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Sedative hypnotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207998/benzodiazepine-and-z-drug-dependence-data-from-a-tertiary-care-center
#1
Lekhansh Shukla, Spandana Bokka, Tulika Shukla, Arun Kandasamy, Prabhat Chand, Vivek Benegal, Pratima Murthy
Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics and course of benzodiazepine and �Z-drug� dependence in patients presenting to a tertiary deaddiction center in southern India. Methods: Case files of 950 inpatients admitted between January 2007 and January 2014 who reported benzodiazepine or Z-drug use were reviewed. Patients (n = 170) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of sedatives or hypnotics-dependence syndrome currently using substance (F13...
February 16, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193274/evaluation-of-medicines-dispensing-pattern-of-private-pharmacies-in-rajshahi-bangladesh
#2
Shuvashis Saha, Md Tawhid Hossain
BACKGROUND: In developing country like BANGLADESH, people depend more on pharmacies due to expediency, shorter waiting time, cost reduction, availability of credit and flexible opening hours. The aim of this study was to investigate medicines dispensing patterns of the pharmacies in RAJSHAHI, BANGLADESH and to identify and analyze contribution of drugsellers and quacks in irrational drug use. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2016 - April, 2016 in 75 randomly selected private pharmacies including both licensed and unlicensed pharmacies of covering LAKSHMIPUR area...
February 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190432/acute-neurotoxicology-of-drugs-of-abuse
#3
S J Traub, M D Levine
Many substances can affect the central nervous system, and may cause patients to become critically ill. Acute central neurotoxicologic syndromes associated with drugs of abuse are usually caused by an overdose of sedative-hypnotic agents (including alcohol) or opioids, withdrawal from sedative-hypnotic agents, or an overdose of anticholinergic or sympathomimetic agents. Clinical findings are often syndromic, making physical examination the most important diagnostic tool in the approach to the patient with an unknown ingestion...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186869/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#4
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159096/the-cost-of-insomnia-and-the-benefit-of-increased-access-to-evidence-based-treatment-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-insomnia
#5
REVIEW
Sarah A Reynolds, Matthew R Ebben
Insomnia is a highly prevalent, often chronic condition, which is left untreated or not treated according to recommended guidelines in most cases. This results in high health and financial burdens to society. The cost of untreated insomnia and the prevailing reliance on sedative-hypnotic use as a first-line treatment are evaluated in this article. The cost-benefit potential of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is also assessed.
March 2017: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143413/use-of-the-empower-brochure-to-deprescribe-sedative-hypnotic-drugs-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Philippe Martin, Cara Tannenbaum
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based mailed educational brochures about the harms of sedative-hypnotic use lead to discontinuation of chronic benzodiazepine use in older adults. It remains unknown whether patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are able to understand the information in the EMPOWER brochures, and whether they achieve similar rates of benzodiazepine discontinuation. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the EMPOWER randomized, double-blind, wait-list controlled trial that assessed the effect of a direct-to-consumer educational intervention on benzodiazepine discontinuation...
January 31, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129552/the-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-coumaroylspinosin-in-rat-a-novel-flavone-c-glycoside-derived-from-zizyphi-spinosi-semen
#7
Xiaotong Zhao, Junjun Liu, Zhiyou Wen, Yanqing Zhang, Mingxin Yu, Bingcheng Pan, Jun Zeng, Junbo Xie
Zizyphi Spinosi Semen (ZSS) has a long history of sedative-hypnotic use in China. As a novel flavone C-glycoside, coumaroylspinosin is a main flavonoid only found in ZSS. Up to now, its pharmacokinetic information and tissue distribution in vivo are not available yet. With a simple, rapid and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of coumaroylspinosin were investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after its intravenous administration. Puerarin was used as the internal standard (IS)...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118967/pharmacists-perceptions-and-communication-of-risk-for-alertness-impairing-medications
#8
Ibrahim Jomaa, Mariam Odisho, Janet M Y Cheung, Keith Wong, Jason G Ellis, Tanya Smyth, Bandana Saini
BACKGROUND: A core role of the pharmacist is to ensure safe and effective medication use. Therapeutic classes that impair alertness (e.g. sedatives or hypnotics) can pose safety concerns for the consumer when undertaking activities requiring psychomotor vigilance (e.g. driving). OBJECTIVE: To explore pharmacists' perceptions and communication strategy of the risks related to alertness impairing medications in clinical practice. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews explored community pharmacists' perceptions of medication-related risks, current medication provision and the feasibility of new practice tools...
