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Sedative hypnotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677536/sedative-and-hypnotic-effects-of-schisandrin-b-through-increasing-gaba-glu-ratio-and-upregulating-the-expression-of-gaba-a-in-mice-and-rats
#1
Ning Li, Jiale Liu, Mengyang Wang, Zepeng Yu, Kuo Zhu, Jiaqi Gao, Chunmei Wang, Jinghui Sun, Jianguang Chen, He Li
Schisandrin B (SchB) is an active lignan component from Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Baill that has been long used as Traditional Chinese Medical Herb in the prescriptions for "tranquilizing the mind and overcoming anxiety". Given that SchB is one of the most abundant ingredients of Schisandra chinensis Baill, we examined the sedative and hypnotic effects of SchB and explored the underlying mechanism. The results showed that SchB can significantly decrease mouse locomotor activities and improved sleeping quality index, including increased number of sleeping mice treated with the subthreshold dose of pentobarbital sodium, increased sleep time, shortened sleep latency and prolonged sleep duration...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673523/anesthetic-drug-discovery-and-development-a-case-study-of-novel-etomidate-analogs
#2
Megan McGrath, Douglas E Raines
All currently available general anesthetic agents possess potentially lethal side effects requiring their administration by highly trained clinicians. Among these agents is etomidate, a highly potent imidazole-based intravenous sedative-hypnotic that deleteriously suppresses the synthesis of adrenocortical steroids in a manner that is both potent and persistent. We developed two distinct strategies to design etomidate analogs that retain etomidate's potent hypnotic activity, but produce less adrenocortical suppression than etomidate...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673289/systematic-review-of-the-pharmacological-agents-that-have-been-tested-against-spreading-depolarizations
#3
Anna Klass, Renan Sánchez-Porras, Edgar Santos
Spreading depolarization (SD) occurs alongside brain injuries and it can lead to neuronal damage. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of SD can constitute a therapeutic approach to reduce its detrimental effects and to improve the clinical outcome of patients. The major objective of this article was to produce a systematic review of all the drugs that have been tested against SD. Of the substances that have been examined, most have been shown to modulate certain SD characteristics. Only a few have succeeded in significantly inhibiting SD...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656203/an-overview-of-quinazolines-pharmacological-significance-and-recent-developments
#4
REVIEW
V Alagarsamy, K Chitra, G Saravanan, V Raja Solomon, M T Sulthana, B Narendhar
Most of the drugs and pharmacologically relevant molecules possess heterocyclic ring structures and presence of hetero atoms or groupings divulges privileged specificities in their pharmacological targets. Especially the heterocyclic systems, quinazoline is a biologically imperative scaffold known to be linked with several pharmacological activities. Some of the protuberant pharmacological responses attributed to this system are analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, sedative-hypnotic, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-tubercular and anti-viral activities...
March 30, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628562/comparative-study-between-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-for-conscious-sedation-in-patients-undergoing-outpatient-colonoscopy
#5
Harish Karanth, Sumesh Murali, Reshma Koteshwar, Vasanth Shetty, Karunakara Adappa
Introduction: Colonoscopy is a mildly painful procedure requiring conscious sedation. Though propofol is a widely used anesthetic agent in day-care procedures due to its rapid onset and quick recovery has a drawback of requiring resuscitation maneuvers more often than the conventional methods. Dexmedetomidine, a newly introduced, highly selective α2 -adrenergic receptor agonist possessing hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, and analgesic properties with impressive safety margin, needs to be explored for use in conscious sedation for colonoscopy procedure among South Indian population...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624189/improving-the-safety-of-opioid-use-for-acute-noncancer-pain-in-hospitalized-adults-a-consensus-statement-from-the-society-of-hospital-medicine
#6
Shoshana J Herzig, Hilary J Mosher, Susan L Calcaterra, Anupam B Jena, Teryl K Nuckols
Hospital-based clinicians frequently treat acute, noncancer pain. Although opioids may be beneficial in this setting, the benefits must be balanced with the risks of adverse events, including inadvertent overdose and prolonged opioid use, physical dependence, or development of opioid use disorder. In an era of epidemic opioid use and related harms, the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM) convened a working group to develop a consensus statement on opioid use for adults hospitalized with acute, noncancer pain, outside of the palliative, end-of-life, and intensive care settings...
April 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622502/chronic-pain-medication-management-of-older-populations-key-points-from-a-national-conference-and-innovative-opportunities-for-pharmacy-practice
#7
Julia Fiona-Maree Gilmartin-Thomas, J Simon Bell, Danny Liew, Carolyn A Arnold, Rachelle Buchbinder, Colin Chapman, Flavia Cicuttini, Malcolm Dobbin, Stephen J Gibson, Melita J Giummarra, Jenny Gowan, Benny Katz, Dan L Lubman, Matthew McCrone, Jennifer Pilgrim, Anneliese Synnot, Eleanor van Dyk, Barbara Workman, John McNeil
OBJECTIVE: Inappropriate use of pain medication has serious consequences for older populations. Experts in the field have noted an increase in opioid prescriptions, and opioid-related hospitalisations and deaths among this vulnerable population. In the pursuit of educating pharmacists, physicians, allied healthcare professionals, researchers, academics and the public facing the challenges of chronic pain medication management, 'The Inaugural Monash University School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine (SPHPM) Best Practice in Chronic Pain Medication Management Day Conference' was held in December 2016 at the Alfred Medical Research and Education Precinct (Melbourne, Australia)...
