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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821712/emergence-of-recombinant-mayaro-virus-strains-from-the-amazon-basin
#1
Carla Mavian, Brittany D Rife, James Jarad Dollar, Eleonora Cella, Massimo Ciccozzi, Mattia C F Prosperi, John Lednicky, J Glenn Morris, Ilaria Capua, Marco Salemi
Mayaro virus (MAYV), causative agent of Mayaro Fever, is an arbovirus transmitted by Haemagogus mosquitoes. Despite recent attention due to the identification of several cases in South and Central America and the Caribbean, limited information on MAYV evolution and epidemiology exists and represents a barrier to prevention of further spread. We present a thorough spatiotemporal evolutionary study of MAYV full-genome sequences collected over the last sixty years within South America and Haiti, revealing recent recombination events and adaptation to a broad host and vector range, including Aedes mosquito species...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814516/baculovirus-molecular-evolution-via-gene-turnover-and-recurrent-positive-selection-of-key-genes
#2
Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
Hosts and viruses are locked in an evolutionary arms race. Hosts are constantly evolving to suppress virulence and replication, while viruses, reliant on host machinery for survival and reproduction, develop counter-strategies to escape this immune defense. Viruses must also adapt to novel conditions when establishing themselves in a host species. Both processes provide strong selection for viral adaptation. Understanding adaptive evolution in insect viruses can help us better understand adaptive evolution in general, and is important due to their use as biocontrol agents, and for protecting ecologically or economically important species from outbreaks...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813678/therapeutic-antibodies-to-ganglioside-gd2-evolved-from-highly-selective-germline-antibodies
#3
Eric Sterner, Megan L Peach, Marc C Nicklaus, Jeffrey C Gildersleeve
Antibodies play a crucial role in host defense and are indispensable research tools, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Antibody generation involves binding of genomically encoded germline antibodies followed by somatic hypermutation and in vivo selection to obtain antibodies with high affinity and selectivity. Understanding this process is critical for developing monoclonal antibodies, designing effective vaccines, and understanding autoantibody formation. Prior studies have found that antibodies to haptens, peptides, and proteins evolve from polyspecific germline antibodies...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808099/enhancing-crop-plant-photosynthesis-by-introducing-novel-genetic-diversity
#4
REVIEW
Marcel Dann, Dario Leister
Although some elements of the photosynthetic light reactions might appear to be ideal, the overall efficiency of light conversion to biomass has not been optimized during evolution. Because crop plants are depleted of genetic diversity for photosynthesis, efforts to enhance its efficiency with respect to light conversion to yield must generate new variation. In principle, three sources of natural variation are available: (i) rare diversity within extant higher plant species, (ii) photosynthetic variants from algae, and (iii) reconstruction of no longer extant types of plant photosynthesis...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807560/morphologic-and-molecular-characterization-of-seven-species-of-the-remarkably-diverse-and-widely-distributed-metopid-genus-urostomides-jankowski-1964-armophorea-ciliophora
#5
William Bourland, Johana Rotterová, Ivan Čepička
The free-living ciliates of the order Metopida Jankowski, 1980 are pivotal players in the microbial food web of the sulfuretum, acting as hosts to prokaryotic endo- and ectosymbionts. They are also of interest in the study of the function and evolution of their mitochondrion-related organelle, the hydrogenosome. The taxonomy and phylogeny of this group remains confused, due, in large part, to the fact that most of its taxa have not been characterized by modern methods including molecular sequencing. In this report we provide morphologic and molecular characterization of seven taxa from the poorly-known resurrected genus Urostomides obtained in the course of broad geographic sampling...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802020/investigating-the-diversity-of-effector-genes-in-the-banana-pathogen-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense-reveals-evidence-of-horizontal-gene-transfer
#6
Elizabeth Czislowski, Sam Fraser-Smith, Manuel Zander, Wayne T O'Neill, Rachel A Meldrum, Lucy T T Tran-Nguyen, Jacqueline Batley, Elizabeth A B Aitken
It is hypothesised that the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi is mediated through the secretion of small effector proteins that interfere with the defence responses of the host plant. In Fusarium oxysporum, one family of effectors, the secreted in xylem (SIX) genes, have been identified. We sought to characterise the diversity and evolution of the SIX genes in the banana-infecting lineages of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). Whole-genome sequencing data was generated for the 23 genetic lineages of Foc, which were subsequently queried for the 14 known SIX genes (SIX1-SIX14)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798729/in-silico-evolution-of-lysis-lysogeny-strategies-reproduces-observed-lysogeny-propensities-in-temperate-bacteriophages
#7
Vaibhhav Sinha, Akshit Goyal, Sine L Svenningsen, Szabolcs Semsey, Sandeep Krishna
Bacteriophages are the most abundant organisms on the planet and both lytic and temperate phages play key roles as shapers of ecosystems and drivers of bacterial evolution. Temperate phages can choose between (i) lysis: exploiting their bacterial hosts by producing multiple phage particles and releasing them by lysing the host cell, and (ii) lysogeny: establishing a potentially mutually beneficial relationship with the host by integrating their chromosome into the host cell's genome. Temperate phages exhibit lysogeny propensities in the curiously narrow range of 5-15%...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796233/intracellular-directed-evolution-of-proteins-from-combinatorial-libraries-based-on-conditional-phage-replication
#8
Andreas K Brödel, Alfonso Jaramillo, Mark Isalan
Directed evolution is a powerful tool to improve the characteristics of biomolecules. Here we present a protocol for the intracellular evolution of proteins with distinct differences and advantages in comparison with established techniques. These include the ability to select for a particular function from a library of protein variants inside cells, minimizing undesired coevolution and propagation of nonfunctional library members, as well as allowing positive and negative selection logics using basally active promoters...