January 10, 2017: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107122/evaluating-the-impact-of-pharmacists-on-reducing-use-of-sedative-hypnotics-for-treatment-of-insomnia-in-long-term-care-facility-residents
#9
Maria Grazia Gemelli, Katherine Yockel, Kenneth C Hohmeier
OBJECTIVE: To determine if pharmacist intervention can decrease the use of inappropriate sedative/hypnotics in the elderly population in the long-term care facility setting. DESIGN: A multicenter, prospective chart review of sedative/hypnotic use for insomnia among long-term care facility residents. SETTING: Eleven regional long-term care facilities in Northeastern Tennessee. PARTICIPANTS: Long-term care facility residents older than 65 years of age, with confirmed insomnia diagnoses and no history of seizure or recent psychotropic gradual-dose reduction attempts...
November 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105598/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-dexmedetomidine
#10
REVIEW
Maud A S Weerink, Michel M R F Struys, Laura N Hannivoort, Clemens R M Barends, Anthony R Absalom, Pieter Colin
Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, and analgesic-sparing effects, and minimal depression of respiratory function. It is potent and highly selective for α2-receptors with an α2:α1 ratio of 1620:1. Hemodynamic effects, which include transient hypertension, bradycardia, and hypotension, result from the drug's peripheral vasoconstrictive and sympatholytic properties. Dexmedetomidine exerts its hypnotic action through activation of central pre- and postsynaptic α2-receptors in the locus coeruleus, thereby inducting a state of unconsciousness similar to natural sleep, with the unique aspect that patients remain easily rousable and cooperative...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103503/sedative-hypnotic-like-effect-and-molecular-docking-of-di-naphthodiospyrol-from-diospyros-lotus-in-an-animal-model
#11
Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Ghias Uddin, José P Cerón-Carrasco, Jorge Peña-García, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, Haroon Khan, Saud Bawazeer, Seema Patel, Mohammad S Mubarak, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Yahia Nasser Mabkhot
BACKGROUND: Diospyros lotus Linn commonly known as date-plum, or Caucasian persimmon has multiple uses in folk medicine. Various parts of this plant is used for alleviating lumbago, dysponea, hemorrhage, insomnia, and hiccup. The plant extracts possess a variety of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, sedative, febrifuge, anti-microbial, vermifuge, and anti-hypertensive. AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the present work is to investigate the sedative-hypnotic effect of a rare dimeric napthoquione 1 obtained from the chloroform soluble fraction of D...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100851/effects-of-propofol-on-oxidative-stress-parameters-in-selected-parts-of-the-brain-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-disease
#12
Ewa Romuk, Wioletta Szczurek, Przemysław Nowak, Marta Skowron, Bernard Prudel, Edyta Hudziec, Ewa Chwalińska, Ewa Birkner
INTRODUCTION: Propofol is an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent that is commonly used to induce and maintain general anaesthesia. This drug has antioxidant properties, which are partly caused by a phenolic structure similar to α-tocopherol. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of propofol on the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in the frontal cortex, striatum, thalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum in rats with experimental Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIAL/METHODS: The experiment was performed on 24 male Wistar rats assigned to the following groups: 1 - control; 2 - PD; 3 - PD with propofol...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097810/physicochemical-and-biological-evaluation-of-a-cinnamamide-derivative-r-s-2e-1-3-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one-km-608-for-nervous-system-disorders
#13
Agnieszka Gunia-Krzyżak, Ewa Żesławska, Florence Bareyre, Wojciech Nitek, Anna M Waszkielewicz, Henryk Marona
A cinnamamide scaffold has been successfully incorporated in several compounds possessing desirable pharmacological activities in central and peripheral nervous system such as anticonvulsant, antidepressant, neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, muscle relaxant, and sedative/hypnotic properties. R,S-(2E)-1-(3-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (KM-608), a cinnamamide derivative, was synthesized, its chemical structure was confirmed by means of spectroscopy and crystallography, additionally thermal analysis showed that it exists in one crystalline form...
January 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088734/in-vivo-and-in-silico-sedative-hypnotic-like-activity-of-7-methyljuglone-isolated-from-diospyros-lotus-l
#14
Abdur Rauf, Sengul Uysal, Taibi Ben Hadda, Ghias Uddin, Muhammad Asif Nawaz, Haroon Khan, Bina S Siddiqui, Muslim Raza, Saud Bawazeer, Gokhan Zengin
Diospyros lotus L. possesses different therapeutic activities such as antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-microbial and sedative. However, no studies on the sedative-hypnotic activity of 7-methyljuglone are reported. In the present study, we have evaluated in vivo the anxiolytic-hypnotic like effects of 7-methyljuglone in mice with open field and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time tests. We have also assessed in silico the involvement of GABAA, GABAB and 5HT1 neurotransmission in its mechanism of action...
