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Sedative hypnotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220602/an-observational-study-of-treatment-seeking-users-of-natural-opiates-from-india
#1
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar, Ravindra Rao
BACKGROUND: The type of opioid used influences the severity and complications experienced. Natural opiates (opium and poppy husk) use is a socio-culturally accepted phenomenon reported in India. However, studies on their profile, quality of life, and addiction severity are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the socio-demographic profile, clinical profile, addiction severity, and quality of life of treatment-seeking natural opiate users...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216521/the-use-of-palliative-medications-before-death-from-prostate-cancer-swedish-population-based-study-with-a-comparative-overview-of-european-data
#2
Magdalena Lycken, Linda Drevin, Hans Garmo, Pär Stattin, Jan Adolfsson, Ingela Franck Lissbrant, Lars Holmberg, Anna Bill-Axelson
BACKGROUND: Symptoms of terminal cancer have previously been reported as undertreated. The aim of this study was to assess the use of palliative medications before death from prostate cancer. METHODS: This Swedish register study included men who died from 2009 to 2012 with prostate cancer as the underlying cause of death. We assessed the proportion who collected a prescription of androgen deprivation therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, opioids, glucocorticoids, antidepressants, anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics and the differences in treatment related to age, time since diagnosis, educational level, close relatives and comorbidities...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211141/hospitalizations-due-to-drug-poisoning-in-under-five-year-old-children-in-brazil-2003-2012
#3
Marta da Cunha Lobo Souto Maior, Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro, Carla Lourenço Tavares de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: to describe hospitalizations due to drug poisonings in children under five years old, in Brazil, from 2003 to 2012. METHODS: descriptive study, with data from the National Hospital Information System (SIH/SUS); the drugs involved were divided into therapeutic classes, according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC). RESULTS: 17,725 hospitalizations were identified, from which 22,395 poisonings were identified, and 75 deaths; the most common therapeutic classes were unspecified drugs (38...
October 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210709/alphaxalone-binds-in-inner-transmembrane-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-interfaces-of-%C3%AE-1%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptors
#4
Alexis M Ziemba, Andrea Szabo, David W Pierce, Marian Haburcak, Alex T Stern, Anahita Nourmahnad, Elizabeth S Halpin, Stuart A Forman
BACKGROUND: Neurosteroids like alphaxalone are potent anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, amnestics, and sedative-hypnotics, with effects linked to enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor gating in the central nervous system. Data locating neurosteroid binding sites on synaptic αβγ GABAA receptors are sparse and inconsistent. Some evidence points to outer transmembrane β-α interfacial pockets, near sites that bind the anesthetics etomidate and propofol. Other evidence suggests that steroids bind more intracellularly in β-α interfaces...
November 28, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203576/dimethoxy-etomidate-a-non-hypnotic-etomidate-analog-that-potently-inhibits-steroidogenesis
#5
Megan McGrath, Celena Ma, Douglas Raines
Cushing's syndrome is characterized by the overproduction of adrenocortical steroids. Steroidogenesis inhibitors are mainstays of medical therapy for Cushing's syndrome; unfortunately, adverse side effects and treatment failures are common with currently available drugs. The general anesthetic induction agent etomidate is among the most potent inhibitors of adrenocortical steroidogenesis. However, its use as a treatment for Cushing's syndrome is complicated by its sedative-hypnotic activity and ability to produce myoclonus, central nervous system actions thought to be mediated by the GABAA receptor...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191406/enantioselective-separation-of-racemates-using-chiralpak-ig-amylose-based-chiral-stationary-phase-under-normal-standard-non-standard-and-reversed-phase-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#6
Ashraf Ghanem, Chexu Wang
We have previously reported on the solvent versatility of immobilized amylose and cellulose-based chiral stationary phases in enantioselective liquid chromatographic separation of racemates. The studies were mainly focusing on the tris substituted 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases namely CHIRALPAK IA® [Amylose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)] or ADMPC and CHIRALPAK IB® [Cellulose tris (3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)] or CDMPC. Here we focus on the application of the recently introduced amylose tris (3-chloro-5-methylphenylcarbamate) or ACMPC and brand name CHIRALPAK IG® with a chlorine substituent replacing the methyl group in CHIRALPAK IA®...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186246/severe-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions-of-chinese-inpatients-a-meta-analysis
#7
Qiancheng Deng, Xia Fang, Qinghai Zeng, Jianyun Lu, Chen Jing, Jinhua Huang
BACKGROUND: The rate of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions is low, and these reactions can result in death or disability. An evidence-based epidemiological study of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions in China has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiology and characteristics of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions of Chinese inpatients during the recent 15 years with meta-analysis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed Chinese literature reporting severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions and collecting data from 2000 to 2015, which were in accordance with our inclusion criteria...
