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Shun Onishi, Tatsuru Kaji, Waka Yamada, Kazuhiko Nakame, Tomoe Moriguchi, Koushirou Sugita, Koji Yamada, Takafumi Kawano, Motoi Mukai, Masakazu Souda, Sohsuke Yamada, Takako Yoshioka, Akihide Tanimoto, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: Long-term parenteral nutrition following massive bowel resection causes liver dysfunction, such as intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). IFALD includes two different states, cholestasis and steatosis, which represents a life-threatening complication. The previous reports have shown the protective role of ghrelin in the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of ghrelin in the liver in a parenterally fed rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS)...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Celeste M Lavallee, Jayden A R MacPherson, Mi Zhou, Yanhua Gao, Pamela R Wizzard, Paul W Wales, Justine M Turner, Benjamin P Willing
BACKGROUND: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a cause of intestinal microbial dysbiosis and impaired gut barrier function. This may contribute to life-threatening parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and sepsis in infants. We compared the effects of a lipid emulsion containing long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; SMOFlipid) and a predominantly ω-6 PUFA emulsion (Intralipid) on microbial composition and host response at the mucosal surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonatal piglets were provided isocaloric, isonitrogenous TPN for 14 days versus sow-fed (SF) controls...
August 5, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Karen van Hoeve, Ilse Hoffman, Fabio Fusaro, Jacques Pirenne, Ann Vander Auwera, Anne-Marie Dieltjens, Gert De Hertogh, Diethard Monbaliu, Marc Miserez
BACKGROUND: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a known congenital cause of intractable diarrhea resulting in permanent intestinal failure. There is need for a lifelong total parenteral nutrition (TPN) from diagnosis and the prognosis is poor. Most patients die by the second decade of life as a result of complications of parenteral alimentation including liver failure or sepsis. The only available treatment at this moment is a small bowel transplantation. But before that moment, the patients often suffer from a persistent failure to thrive and electrolyte disturbances despite continuous TPN...
August 1, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Gregory Guthrie, Madhulika Kulkarni, Hester Vlaardingerbroek, Barbara Stoll, Kenneth Ng, Camilia Martin, John Belmont, Darryl Hadsell, William Heird, Christopher B Newgard, Oluyinka Olutoye, Johannes van Goudoever, Charlotte Lauridsen, Xingxuan He, Edward H Schuchman, Douglas Burrin
We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT...
September 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Jain Ajay Kumar, Jeffery H Teckman
Over 30,000 patients are permanently dependent on Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) for survival with several folds higher requiring TPN for a prolonged duration. Unfortunately, it can cause potentially fatal complications. TPN infusion results in impairment of gut mucosal integrity, enhanced inflammation, increased cytokine expression and trans-mucosal bacterial permeation. It also causes endotoxin associated down regulation of bile acid transporters and Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD), which includes steatosis, disrupted glucose metabolism, disrupted lipid metabolism, cholestasis and liver failure...
2015: Children
B Chapman, P De Cruz, R Jones, W Hardikar, A Testro
BACKGROUND: A joint adult and pediatric intestinal transplant (ITx) program for Australia was developed in 2009 to provide life-saving ITx to patients with irreversible intestinal failure (IF). We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated by our service over the past 5 years. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was conducted on all IF patients referred to our service. Patient demographics, underlying disease, nutrition support, TPN complications, and current transplant program status were evaluated...
March 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Marie Nguyen, Avafia Dossa, Jessica Zagory, Jamie Golden, Anne Roberts, Xiaowei Fu, Kasper Wang, Christopher P Gayer
INTRODUCTION: Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal obstructive cholangiopathy requiring rapid intervention to prevent end-stage liver failure and death. Low bile acid levels in stool, detectable with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, may reflect extrahepatic biliary obstruction in cholestasis. HYPOTHESIS: Stool bile acid content can differentiate BA from non-BA forms of cholestasis. METHODS: Stool samples from four healthy and nine cholestatic patients were collected following internal review board approval...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Inbal Samuk, Akin Tekin, Panagiotis Tryphonopoulos, Ignacio G Pinto, Jennifer Garcia, Debbie Weppler, David M Levi, Seigo Nishida, Gennaro Selvaggi, Phillip Ruiz, Andreas G Tzakis, Rodrigo Vianna
PURPOSE: To present our experience in abdominal transplantations to manage unresectable abdominal neoplasms in children and to describe the role of extensive surgeries in such cases. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 22 abdominal transplantations in 21 patients for abdominal tumors over 16 years. Transplantation techniques included liver transplant (LT), multivisceral transplant (MVTx), and intestinal autotransplant (IA). Follow-up intervals ranged from 0...
April 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Eithan Galun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Dongping Huang, Zhufeng Sun, Jianwei Huang, Zhaozai Shen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of nutritional support via different routes in elderly patients after surgery for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. METHODS: 105 patients with GI cancer were randomly divided into early enteral nutrition (EEN) group (n = 35), total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group (n = 35) and EN+PN group (n = 35). RESULTS: The nutrition status and immunity were significantly compromised in all patients, while the liver function was improved at 3 days after surgery as compared to those before surgery...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Linda Thorvaldson, Mats Remberger, Jacek Winiarski, Brigitta Omazic, Björn Fischler, Mikael Sundin
UNLABELLED: Hepatic dysfunction is common after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the risk factors, frequency, and outcome of hepatic complications post-HSCT in children. Two hundred and thirty-seven cases of allogeneic HSCT in children were included. Data on biochemical liver function at start of HSCT, at +1, +3, +6, and +9 months, and at each subsequent yearly follow-up were extracted. Patients were stratified into groups with hepatocellular (none and mild, and moderate to severe) and hepatobiliary (none and present) dysfunction...