January 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087735/relationships-linking-emotional-motor-cognitive-and-gabaergic-dysfunctions-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#15
Cyrille Vaillend, Rémi Chaussenot
Alterations in the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene have been associated with enhanced stress reactivity in vertebrate species, suggesting a role for brain dystrophin in fear-related behavioral and cognitive processes. Because the loss of dystrophin (Dp427) reduces clustering of central GABAA receptors, it is suspected that local inhibitory tuning and modulation of neuronal excitability are perturbed in a distributed brain circuit that normally controls such critical behavioral functions. In this study we undertook a large-scale behavioral study to evaluate fear-related behavioral disturbances in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077107/recurrent-pneumonia-among-japanese-adults-disease-burden-and-risk-factors
#16
Tomoko Ishifuji, Eiichiro Sando, Norihiro Kaneko, Motoi Suzuki, Paul E Kilgore, Koya Ariyoshi, Konosuke Morimoto, Naoto Hosokawa, Makito Yaegashi, Masahiro Aoshima
BACKGROUND: In Japan and other societies with rapidly aging populations, recurrent pneumonia (RP) is a major clinical problem yet only limited information exists regarding the burden of this disease. METHODS: A prospective study of adult pneumonia was conducted to investigate the incidence of RP and potential risk factors. From February 1, 2012 to January 31, 2013, patients aged ≥ 15 years who were diagnosed with pneumonia were prospectively enrolled in a representative community hospital located in central Japan...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076314/in-vivo-sedative-and-hypnotic-activities-of-methanol-extract-from-the-leaves-of-jacquemontia-paniculata-burm-f-hallier-f-in-swiss-albino-mice
#17
Md Jakaria, Chayan Dhar Clinton, Mukimul Islam, Mohammad Belal Talukder, Md Shariful Islam, Syed Mohammed Tareq, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin
BACKGROUND: The superior genus Jacquemontia belongs to Convolvulaceae, with around 120 species, and is also considered taxonomically difficult. The aim of this experiment was to assess the sedative and hypnotic activities of methanol extract from the leaves of Jacquemontia paniculata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. METHODS: The sedative and hypnotic activities were evaluated by hole-cross, open field, hole-board, elevated plus maze (EPM), and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067180/dispensing-patterns-of-anxiolytics-and-sedative-hypnotics-a-feasibility-study-comparing-datasets-from-a-developed-and-developing-country-australia-and-south-africa
#18
Therése Kairuz, Ilse Truter, Laurence Rossato, Alex Pudmenzky
BACKGROUND: Dispensing patterns reflect drug usage trends. Benzodiazepines are known as drugs with potential for misuse, and frequent dispensing may be a surrogate marker of misuse. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to obtain a comparative snapshot of anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic dispensing in a developing country and a developed country, to determine whether further research about benzodiazepines is warranted. METHOD: A cross-national, cross-sectional retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on benzodiazepines and z-drugs...
January 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057198/comparison-of-poisonings-managed-at-military-and-veterans-administration-hospitals-reported-to-texas-poison-centers
#19
M B Forrester
OBJECTIVES: There is little information on poisonings managed at military and Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals. This investigation described and compared poisonings reported to Texas poison centers that were managed at military and VA hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of poison centre data. METHODS: Cases were poisonings among patients aged 18 years or more reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2015 where management occurred at a military or VA hospital...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049349/chemical-constituents-of-eleutherococcus-sessiliflorus-extract-and-its-sedative-hypnotic-effect
#20
Yang Song, Chun-Juan Yang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Nan Zhao, Xue-Song Feng, Fan-Hao Meng
The present study was designed to investigate the chemical constituents and bioactivities of the roots of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus (E. sessiliflorus). The compounds were isolated through various chromatography techniques and elucidated by mass spectrometric (MS), 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses. The sedative-hypnotic effect of E. sessiliflorus ethanol extract and its fractions (acetic ether, n-butanol and water fraction) were also investigated. In the chemical constituent study, one new compound, 3-ethyl-5-hydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl) pentyl-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acrylate and fourteen known compounds were isolated and identified...
January 4, 2017: Natural Product Research
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