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Sedative hypnotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912882/tenuifolin-a-saponin-derived-from-radix-polygalae-exhibits-sleep-enhancing-effects-in-mice
#1
Qing Cao, Yong Jiang, Su-Ying Cui, Peng-Fei Tu, Yue-Mei Chen, Xiao-Li Ma, Xiang-Yu Cui, Yuan-Li Huang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Bin Yu, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ye, Xiao Hu, Yong-He Zhang
BACKGROUND: Radix Polygalae, the dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, has been extensively used as a traditional Chinese medicine for promoting intelligence and tranquilization. Polygalasaponins extracted from the root of P. tenuifolia possess evident anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities. Previous studies have reported that tenuifolin was a major constituent of polygalasaponins. PURPOSE: The currently study aims to investigate the hypnotic effect and possible mechanism of tenuifolin in freely moving mice...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896799/a-comparison-of-sex-differences-in-psychotropic-medication-use-in-older-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-us-and-finland
#2
Daniela C Moga, Heidi Taipale, Anna-Maija Tolppanen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen, Qishan Wu, Gregory A Jicha, Danijela Gnjidic
AIMS: Given the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in people with dementia and the potential for different prescribing practices in men and women, our study aimed to investigate sex differences in psychotropic medication use in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) living in the US and Finland. METHODS: We used data collected between 2005 and 2011 as part of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) in the US, and Medication use and Alzheimer's disease (MEDALZ) cohorts in Finland...
November 28, 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884475/frailty-kidney-function-and-polypharmacy-the%C3%A2-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#3
Shoshana H Ballew, Yan Chen, Natalie R Daya, Job G Godino, B Gwen Windham, Mara McAdams-DeMarco, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin, Morgan E Grams
BACKGROUND: Frail individuals are at increased risk for poor outcomes, including adverse drug events. Kidney function is often compromised in frailty and is a key consideration in medication choice and dosing; however, creatinine-based measures of kidney function may be biased in frail individuals. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 4,987 community-dwelling older men and women with complete data who participated in visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (2011-2013)...
November 21, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882122/gan-dan-liang-yi-tang-alleviates-p-chlorophenylalanine-induced-insomnia-through-modification-of-the-serotonergic-and-immune-system
#4
Yuan Hu, Yu-Nin Wang, Gang-Qiang Zhang, Xian-Zhe Dong, Wan-Wan Liu, Ping Liu
Gan-Dan-Liang-Yi-Tang (GDLYT) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been historically used for the treatment of insomnia. However, investigations into its pharmacological ingredients and the mechanism underlying its sedative and hypnotic effects remain limited. The present study reported the detailed mechanisms underlying the sedative and hypnotic effects of GDLYT. Kunming mice were administered GDLYT at various sub-hypnotic doses, which underwent sodium pentobarbital treatment test, pentetrazole induced convulsant studies and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) induced insomnia model...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882039/pediatric-tooth-extractions-under-sedoanalgesia
#5
Ayse Hande Arpaci, Berrin Isik
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to evaluate intravenous ketamine and inhalation sedation in children, their unwanted side-effects and surgeon satisfaction. METHODS: In this study, data of 922 children aged between 1-18 who underwent tooth extraction under sedoanalgesia in our department between September 2015-January 2016 were gathered and anesthesia approaches, unwanted side effects and surgical satisfaction was investigated. Postoperative recovery emergence agitation or delirium was evaluated with Watcha Behavior Scale (WBS)...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881185/melatonin-and-melatonin-agonists-to-prevent-and-treat-delirium-in-critical-illness-a-systematic-review-protocol
#6
Jennifer Foster, Lisa D Burry, Lehana Thabane, Karen Choong, Kusum Menon, Mark Duffett, Alexandra Cheung, Melanie Guenette, Timothy Chimunda, Louise Rose
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a syndrome characterized by acute fluctuations and alterations in attention and arousal. Critically ill patients are at particularly high risk, and those that develop delirium are more likely to experience poor clinical outcomes such as prolonged duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and increased mortality. Melatonin and melatonin agonists (MMA) have the potential to decrease the incidence and severity of delirium through their hypnotic and sedative-sparing effects, thus improving health-related outcomes...
