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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220874/evolution-of-larval-competitiveness-and-associated-life-history-traits-in-response-to-host-shifts-in-a-seed-beetle
#1
Charles W Fox, Frank J Messina
Resource competition is frequently strong among parasites that feed within small discrete resource patches, such as seeds or fruits. The properties of a host can influence the behavioral, morphological, and life history traits of associated parasites, including traits that mediate competition within the host. For seed parasites, host size may be an especially important determinant of competitive ability. Using the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, we performed replicated, reciprocal host shifts to examine the role of seed size in determining larval competitiveness and associated traits...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212934/influenza-a-virus-reassortment-is-limited-by-anatomical-compartmentalization-following-co-infection-via-distinct-routes
#2
Mathilde Richard, Sander Herfst, Hui Tao, Nathan T Jacobs, Anice C Lowen
Exchange of gene segments through reassortment is a major feature of influenza A virus evolution and frequently contributes to the emergence of novel epidemic, pandemic and zoonotic strains. It has long been evident that viral diversification through reassortment is constrained by genetic incompatibility between divergent parental viruses. In contrast, the role of virus-extrinsic factors in determining the likelihood of reassortment has remained unclear. To evaluate the impact of such factors in the absence of confounding effects of segment mismatch, we previously reported an approach in which reassortment between wild-type (wt) and genetically tagged variant (var) viruses of the same strain is measured...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211708/selective-silencing-of-euchromatic-l1s-revealed-by-genome-wide-screens-for-l1-regulators
#3
Nian Liu, Cameron H Lee, Tomek Swigut, Edward Grow, Bo Gu, Michael Bassik, Joanna Wysocka
Transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized not only as parasitic DNA, whose spread in the genome must be controlled by the host, but also as major players in genome evolution and regulation1-6. Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1), the only currently autonomous mobile transposon in humans, occupies 17% of the genome and continues to generate inter- and intra-individual genetic variation, in some cases resulting in disease1-7. Nonetheless, how L1 activity is controlled and what function L1s play in host gene regulation remain incompletely understood...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205327/social-behaviour-and-gut-microbiota-in-red-bellied-lemurs-eulemur-rubriventer-in-search-of-the-role-of-immunity-in-the-evolution-of-sociality
#4
Aura Raulo, Lasse Ruokolainen, Avery Lane, Katherine Amato, Rob Knight, Steven Leigh, Rebecca Stumpf, Bryan White, Karen E Nelson, Andrea L Baden, Stacey R Tecot
Vertebrate gut microbiota form a key component of immunity and a dynamic link between an individual and the ecosystem. Microbiota might play a role in social systems as well, because microbes are transmitted during social contact and can affect host behaviour. Combining methods from behavioural and molecular research, we describe the relationship between social dynamics and gut microbiota of a group-living cooperative species of primate, the red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer). Specifically, we ask whether patterns of social contact (group membership, group size, position in social network, individual sociality) are associated with patterns of gut microbial composition (diversity and similarity) between individuals and across time...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202692/a-comparative-analysis-of-nonhost-resistance-across-the-two-triticeae-crop-species-wheat-and-barley
#5
Rhoda Delventhal, Jeyaraman Rajaraman, Francesca L Stefanato, Sajid Rehman, Reza Aghnoum, Graham R D McGrann, Marie Bolger, Björn Usadel, Pete E Hedley, Lesley Boyd, Rients E Niks, Patrick Schweizer, Ulrich Schaffrath
BACKGROUND: Nonhost resistance (NHR) protects plants against a vast number of non-adapted pathogens which implicates a potential exploitation as source for novel disease resistance strategies. Aiming at a fundamental understanding of NHR a global analysis of transcriptome reprogramming in the economically important Triticeae cereals wheat and barley, comparing host and nonhost interactions in three major fungal pathosystems responsible for powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis ff. ssp.), cereal blast (Magnaporthe sp...
December 4, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202039/genomic-network-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-the-oomycete-effector-arsenal
#6
Jamie McGowan, David A Fitzpatrick
The oomycetes are a class of microscopic, filamentous eukaryotes within the stramenopiles-alveolate-Rhizaria (SAR) supergroup and include ecologically significant animal and plant pathogens. Oomycetes secrete large arsenals of effector proteins that degrade host cell components, manipulate host immune responses, and induce necrosis, enabling parasitic colonization. This study investigated the expansion and evolution of effectors in 37 oomycete species in 4 oomycete orders, including Albuginales, Peronosporales, Pythiales, and Saprolegniales species...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198972/analysis-of-codon-usage-bias-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-and-its-adaptation-to-hosts
#7
Siddiq Ur Rahman, Xiaoting Yao, Xiangchen Li, Dekun Chen, Shiheng Tao
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a negative-sense, single stranded RNA virus with a three-segmented genome that belongs to the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV uses Hyalomma ticks as a vector to infect humans with a wide range of clinical signs, from asymptomatic to Zika-like syndrome. Despite significant progress in genomic analyses, the influences of viral relationships with different hosts on overall viral fitness, survival, and evading the host's immune systems remain unknown...
