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Sedative hypnotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933106/-review-for-sedative-and-hypnotic-mechanism-of-sedative-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-relative-active-components-on-neurotransmitters
#1
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Zhang, Jing-Jing Li, Ying Zhou, Xiao-Yu Xu
The sedative traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of clinical experience in treating insomnia. The main pharmacological effects of sedative agents are sedation, hypnosis, antianxiety and antidepression which might be related to certain neurotransmitters and cytokines and so on. This review summarized the mechanism of sedative traditional Chinese medicine and its active monomers based on neurotransmitters, including GABA, Glu, 5-HT, DA, NE and their metabolites 5-HIAA, HVA, DOPAC. The results showed that the most research about the sedative medicine at present was throught serotonergic and GABA ergic system...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#2
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931374/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-on-tnf-%C3%AE-and-interleukin-2-in-serum-of-rats-with-severe-craniocerebral-injury
#3
Wan-Wei Jiang, Qing-Hui Wang, Ya-Jing Liao, Pai Peng, Min Xu, Li-Xin Yin
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective adrenergic receptor agonist, which has a dose-dependent sedative hypnotic effect. Furthermore, it also has pharmacological properties, and the ability to inhibit sympathetic activity and improve cardiovascular stability during an operation. However, its protective effect on patients with severe craniocerebral injury in the perioperative period remains unclear. METHOD: Eighty adult male SD rats were used and divided into two groups (n = 40, each group): dexmedetomidine injury group (experimental group), and sodium chloride injury group (control group)...
September 20, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927479/insomnia-symptoms-among-old-people-in-nursing-homes
#4
Andreas Skottheim, Hugo Lövheim, Ulf Isaksson, Per-Olof Sandman, Maria Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are common among old people, and hypnotics and sedative drugs are often prescribed in spite of small benefits. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and to analyze the association between insomnia symptoms, cognitive level, and prescription of hypnotics and sedatives among old people living in nursing homes. METHODS: The study comprised 2,135 people living in nursing homes in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden...
September 20, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918427/safety-of-monitored-anesthesia-care-using-propofol-based-sedation-for-pleuroscopy
#5
Erik Vakil, Mona Sarkiss, David Ost, Macarena R Vial, Roberto F Casal, Georgie A Eapen, Horiana B Grosu
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach to sedation for pleuroscopy remains undefined. Propofol is the favored sedative-hypnotic for many proceduralists but has a narrow therapeutic window and the risk for oversedation is high. Propofol-based sedation administered by anesthesiologists and the routine use of end-tidal capnography and bispectral index (BIS) monitoring may attenuate risks of complications. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of monitored anesthesia care for pleuroscopy...
September 16, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914563/patients-with-psychological-icpc-codes-in-primary-care-a-case-control-study-investigating-the-decade-before-presenting-with-problems
#6
Luc G Gidding, Mark G Spigt, Geert-Jan Dinant
BACKGROUND: Recognizing patients with psychological problems can be difficult for general practitioners (GPs). Use of information collected in electronic medical records (EMR) could facilitate recognition. OBJECTIVES: To assess relevant EMR parameters in the decade before patients present with psychological problems. METHODS: Exploratory case-control study assessing EMR parameters of 58 228 patients recorded between 2013 and 2015 by 54 GPs...