May 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185815/2016-annual-report-of-the-american-association-of-poison-control-centers-national-poison-data-system-npds-34th-annual-report
#8
David D Gummin, James B Mowry, Daniel A Spyker, Daniel E Brooks, Michael O Fraser, William Banner
INTRODUCTION: This is the 34th Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' (AAPCC) National Poison Data System (NPDS). As of 1 January 2016, 55 of the nation's poison centers (PCs) uploaded case data automatically to NPDS. The upload interval was 9.50 [7.33, 14.6] (median [25%, 75%]) min, facilitating a near real-time national exposure and information database and surveillance system. METHODS: We analyzed the case data tabulating specific indices from NPDS...
December 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166444/patterns-of-tobacco-consumption-among-residents-of-a-rural-settlement-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Andrécia Cósmem da Silva, Lorena Silva Vargas, Roselma Lucchese, Bruno de Souza Calixto, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Ivania Vera, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Valéria Pagotto, Inaina Lara Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: Investigate patterns and factors associated with tobacco consumption among residents of a rural settlement. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted between September and November 2014, with 172 residents of a rural settlement in the Midwest region of Brazil. We analyzed as dependent variables tobacco consumption at some point in life; current tobacco consumption; tobacco abuse; and the high risk of nicotine dependence, with sociodemographic variables associated with tobacco use, and we applied the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20)...
2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155148/functional-properties-and-mechanism-of-action-of-pptq-an-allosteric-agonist-and-low-nanomolar-positive-allosteric-modulator-at-gabaa-receptors
#10
Nawid Madjroh, Emma Rie Olander, Christoffer Bundgaard, Pella Cecilia Söderhielm, Anders A Jensen
The former sedative-hypnotic and recreational drug methaqualone (Quaalude) is a moderately potent, non-selective positive allosteric modulator (PAM) at GABAA receptors (GABAARs) (Hammer et al., 2015). In the present study, we have identified a novel methaqualone analog, 2-phenyl-3-(p-tolyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (PPTQ), in a screening of 67 analogs at five αβ2γ2S GABAAR subtypes and delineated its functional properties and mechanism of action at wild-type and mutant GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144549/zuclopenthixol-dihydrochloride-for-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Edward J Bryan, Marie Ann Purcell, Ajit Kumar
BACKGROUND: Oral zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride (Clopixol) is an anti-psychotic treatment for people with psychotic symptoms, especially those with schizophrenia. It is associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a prolongation of the QTc interval, extra-pyramidal reactions, venous thromboembolism and may modify insulin and glucose responses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride for treatment of schizophrenia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (latest search 09 June 2015)...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101936/propofol-frenzy-clinical-spectrum-in-3-patients
#12
Diego Z Carvalho, Ryan A Townley, Christopher M Burkle, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Eelco F M Wijdicks
Postsedation neuroexcitation is sometimes attributed to intravenous injection of the sedative-hypnotic drug propofol. The movements associated with these events have strongly suggested convulsive activity, but they rarely have been comprehensively evaluated. We present video recordings of 3 healthy young patients who underwent elective surgery under conscious sedation and emerged from sedation with transient but repetitive violent motor activity and impaired consciousness. These manifestations required considerable mobilization of multiple health care workers to protect the patient from inflicting harm...
November 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096573/drug-related-problems-and-changes-in-drug-utilization-after-medication-reviews-in-nursing-homes-in-oslo-norway
#13
Amura Francesca Fog, Gunnar Kvalvaag, Knut Engedal, Jørund Straand
OBJECTIVE: We describe the drug-related problems (DRPs) identified during medication reviews (MRs) and the changes in drug utilization after MRs at nursing homes in Oslo, Norway. We explored predictors for the observed changes. DESIGN: Observational before-after study. SETTING: Forty-one nursing homes. INTERVENTION: MRs performed by multidisciplinary teams during November 2011 to February 2014. SUBJECTS: In all, 2465 long-term care patients...
November 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091900/resin-glycosides-evoke-the-gaba-release-by-sodium-and-or-calcium-dependent-mechanism
#14
José Manuel Castro-García, Ismael León-Rivera, María Del Carmen Gutiérrez
Ipomoea tyrianthina Lindley (syn. I. orizabensis Pelletan, Lebed. ex Steud., Convolvulaceae) is known as a purgative, but it has been also used in Mexican traditional medicine in the treatment of seizures and pain for their anticonvulsive, hypnotic and sedative properties. Some glycolipids isolated from this plant have shown significant effects on Central Nervous System, modifying inhibitory or excitatory processes. The mechanism for such activity it is not clear; studies with these metabolites have suggested that a pore-forming mechanism is involved in their activity...