November 24, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875917/campania-region-italy-spontaneous-reporting-system-and-preventability-assessment-through-a-case-by-case-approach-a-pilot-study-on-psychotropic-drugs
#7
Maurizio Sessa, Concetta Rafaniello, Liberata Sportiello, Annamaria Mascolo, Cristina Scavone, Alessandra Maccariello, Teresa Iannaccone, Michele Fabrazzo, Liberato Berrino, Francesco Rossi, Annalisa Capuano
OBJECTIVE: We conducted the first pilot Italian study to assess the preventability of adverse drug reactions involving psychotropic drugs reported through spontaneous reporting system from 01/07/2012 to 31/12/2014 in Campania Region. METHODS: Preventability was assessed, case-by-case, using an adapted version of the P-method. The evaluation was performed only for those reports that had, as suspected drug, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, anxiolytic and/or sedative-hypnotic...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873285/prescription-drug-use-and-polypharmacy-among-medicaid-enrolled-adults-with-autism-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis
#8
Rini Vohra, Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi, Claire StPeter, Susannah Poe, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Mayank Ajmera
BACKGROUND: A lack of gold standard treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), no clear ASD management guidelines, and lack of evidence-based pharmacological interventions other than aripiprazole and risperidone elevate the risk of off-label prescribing and adverse effects among individuals with ASD, more so among adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the types of prescription drug use, rates of polypharmacy, and characteristics associated with polypharmacy among adults with and without ASD in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a three-state Medicaid Analytic eXtract database (2000-2008)...
December 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871556/an-analysis-of-green-discoloration-of-urine-caused-by-propofol-infusion
#9
Keiko Fujii-Abe, Hiroshi Kawahara, Haruhisa Fukayama
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a short-acting, intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent that is widely used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia and sedation. An uncommon adverse effect of propofol is green discoloration of the urine, which has been reported not only under general anesthesia but also with sedation. Although it is assumed that the phenolic derivatives of propofol can cause green discoloration of the urine, the actual origin remains unknown. The aim of this report was to identify the origin of the green discoloration of the urine using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862597/impact-of-an-opioid-risk-reduction-initiative-on-motor-vehicle-crash-risk-among-chronic-opioid-therapy-patients
#10
Ryan N Hansen, Rod L Walker, Susan M Shortreed, Sascha Dublin, Kathleen Saunders, Evette J Ludman, Michael Von Korff
PURPOSE: Although prescription opioids have been associated with higher motor vehicle crash (MVC) risk, it is unknown whether health system initiatives to better manage chronic opioid therapy (COT) can reduce MVC risk at the population level. METHODS: We conducted an interrupted time series population-level cohort study at Group Health (GH), between January 2006 and September 2014, comparing MVC risk among COT patients who were GH members receiving care in either group practice or contracted care settings...
November 14, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860286/trends-in-off-label-prescribing-of-sedatives-hypnotics-and-antidepressants-among-children-and-adolescents-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-study
#11
Eva Skovslund Nielsen, Lotte Rasmussen, Maja Hellfritzsch Poulsen, Per Hove Thomsen, Mette Nørgaard, Torben Laursen
In recent years, psychotropic drug use among children and adolescents in Europe and USA has increased. However, the majority of psychotropic drugs are not formally approved for use in children and adolescents, and consequently, use is often off-label. The objectives were to describe time trends in off-label prescribing rates and the most commonly used types of psychotropic drugs by age and gender in Danish children and adolescents. Using the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, we identified all prescriptions for sedatives, hypnotics and antidepressants filled for children and adolescents in 2006-2012...
November 17, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843463/the-comparison-between-effect-of-chloralhydrate-and-diphenhydramine-on-sedating-for-electroencephalography
#12
Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad, Vahid Aminzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalography (EEG) is the most effective diagnostic tool in distinguishing epileptic seizure. Chloral hydrate (CH) is a sedative hypnotic drug, commonly used as a method of sedation in children aged<3 yr. Furthermore, diphenhydramine (DH) is a first generation antihistaminic drug (H1 receptor blocker) with anti-cholinergic effect. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of CH and DH on sedating for EEG. MATERIALS & METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients' records of aged 15-72 months undergone an EEG and required sedation...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825624/quantification-of-suvorexant-in-urine-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#13
Mariah Carson, Sarah Kerrigan
Suvorexant (Belsomra(®)) is a novel sedative hypnotic drug that is prescribed to promote sleep in patients with insomnia. It is the first of a new class of drugs classified as dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs). Sedative hypnotics with central nervous system depressant effects feature prominently in forensic toxicology investigations. For this reason, a new analytical method was developed to identify suvorexant in urine using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796604/repeated-sessions-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-evaluation-on-fatigue-and-daytime-sleepiness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Bijan Forogh, Maryam Rafiei, Amin Arbabi, Mohammad Reza Motamed, Seyed Pezhman Madani, Simin Sajadi
Parkinson is a common and disabling disease that affects patient's and career's quality of life. Unfortunately, medications, such as dopaminergic and sedative-hypnotic drugs, as an effective treatment have unwilling side effects. Recently, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in conjunction with medication becomes popular as a complementary safe treatment and several studies have proved its effectiveness on controlling motor and specially non-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease. In this randomized double-blind parallel study, 23 patients with Parkinson's disease divided into two groups of real tDCS plus occupational therapy and sham tDCS plus occupational therapy and the effects of therapeutic sessions (eight sessions tDCS with 0...