March 19, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620693/longer-term-effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-adjunctive-open-lurasidone-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#8
Shefali Miller, Dennis Do, Anda Gershon, Po W Wang, Farnaz Hooshmand, Lauren S Chang, Terence A Ketter
PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess lurasidone effectiveness/efficacy/tolerability in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. METHODS: Outpatients assessed with Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation received naturalistically administered (primarily adjunctive) open lurasidone while monitored at visits with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Clinical Monitoring Form. RESULTS: Sixty-one patients (32 type I, 26 type II, 3 type not otherwise specified; mean ± SD age, 45...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605569/prevalence-of-drug-use-among-students-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-2003-2013
#9
Zhongwei Jia, Yuanyuan Jin, Lingling Zhang, Ziyun Wang, Zuhong Lu
BACKGROUND: In response to calls to reassess and reform international drug policy, we estimated the prevalence of drug use among students in China from 2004 to 2013 through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systemically identified and reviewed published studies on illicit drug use and abuse of sedative-hypnotics among students in China. We estimated the prevalence of drug use among students using a meta-regression model. The trends in drug use and any geographic differences were assessed using multilevel models, and the association between drug use and sedative-hypnotics abuse was also examined...
March 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597151/purchases-of-prescription-drugs-before-an-alcohol-related-death-a-ten-year-follow-up-study-using-linked-routine-data
#10
Tapio Paljärvi, Pekka Martikainen, Taina Leinonen, Erkki Vuori, Pia Mäkelä
BACKGROUND: Physician's intention to prescribe drugs could potentially be used to improve targeting of alcohol interventions and enhanced disease management to patients with a high risk of severe alcohol-related harm within outpatient settings. METHODS: Comparison of ten-year incidence trajectories of 13.8 million reimbursed purchases of prescription drugs among 303,057 Finnish men and women of whom 7490 ultimately died due to alcohol-related causes (Alc+), 14,954 died without alcohol involvement (Alc-), and 280,613 survived until the end of 2007...
March 23, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581817/medications-polypharmacy-influence-on-recurrent-fallers-in-community-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Yu Ming, Aleksandra Zecevic
The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize information about the impact different classes of medications and polypharmacy have on recurrent falls, defined as two or more falls in a 12-month period, in community-dwelling older adults. After adjustment for confounders such as age, gender, weight or depression symptoms, the reviewed studies suggested that older adults who use antidepressants, sedatives or hypnotics and anti-epileptics were more likely to experience recurrent falls than non-users. Polypharmacy (use of four or more prescription medications daily) caused 1...
March 2018: Canadian Geriatrics Journal: CGJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580676/research-of-falls-risk-of-taking-central-nervous-system-drugs-in-oncology-inpatients
#12
Yadi Li, Qing Zhang, Xuhong Yang, Lijun Zheng, Jun Yang, Huan Zhao, Dongdong Yang
This study aimed to analyze the medication use and related falls risk of central nervous system(CNS) drugs in oncology inpatients, explore the association between CNS drugs and falls. In this study, we enrolled inpatients, hospitalized in the oncology department of the Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, from March 2013 to October 2015. All inpatients were divided into two groups: taking-CNS drugs group (treatment group) and non CNS drugs group (control group). The falls risk between two groups were being compared and analyzed...