September 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791158/gamma-ray-bursts-and-their-use-as-cosmic-probes
#9
REVIEW
Patricia Schady
Since the launch of the highly successful and ongoing Swift mission, the field of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has undergone a revolution. The arcsecond GRB localizations available within just a few minutes of the GRB alert has signified the continual sampling of the GRB evolution through the prompt to afterglow phases revealing unexpected flaring and plateau phases, the first detection of a kilonova coincident with a short GRB, and the identification of samples of low-luminosity, ultra-long and highly dust-extinguished GRBs...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790205/comparative-genomics-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-reveals-a-path-to-specialized-exploitation-of-multiple-invertebrate-hosts
#10
Jinshui Zheng, Qiuling Gao, Linlin Liu, Hualin Liu, Yueying Wang, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ben Raymond, Ming Sun
Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis, contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins) and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades...
August 8, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770836/the-evolution-of-the-host-microbiome-as-an-ecosystem-on-a-leash
#11
Kevin R Foster, Jonas Schluter, Katharine Z Coyte, Seth Rakoff-Nahoum
The human body carries vast communities of microbes that provide many benefits. Our microbiome is complex and challenging to understand, but evolutionary theory provides a universal framework with which to analyse its biology and health impacts. Here we argue that to understand a given microbiome feature, such as colonization resistance, host nutrition or immune development, we must consider how hosts and symbionts evolve. Symbionts commonly evolve to compete within the host ecosystem, while hosts evolve to keep the ecosystem on a leash...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769116/the-reverse-transcriptases-associated-with-crispr-cas-systems
#12
Nicolás Toro, Francisco Martínez-Abarca, Alejandro González-Delgado
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and associated proteins (Cas) act as adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea. Some CRISPR-Cas systems have been found to be associated with putative reverse transcriptases (RT), and an RT-Cas1 fusion associated with a type III-B system has been shown to acquire RNA spacers in vivo. Nevertheless, the origin and evolutionary relationships of these RTs and associated CRISPR-Cas systems remain largely unknown. We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these RTs and associated Cas1 proteins, and classified their CRISPR-Cas modules...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761932/parasite-microbiome-project-systematic-investigation-of-microbiome-dynamics-within-and-across-parasite-host-interactions
#13
Nolwenn M Dheilly, Daniel Bolnick, Seth Bordenstein, Paul J Brindley, Cédric Figuères, Edward C Holmes, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Anna J Phillips, Robert Poulin, Karyna Rosario
Understanding how microbiomes affect host resistance, parasite virulence, and parasite-associated diseases requires a collaborative effort between parasitologists, microbial ecologists, virologists, and immunologists. We hereby propose the Parasite Microbiome Project to bring together researchers with complementary expertise and to study the role of microbes in host-parasite interactions. Data from the Parasite Microbiome Project will help identify the mechanisms driving microbiome variation in parasites and infected hosts and how that variation is associated with the ecology and evolution of parasites and their disease outcomes...