February 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jai-Jen Tsai, Hsing-Chun Kuo, Kam-Fai Lee, Tung-Hu Tsai
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is provided as the primary nitrogen source to manage patients with intestinal failure who were not able to sustain themselves on enteral feeds. The most common complication of long-term TPN use is hepatitis. A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of rats following TPN-related acute liver injury. Six male rats were randomly assigned to either the saline infusion control group or the TPN infusion group. Our results demonstrate that TPN infusion in rats resulted in hepatic dysfunction and hepatocyte apoptosis...
November 2015: Proteomics
Shigenori Ei, Masahiro Shinoda, Osamu Itano, Hideaki Obara, Minoru Kitago, Taizo Hibi, Hiroshi Yagi, Yuta Abe, Kentaro Matsubara, Yoshihiro Ono, Shigeyuki Kawachi, Ken Hoshino, Tatsuo Kuroda, Minoru Tanabe, Yuko Kitagawa
BACKGROUND: Early initiation of enteral nutrition is recommended after some surgical procedures. This study retrospectively analyzed the effects of addition of early enteral nutrition (EEN) support during the postoperative phase in patients after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects were adult patients who underwent LDLT in our department and received either total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or EEN for postoperative nutritional support...
2015: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Rosy Wells, Kirsty Le Doare, Mike Sharland, Paul Heath, Shamez N Ladhani
OBJECTIVES: To describe the aetiology, risk factors, treatment and outcome of children with community-onset invasive bacterial infections (IBI) and determine the appropriateness of the nationally recommended empiric antibiotic therapy in children with non-oncological comorbidities. METHOD: The CABIN network prospectively collected clinical information for all positive blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures in children aged 1 month to 15 years in southwest London over three years...
September 2015: Journal of Infection
Xueping Zhu, Xiaomin Zhang, Lingling Yu, Yumin Xu, Xing Feng, Jian Wang
Objective. To use a rabbit model of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) to study changes of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) marker glucose regulatory protein 94 (GRP94) and determine its role in the pathogenesis of PNALD. Methods. A rabbit PNALD model total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group was established. A corresponding control group received breast-feeding for one week. Serum biochemical parameters were measured and liver histological examinations were performed. The level of GRP94 mRNA and protein were measured...
2015: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Mehmet Demircan, Kubulay Gurunluoglu, Abdurrahman Karaman, Bulent Mizrak
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis in one of the most serious complications that can occur during total parenteral nutrition (TPN) procedures. In this experimental study, we investigated the effects of TPN, with or without lipid emulsion, on vascular endothelial damage. METHODS: In total, 50 rabbits were used, divided into 5 groups of 10 each. TPN with lipids (group 1), TPN without lipids (group 2), and 0.09% saline (group 3) were given for 10 days via a central venous catheter...
October 2015: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Yongtao Xiao, Weihui Yan, Lina Lu, Ying Wang, Wei Lu, Yi Cao, Wei Cai
Although our previous studies have provided evidence that oxidative stress has an essential role in total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated liver injury, the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Here, we show the existence of crosstalk between the miR-200 family of microRNAs and oxidative stress. The members of the miR-200 family are markedly enhanced in hepatic cells by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. The upregulation of miR-200-3p in turn modulates the H2O2-mediated oxidative stress response by targeting p38α...
2015: Cell Cycle
Ajay K Jain, Joy X Wen, Sumit Arora, Keith S Blomenkamp, Jonathan Rodrigues, Timothy A Blaufuss, Victor Liou, Douglas G Burrin, John P Long, Jeffery H Teckman
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provides all nutrition intravenously. Although TPN therapy has grown enormously, it causes significant complications, including gut and hepatic dysfunction. Current models use animal tethering which is unlike ambulatory human TPN delivery and is cost prohibitive. We hypothesize that using ultramobile infusion pumps, TPN can be delivered cost-effectively, resulting in classical gut and hepatic injury, and we thus aim to establish a new model system. Neonatal pigs (n=8) were implanted with jugular vein and duodenal catheters...
February 2015: Nutrition Research
Kareem Abu-Elmagd
In the 1990s, the introduction of visceral transplantation fuelled interest in other innovative therapeutic modalities for gut rehabilitation. Ethanol lock and omega-3 lipid formulations were introduced to reduce the risks associated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Autologous surgical reconstruction and bowel lengthening have been increasingly utilized for patients with complex abdominal pathology and short-bowel syndrome. Glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, along with growth hormone, are available to enhance gut adaptation and achieve nutritional autonomy...
February 2015: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Wei Chen, Zheng Zhang, Maoming Xiong, Xiangling Meng, Fen Dai, Jun Fang, Hong Wan, Miaofeng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the difference between early enteral nutrition (EEN group) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN group) after total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHOD: The nutrition index, liver function, patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) score, the post-operation complications, the hospital stay and hospitalization expense of the postoperative patient after total gastrectomy, admitted to our Department of Surgery from May 2011 to May 2013 were analyzed retrospectively...
2014: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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