January 12, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578199/initial-treatment-dropout-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-attending-a-tertiary-care-de-addiction-centre-in-north-india
#13
Debasish Basu, Abhishek Ghosh, Siddharth Sarkar, Bichitra Nanda Patra, B N Subodh, Surendra Kumar Mattoo
Background & objectives: Dropout from substance use disorders treatment is associated with poor outcomes. Although many factors have been associated with an early dropout of patients, the reasons for dropping out of treatment prematurely remain poorly understood particularly in the Indian context. This study was aimed to study socio-demographic and clinical variables predicting initial dropout of patients attending a tertiary care de-addiction treatment centre in north India. Methods: Information was extracted from the records of consecutive newly registered patients from January 2011 to December 2014...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576117/a-neurosteroid-analogue-with-t-type-calcium-channel-blocking-properties-is-an-effective-hypnotic-but-is-not-harmful-to-neonatal-rat-brain
#14
N Atluri, S M Joksimovic, A Oklopcic, D Milanovic, J Klawitter, P Eggan, K Krishnan, D F Covey, S M Todorovic, V Jevtovic-Todorovic
BACKGROUND: More than 4 million children are exposed annually to sedatives and general anaesthetics (GAs) in the USA alone. Recent data suggest that common GAs can be detrimental to brain development causing neurodegeneration and long-term cognitive impairments. Challenged by a recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning about potentially neurotoxic effects of GAs in children, there is an urgent need to develop safer GAs. METHODS: Postnatal Day 7 (P7) rat pups of both sexes were exposed to six (repeated every 2 h) injections of equipotent hypnotic doses of ketamine or the neuroactive steroid (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile (3β-OH) for 12 h...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575232/the-impact-of-narcotrend%C3%A2-eeg-guided-propofol-administration-on-the-speed-of-recovery-from-pediatric-procedural-sedation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Frank Weber, Laurence C Walhout, Johanna C Escher
BACKGROUND: Propofol is often used for procedural sedation in children undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy. Reliable assessment of the depth of hypnosis during the endoscopic procedure is challenging. Processed electroencephalography using the Narcotrend Index can help titrating propofol to a predefined sedation level. AIMS: The aim of this trial was to investigate the impact of Narcotrend Index-guided titration of propofol delivery on the speed of recovery. METHODS: Children, aged 12-17 years, undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy under procedural sedation, had propofol delivered via target controlled infusion either based on Narcotrend Index guidance (group NI) or standard clinical parameters (group C)...
March 25, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572847/sedative-hypnotic-and-anxiolytic-effects-and-the-mechanism-of-action-of-aqueous-extracts-of-peanut-stems-and-leaves-in-mice
#16
Lei Deng, Ai-Min Shi, Qiang Wang
Peanut stems and leaves (PSL) have traditionally been used as both a special food and herbal medicine in Asia. The sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic effects of PSL have been recorded in classical traditional Chinese literature, and more recently, by many other researchers. In a previous study, four sleep-related ingredients (linalool, 5-Hydroxy-4', 7-dimethoxyflavanone, 2'-O-Methylisoliquiritigenin and ferulic acid), among which 5-Hydroxy-4', 7-dimethoxyflavanone, 2'-O-Methylisoliquiritigenin was newly found in the Arachis species, were screened using an Ultra Performance LC system coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS)...
March 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566587/hypnosis-as-adjunct-therapy-to-conscious-sedation-for-venous-access-device-implantation-in-breast-cancer-a-pilot-study
#17
Nicolas Sterkers, Jean L Chabrol, Jeremy De Troyer, Dany Bonijol, Jean C Darmon, Olivier Donnez
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews support that hypnosis has great potential for reducing pain and anxiety during mini-invasive surgery. Here, we assessed the feasibility of hypnotic induction session as adjunct therapy in conscious sedation for venous access device implantation. Primary outcomes were safety and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Thirty consecutive women with breast cancer were proposed adjunct of hypnosis before implantation under conscious sedation (midazolam: 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559028/sedative-hypnotic-drug-use-among-community-dwelling-elderly-in-taiwan
#18
Han-Yun Tseng, Shu-Han Yu, Chun-Yi Lee, Wen-Hao Huang, Seng-Loong Huang, Chi-Shin Wu, Yen-Feng Chiu, Chao A Hsiung
BACKGROUND: Sedative-hypnotic medication use has been related to severe adverse events and risks. This study investigated the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the use of sedatives and hypnotics among community-dwelling elderly persons aged 65 years and over in Taiwan. METHODS: A representative sample of community-dwelling adults was recruited. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected for assessing physical, mental, and cognitive functioning and disorders...
March 21, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552421/trazodone-for-insomnia-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Karim Yahia Jaffer, Tiffany Chang, Brigitte Vanle, Jonathan Dang, Alexander J Steiner, Natalie Loera, Marina Abdelmesseh, Itai Danovitch, Waguih William Ishak
OBJECTIVE: While trazodone is approved for the treatment of depression, the off-label use of this medication for insomnia has surpassed its usage as an antidepressant. In this systematic review, we examined the evidence for the efficacy and safety of trazodone for insomnia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed databases from the past 33 years (1983-2016) and the keywords insomnia, trazodone, sedative, treatment, and hypnotics. The results were restricted to English language and human subjects...
July 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551260/-drug-using-risks-screening-in-primary-care-patients-using-the-assist-test-cross-sectional-study
#20
Juan A López-Rodríguez, Alina Rigabert, M Nieves Gómez Llano, Gabriel Rubio
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to estimate risky-drug use patterns of consumption of primary care patients. DESIGN: Multicentric descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING: five primary health care centers of the South of Madrid. PARTICIPANTS: all patients between 16-100 year-old consulting with their family physician. MEASUREMENTS: Spanish-validated World Health Organization ASSIST test was use to screen risky drug use in primary care...
March 15, 2018: Atencion Primaria
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