate [paliperidone-LAI]) in the Spanish province of Tarragona. Methods: This noninterventional, naturalistic, retrospective study included electronic medical record data from a large population-based database of 1,646 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria and treated between January 2011 and December 2013...
March 23, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340259/sedative-prescriptions-are-common-at-opioid-initiation-an-observational-study-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#17
Hilary J Mosher, Kelly K Richardson, Brian C Lund
Background.:  Concurrent use of sedatives, especially anxiolytics, and opioids is associated with increased risk of medication-related harms. To the extent that multiple prescribers are involved, approaches to influence patterns of coprescribing will differ from those to influence prescribing within a single drug class. Objectives.:  Describe the proportion of new opioid recipients with concurrent sedative medications at opioid initiation and determine whether these medications were prescribed by the same prescriber...
March 18, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331860/quetiapine-misuse-and-abuse-is-it-an-atypical-paradigm-of-drug-seeking-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Sean Kim, Gayoung Lee, Eric Kim, Hyejin Jung, Jongwha Chang
Recent case reports in medical literatures suggest that more and more second-generation atypical antipsychotics (AAs) have been prescribed for off-label use; quetiapine (Brand name: Seroquel(®)) showed increase in its trend for off-label use. Little is known about the reasons behind this trend, although historical sedative and hypnotic prescription patterns suggest that despite relatively superior safety profiles of quetiapine (especially for movement disorders), it may be used for treating substance abuse disorder...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330081/emerging-cam-ziziphus-nummularia-with-in-vivo-sedative-hypnotic-antipyretic-and-analgesic-attributes
#19
Abdur Rauf, Jawad Ali, Haroon Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Seema Patel
Ziziphus nummularia from Rhamnaceae family is traditionally used for sedative-hypnotic, antipyretic and analgesic purposes; however, scientific validations are lacking. This in vivo study was undertaken to verify the above ameliorative properties of Z. nummularia root methanolic extract. Various fractions of the extract were assayed on Balb/c mice by open field, Brewer's yeast-induced hyperthermia and acetic acid-induced writhing experiments. The significance of the outcomes was analyzed with statistical tests...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318068/helicid-alleviates-pain-and-sleep-disturbances-in-a-neuropathic-pain-like-model-in-mice
#20
Meng-Qi Zhang, Tian-Xiao Wang, Rui Li, Zhi-Li Huang, Wu-Jian Han, Xiao-Chang Dai, Yi-Qun Wang
Natural helicid (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia. In the current study, mechanical allodynia tests, electroencephalograms, electromyogram recordings and c-Fos expression in neuropathic pain-like model mice of partial sciatic nerve ligation were used to investigate the effect of helicid on neuropathic pain and co-morbid insomnia...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
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