July 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761786/the-bivalve-thyasira-cf-gouldi-hosts-chemoautotrophic-symbiont-populations-with-strain-level-diversity
#14
Bonita McCuaig, France Liboiron, Suzanne C Dufour
Invertebrates from various marine habitats form nutritional symbioses with chemosynthetic bacteria. In chemosynthetic symbioses, both the mode of symbiont transmission and the site of bacterial housing can affect the composition of the symbiont population. Vertically transmitted symbionts, as well as those hosted intracellularly, are more likely to form clonal populations within their host. Conversely, symbiont populations that are environmentally acquired and extracellular may be more likely to be heterogeneous/mixed within host individuals, as observed in some mytilid bivalves...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759651/rare-hiv-1-transmitted-founder-lineages-identified-by-deep-viral-sequencing-contribute-to-rapid-shifts-in-dominant-quasispecies-during-acute-and-early-infection
#15
Gustavo H Kijak, Eric Sanders-Buell, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Michael A Eller, Nilu Goonetilleke, Rasmi Thomas, Sivan Leviyang, Elizabeth A Harbolick, Meera Bose, Phuc Pham, Celina Oropeza, Kultida Poltavee, Anne Marie O'Sullivan, Erik Billings, Melanie Merbah, Margaret C Costanzo, Joanna A Warren, Bonnie Slike, Hui Li, Kristina K Peachman, Will Fischer, Feng Gao, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Leigh A Eller, Robert J O'Connell, Samuel Sinei, Lucas Maganga, Hannah Kibuuka, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Mangala Rao, Mary A Marovich, Shelly J Krebs, Morgane Rolland, Bette T Korber, George M Shaw, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Jerome H Kim
In order to inform the rational design of HIV-1 preventive and cure interventions it is critical to understand the events occurring during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). Using viral deep sequencing on six participants from the early capture acute infection RV217 cohort, we have studied HIV-1 evolution in plasma collected twice weekly during the first weeks following the advent of viremia. The analysis of infections established by multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses revealed novel viral profiles that included: a) the low-level persistence of minor T/F variants, b) the rapid replacement of the major T/F by a minor T/F, and c) an initial expansion of the minor T/F followed by a quick collapse of the same minor T/F to low frequency...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757446/playing-with-extremes-origins-and-evolution-of-exaggerated-female-forelegs-in-south-african-rediviva-bees
#16
Belinda Kahnt, Graham A Montgomery, Elizabeth Murray, Michael Kuhlmann, Anton Pauw, Denis Michez, Robert J Paxton, Bryan N Danforth
Despite close ecological interactions between plants and their pollinators, only some highly specialised pollinators adapt to a specific host plant trait by evolving a bizarre morphology. Here we investigated the evolution of extremely elongated forelegs in females of the South African bee genus Rediviva (Hymenoptera: Melittidae), in which long forelegs are hypothesised to be an adaptation for collecting oils from the extended spurs of their Diascia host flowers. We first reconstructed the phylogeny of the genus Rediviva using seven genes and inferred an origin of Rediviva at around 29MYA (95% HPD=19...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757445/phylogenetics-of-australasian-gall-flies-diptera-fergusoninidae-evolutionary-patterns-of-host-shifting-and-gall-morphology
#17
S J Scheffer, K A Davies, G S Taylor, A H Thornhill, M L Lewis, I S Winkler, D K Yeates, M F Purcell, J Makinson, R M Giblin-Davis
This study investigated host-specificity and phylogenetic relationships in Australian galling flies, Fergusonina Malloch (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), in order to assess diversity and explore the evolutionary history of host plant affiliation and gall morphology. A DNA barcoding approach using COI data from 203 Fergusonina specimens from 5gall types on 56 host plant species indicated 85 presumptive fly species. These exhibited a high degree of host specificity; of the 40 species with multiple representatives, each fed only on a single host genus, 29 (72...
July 27, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757073/chaotic-provinces-in-the-kingdom-of-the-red-queen
#18
Hanna Schenk, Arne Traulsen, Chaitanya S Gokhale
The interplay between parasites and their hosts is found in all kinds of species and plays an important role in understanding the principles of evolution and coevolution. Usually, the different genotypes of hosts and parasites oscillate in their abundances. The well-established theory of oscillatory Red Queen dynamics proposes an ongoing change in frequencies of the different types within each species. So far, it is unclear under what conditions Red Queen dynamics persists, especially when the number of types per species increases...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747479/a-nutrient-mediates-intraspecific-competition-between-rodent-malaria-parasites-in-vivo
#19
Nina Wale, Derek G Sim, Andrew F Read
Hosts are often infected with multiple strains of a single parasite species. Within-host competition between parasite strains can be intense and has implications for the evolution of traits that impact patient health, such as drug resistance and virulence. Yet the mechanistic basis of within-host competition is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a parasite nutrient, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), mediates competition between a drug resistant and drug susceptible strain of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi We further show that increasing pABA supply to hosts infected with the resistant strain worsens disease and changes the relationship between parasite burden and pathology...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741105/transmission-fitness-in-co-colonization-and-the-persistence-of-bacterial-pathogens
#20
Maria Gaivão, Francisco Dionisio, Erida Gjini
Humans are often colonized by polymorphic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae. Two co-colonizing pathogen clones may interact with each other upon host entry and during within-host dynamics, ranging from competition to facilitation. Here we examine the significance of these exploitation strategies for bacterial spread and persistence in host populations. We model SIS epidemiological dynamics to capture the global behavior of such multi-strain systems, focusing on different parameters of single and dual colonization...
July 24, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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