December 2017: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913911/older-adults-awareness-of-deprescribing-a-population-based-survey
#7
Justin P Turner, Cara Tannenbaum
OBJECTIVES: To determine older adults' awareness of the concept of medication-induced harm and their familiarity with the term "deprescribing." Secondary objectives were to ascertain determinants of self-initiated deprescribing conversations and to identify how older adults seek information on medication harms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based household telephone survey using random-digit dialling. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (N = 2,665; n = 898 men, n = 1,767 women, mean age 74...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911622/sedative-and-hypnotic-effects-of-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-fluid-extraction-from-schisandra-chinensis-in-mice
#8
Hongyan Zhu, Lina Zhang, Guoli Wang, Zhongmei He, Yan Zhao, Yonghua Xu, Yugang Gao, Lianxue Zhang
Schisandra chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for treating insomnia and neurasthenia for centuries. Lignans, which are considered to be the bioactive components, are apt to be extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. This study was conducted to investigate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction of S. chinensis (SFES) in mice and the possible mechanisms. SFES exhibited an obvious sedative effect on shortening the locomotor activity in mice in a dose-dependent (10-200 mg/kg) manner...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891380/stories-of-hell-and-healing-internet-users-construction-of-benzodiazepine-distress-and-withdrawal
#9
Alison M Fixsen, Damien Ridge
Benzodiazepines are a group of drugs used mainly as sedatives, hypnotics, antiepileptics, and muscle relaxants. Consumption is recommended for 2 to 4 weeks only, due to fast onset of dependency and potentially distressing withdrawal symptoms. Few peer-review studies have drawn on the user experiences and language to appreciate firsthand experiences of benzodiazepine withdrawal or discontinuation syndrome. We looked extensively at patient stories of benzodiazepine withdrawal and recovery on Internet support sites and YouTube...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882766/pharmacologic-studies-on-et-26-hydrochloride-in-a-rat-model-of-lipopolysaccharide-induced-sepsis
#10
Bin Wang, Junli Jiang, Jun Yang, Jun Chen, Zhaoqiong Zhu, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: ET-26 hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a promising sedation-hypnotic compound with stable hemodynamic features that elicits virtually no adrenocortical suppression. However, whether it preserves better pharmacologic characteristics in a rat model of sepsis is not known. This study compared the survival rate, levels of corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and histologic injury in the lungs and kidneys of rats suffering from sepsis treated with ET-26 HCl, etomidate, or normal saline (NS)...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865038/benzodiazepines-and-z-drugs-an-updated-review-of-major-adverse-outcomes-reported-on-in-epidemiologic-research
#11
REVIEW
Jaden Brandt, Christine Leong
Various adverse events resulting from, or associated with, benzodiazepine and/or Z-drug use have been extensively reported on and discussed in great detail within the biomedical literature. It is widely accepted that motor vehicle accidents and falls leading to fractures in older adults are major adverse events that have been shown to occur more frequently in users of sedative-hypnotic medication, especially of the benzodiazepine and related Z-drug variety. However, the last few years have seen increasing reports in the literature raising the issue of benzodiazepine and Z-drug exposure in the development of other serious medical issues including dementia, infections, respiratory disease exacerbation, pancreatitis, and cancer...
September 1, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864241/theacrine-a-purine-alkaloid-from-camellia-assamica-var-kucha-with-a-hypnotic-property-via-the-adenosine-system
#12
Haoyi Qiao, Xiansheng Ye, Xiaoyu Bai, Jun He, Tingli Li, Jia Zhang, Weiku Zhang, Jiekun Xu
Theacrine (l,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid from Camellia assamica var. kucha, has diverse pharmacological properties, including sedative and hypnotic activities, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, antidepressant effects, and a protective effect against stress-provoked liver damage. The present study aims to investigate the possible mechanism of the hypnotic activity of theacrine. The results revealed that theacrine significantly enhanced pentobarbital-induced sleep at a dose of 3.0mg/kg (i...
August 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846939/ptsd-symptom-presentation-among-people-with-alcohol-and-drug-use-disorders-comparisons-by-substance-of-abuse
#13
Emily R Dworkin, Sonya Wanklyn, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs...