October 31, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790100/post-weaning-environmental-enrichment-but-not-chronic-maternal-isolation-enhanced-ethanol-intake-during-periadolescence-and-early-adulthood
#15
Luciana R Berardo, María C Fabio, Ricardo M Pautassi
This study analyzed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats exposed to maternal separation (MS) during infancy (postnatal days 1-21, PD1-21) and environmental enrichment (EE) during adolescence (PD 21-42). Previous work revealed that MS enhances ethanol consumption during adulthood. It is still unknown if a similar effect is found during adolescence. Several studies, in turn, have revealed that EE reverses stress experiences, and reduces ethanol consumption and reinforcement; although others reported greater ethanol intake after EE...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789042/reducing-sedative-hypnotic-medication-use-in-older-adults-with-sleep-problems
#16
EDITORIAL
Kenneth S Boockvar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784413/eszopiclone-and-zolpidem-do-not-affect-the-prevalence-of-the-low-arousal-threshold-phenotype
#17
Patrick R Smith, Karen L Sheikh, Camille Costan-Toth, Derek Forsthoefel, Edward Bridges, Teotimo F Andrada, Aaron B Holley
STUDY OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether nonbenzodiazepine sedative hypnotics (NBSH) reduce the occurrence of the low arousal threshold (LAT) phenotype. METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) referred for polysomnography (PSG) had demographic and PSG data abstracted. LAT was estimated using PSG criteria. After adjusting for pretest probability (PTP) for OSA, we calculated the effect that premedication with NBSHs has on LAT prevalence...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777355/analgesia-in-the-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#18
REVIEW
Eric Ehieli, Suraj Yalamuri, Charles S Brudney, Srinivas Pyati
Critically ill patients are a heterogeneous group with diverse comorbidities and physiological derangements. The management of pain in the critically ill population is emerging as a standard of care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Pain control of critically ill patients in the ICU presents numerous challenges to intensivists. Inconsistencies in pain assessment, analgesic prescription and variation in monitoring sedation and analgesia result in suboptimal pain management. Inadequate pain control can have deleterious effects on several organ systems in critically ill patients...
October 24, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775683/-hospital-emergencies-associated-with-the-consumption-of-hypnotics-and-sedatives-2009-2013-castilla-y-le%C3%A3-n-spain
#19
Verónica Rubio González, Susana Redondo Martín, Gema Ruíz López Del Prado, Mª Fe Muñoz Moreno, Alexander Velázquez Miranda
OBJECTIVE: Household Survey on Alcohol and Other Drugs shows the progressive increase in the consumption of hypnotics, alone or in combination with other substances. The aim of the research was to obtain information about the consumption of hypnotics and sedatives in population of Castilla y León treated in emergency medical services of four monitored hospitals between 2009-2013, describing clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the emergencies and what drugs were consumed, to provide information for future interventions...
October 24, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751672/sleep-and-suicide-in-older-adults-an-opportunity-for-intervention
#20
Todd M Bishop, Kelsey V Simons, Deborah A King, Wilfred R Pigeon
Whether as a standalone disorder or as a symptom associated with existing pathology, the prevalence of sleep disturbance increases with age. Older adults also experience a myriad of risk factors for suicide, including depression, and have elevated rates of suicide. There is now significant evidence linking sleep disturbances to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The use of pharmacologic means to treat insomnia (e.g., sedative hypnotics) is also commonplace among older cohorts and has been associated with suicide...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
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