October 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081090/sinomenine-an-alkaloid-derived-from-sinomenium-acutum-potentiates-pentobarbital-induced-sleep-behaviors-and-non-rapid-eye-movement-nrem-sleep-in-rodents
#15
Jae Hyeon Yoo, Tae-Woo Ha, Jin Tae Hong, Ki-Wan Oh
Sinomenium acutum has been long used in the preparations of traditional medicine in Japan, China and Korea for the treatment of various disorders including rheumatism, fever, pulmonary diseases and mood disorders. Recently, it was reported that Sinomenium acutum, has sedative and anxiolytic effects mediated by GABA-ergic systems. These experiments were performed to investigate whether sinomenine (SIN), an alkaloid derived from Sinomenium acutum enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep via γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems, and modulates sleep architecture in mice...
November 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057572/simultaneous-analysis-by-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry-and-uhplc-ms-ms-for-the-determination-of-sedative-hypnotics-and-sleep-inducers-in-adulterated-products
#16
Ji Hyun Lee, Han Na Park, Ji Yeon Choi, Nam Sook Kim, Hyung-Joon Park, Seong Soo Park, Sun Young Baek
Adulterated products are continuously detected in society and cause problems. In this study, we developed and validated a method for determining synthetic sedative-hypnotics and sleep inducers, including barbital, benzodiazepam, zolpidem, and first-generation antihistamines, in adulterated products using Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, target compounds were confirmed using a combination of retention time, mass tolerance, mass accuracy, and fragment ions...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036295/psychotropic-medications-prescribing-trends-in-adolescents-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#17
Chin-Yen Tsai, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Mohaimenul Islam, Wan-Shan Hsieh, Shing-Hwa Juan, Jiang-Chen Chen, Hafsah Arshed Ali Khan, Wen-Shan Jian
Objective: To describe psychotropic medications prescription patterns among adolescents in Taiwan; focusing on age, gender, duration of treatments and various classes of psychotropic medications. Design: A retrospective description analysis. Setting: Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Participants: Twelve to seventeen years' patients treated with psychotropic medications. Intervention: None...
September 20, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026843/melatonin-supplementation-may-improve-the-outcome-of-patients-with-hemorrhagic-stroke-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#18
Mehrnoush Dianatkhah, Atabak Najafi, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Arezoo Ahmadi, Hamidreza Sharifnia, Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh, Farhad Najmeddin, Azadeh Moghaddas
OBJECTIVE: Although mechanical ventilation is frequently a life-saving therapy, its use can result in unwanted side effects. It has been well documented that the choice of sedating agent may influence the duration of mechanical ventilation. Melatonin is a sedative and analgesic agent without any respiratory depressant effect which makes it an attractive adjuvant for sedation in the intubated patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of melatonin on the duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with hemorrhagic stroke...
July 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020995/sedation-with-propofol-during-ercp-is-the-combination-with-esketamine-more-effective-and-safer-than-with-alfentanil-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Susanne Eberl, Lena Koers, Jeanin E van Hooft, Edwin de Jong, Thomas Schneider, Markus W Hollmann, Benedikt Preckel
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a gastrointestinal procedure that requires a relatively motionless patient during the intervention. Deep sedation by intravenous propofol combined with an opioid has recently become the preferred sedation technique. However, when high doses of propofol are used, side effects, namely respiratory depression, may occur. Esketamine has hypnotic, analgesic, and sympathomimetic effects. Our assumption is that a combination of propofol with esketamine reduces the dosage of individual drugs, thereby minimizing sedation side effects while keeping the same satisfaction level of patients and endoscopists...
October 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991519/association-between-binge-drug-use-and-suicide-attempt-among-people-who-inject-drugs
#20
Charles Fournier, Maykel Farag Ghabrash, Adelina Artenie, Elise Roy, Geng Zang, Julie Bruneau, Didier Jutras Aswad
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) have an elevated risk of suicide attempt. Although different substances are associated with suicide attempt, the overall risk posed by binge behavior, a high-risk pattern of drug use, remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the association between binge drug use and suicide attempt in a prospective cohort of PWID in Montreal, Canada. METHODS: Participants answered a biannual interviewer-administered questionnaire compiling information on sociodemographics, pattern of substance use (cocaine, amphetamine, opioids, sedative-hypnotics, alcohol, and cannabis), and psychosocial stressors and related markers...
October 9, 2017: Substance Abuse
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