August 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844584/consistency-of-psychotropic-drug-drug-interactions-listed-in-drug-monographs
#14
REVIEW
Xinyue Liu, Randy C Hatton, Yanmin Zhu, Juan M Hincapie-Castillo, Regina Bussing, Marie Barnicoat, Almut G Winterstein
BACKGROUND: With an increasing prevalence of psychotropic polypharmacy, clinicians depend on drug-drug interaction (DDI) references to ensure safe regimens, but the consistency of such information is frequently questioned. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consistency of psychotropic DDIs documented in Clinical Pharmacology (CP), Micromedex (MM), and Lexicomp (LC) and summarize consistent psychotropic DDIs. METHODS: In May 2016, we extracted severe or major psychotropic DDIs for 102 psychotropic drugs, including central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, antidepressants, an antimanic agent (lithium), antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and anxiolytics-sedatives-hypnotics from CP, MM, and LC...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813523/et-26-hydrochloride-et-26-hcl-has-similar-hemodynamic-stability-to-that-of-etomidate-in-normal-and-uncontrolled-hemorrhagic-shock-uhs-rats
#15
Bin Wang, Shouming Chen, Jun Yang, Linghui Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: ET-26 HCl is a promising sedative-hypnotic anesthetic with virtually no effect on adrenocortical steroid synthesis. However, whether or not ET-26 HCl also has a sufficiently wide safety margin and hemodynamic stability similar to that of etomidate and related compounds remains unknown. In this study, the effects of ET-26 HCl, etomidate and propofol on therapeutic index, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), maximal rate for left ventricular pressure rise (Dmax/t), and maximal rate for left ventricular pressure decline (Dmin/t) were investigated in healthy rats and a rat model of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UHS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810160/differences-in-prevalence-socio-behavioral-correlates-and-psychosocial-distress-between-club-drug-and-hard-drug-use-in-taiwan-results-from-the-2014-national-survey-of-substance-use
#16
Wei J Chen, Shang-Chi Wu, Wen-Ing Tsay, Yen-Tyng Chen, Po-Chang Hsiao, Ya-Hui Yu, Te-Tien Ting, Chuan-Yu Chen, Yu-Kang Tu, Jiun-Hau Huang, Hao-Jan Yang, Chung-Yi Li, Carol Strong, Cheng-Fang Yen, Chia-Feng Yen, Jui Hsu
BACKGROUND: This study examined variation between users of 'club' and 'hard' drugs in Taiwan in terms of prevalence of use and demographics and psychosocial characteristics. METHODS: Data were derived from a survey of 17,837 Taiwanese civilians, aged 12-64 years, using stratified, multi-stage, random sampling. Participants completed a computer-assisted self-interview on tablet computers which covered use of legal substances, sedatives/hypnotics and prescription analgesics; use of illicit drugs/inhalants, risky sexual experiences; expectations of drugs; and psychological distress...
October 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810131/prescription-opioid-registry-protocol-in-an-integrated-health-system
#17
G Thomas Ray, Amber L Bahorik, Paul C VanVeldhuisen, Constance M Weisner, Andrea L Rubinstein, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: To establish a prescription opioid registry protocol in a large health system and to describe algorithms to characterize individuals using prescription opioids, opioid use episodes, and concurrent use of sedative/hypnotics. STUDY DESIGN: Protocol development and retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) electronic health record data, we selected patients using prescription opioids in 2011...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807167/treatment-of-insomnia-with-traditional-chinese-herbal-medicine
#18
Amrinder Singh, Kaicun Zhao
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801295/-foshouningshen-decoction-improves-sleeping-via-the-serotonergic-system-in-a-rat-model-of-insomnia
#19
Jie-Cong Huang, Wei Xie, Ning Deng, Wen-Lin Liang, Dong-Rong Hu, Yu Hong, Yang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sedative and hypnotic effects of Foshouningshen decoction (FSNSD) and study its effects on expressions of 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) and 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) in the hippocampus in a rat model of insomnia. METHODS: Male KM mice were divided into control group, estazolam (0.4 mg/kg daily) group, and low-, moderate-, and high-dose FSNSD groups (daily dose of 12, 24, and 48 g/kg, respectively). After corresponding treatments for 1 week, the mice underwent sleep-inducing test with subthreshold and threshold doses of sodium pentobarbital...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797665/functionalized-polymer-monoliths-with-carbamylated-amylose-for-the-enantioselective-reversed-phase-nano-liquid-chromatographic-separation-of-a-set-of-racemic-pharmaceuticals
#20
Ali Fouad, Adel A Marzouk, Samy M Ibrahim, Sobhy M El-Adl, Ashraf Ghanem
Here we report the first encapsulation of three carbamylated amylose namely R-, S- and R/S-amylose 2,3(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-6-ethylphenylcarbamate in organic polymer monolith in situ capillary columns. The columns were investigated for the enantioselective nano-liquid chromatographic separation of a set of racemic pharmaceuticals, namely, α- and β-blockers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs, and antiarrhythmic drugs...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
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