November 30, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191398/the-search-for-evolution-proof-antibiotics
#8
REVIEW
Graham Bell, Craig MacLean
The effectiveness of antibiotics has been widely compromised by the evolution of resistance among pathogenic bacteria. It would be restored by the development of antibiotics to which bacteria cannot evolve resistance. We first discuss two kinds of 'evolution-proof' antibiotic. The first comprises literally evolution-proof antibiotics to which bacteria cannot become resistant by mutation or horizontal gene transfer. The second category comprises agents to which resistance may arise, but so rarely that it does not become epidemic...
November 27, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187967/highly-contrasted-population-genetic-structures-in-a-host-parasite-pair-in-the-caribbean-sea
#9
Quentin Jossart, Chantal De Ridder, Harilaos A Lessios, Mathieu Bauwens, Sébastien Motreuil, Thierry Rigaud, Rémi A Wattier, Bruno David
Evolution and population genetic structure of marine species across the Caribbean Sea are shaped by two complex factors: the geological history and the present pattern of marine currents. Characterizing and comparing the genetic structures of codistributed species, such as host-parasite associations, allow discriminating the relative importance of environmental factors and life history traits that influenced gene flow and demographic events. Using microsatellite and Cytochrome Oxidase I markers, we investigated if a host-parasite pair (the heart urchin Meoma ventricosa and its parasitic pea crab Dissodactylus primitivus) exhibits comparable population genetic structures in the Caribbean Sea and how the observed patterns match connectivity regions from predictive models and other taxa...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186963/molecular-epidemiology-and-genetic-diversity-of-duck-hepatitis-a-virus-type-3-in-shandong-province-of-china-2012-2014
#10
R Zhang, L Xia, J Chen, Y Gong, L Zhang, P Li, H Liu, Z Xie, S Jiang
 The infections with duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) become common in eastern Asia. To better understand the molecular evolution and genetic variation of DHAV-3, a total of 482 dead Cherry Valley duckling liver samples collected from Shandong province of China during 2012-2014 were tested, and the complete P1 coding sequences of 18 DHAV-3 strains were analyzed. The detection rate of DHAV-3 was 64.5% (311/482) in clinical liver samples and 73.0% (92/126) in duckling flocks. The P1 genes of the 18 DHAV-3 isolates shared 91...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186875/distribution-and-inferred-evolutionary-characteristics-of-a-chimeric-ssdna-virus-associated-with-intertidal-marine-isopods
#11
Kalia S I Bistolas, Ryan M Besemer, Lars G Rudstam, Ian Hewson
Aquatic invertebrates are common reservoirs of a rapidly expanding group of circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses. This study identified and explored the phylogenetic relationship between novel CRESS-DNA viral genotypes associated with Pacific intertidal isopods Idotea wosnesenskii, Idotea resecata, and Gnorimosphaeroma oregonensis. One genotype associated with I. wosnesenskii, IWaV278, shared sequence similarity and genomic features with Tombusviridae (ssRNA) and Circoviridae (ssDNA) genomes and was putatively assigned to the Cruciviridae clade comprising chimeric viruses...
November 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186559/phyloscanner-inferring-transmission-from-within-and-between-host-pathogen-genetic-diversity
#12
Chris Wymant, Matthew Hall, Oliver Ratmann, David Bonsall, Tanya Golubchik, Mariateresa de Cesare, Astrid Gall, Marion Cornelissen, Christophe Fraser
A central feature of pathogen genomics is that different infectious particles (virions, bacterial cells, etc.) within an infected individual may be genetically distinct, with patterns of relatedness amongst infectious particles being the result of both within-host evolution and transmission from one host to the next. Here we present a new software tool, phyloscanner, which analyses pathogen diversity from multiple infected hosts. phyloscanner provides unprecedented resolution into the transmission process, allowing inference of the direction of transmission from sequence data alone...
November 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186370/comparative-genomics-of-pathogenic-and-non-pathogenic-beetle-vectored-fungi-in-the-genus-geosmithia
#13
Taruna A Schuelke, Guangxi Wu, Anthony Westbrook, Keith Woeste, David C Plachetzki, Kirk Broders, Matthew D MacManes
Geosmithia morbida is an emerging fungal pathogen which serves as a model for examining the evolutionary processes behind pathogenicity because it is one of two known pathogens within a genus of mostly saprophytic, beetle-associated, fungi. This pathogen causes thousand cankers disease in black walnut trees and is vectored into the host via the walnut twig beetle. G. morbida was first detected in western US and currently threatens the timber industry concentrated in eastern US. We sequenced the genomes of G...
November 23, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182013/friend-or-foe-mitochondria-as-a-pharmacological-target-in-cancer-treatment
#14
Tyler Dickerson, Catherine E Jauregui, Yong Teng
Mitochondria have acquired numerous functions over the course of evolution, such as those involved in controlling energy production, cellular metabolism, cell survival, apoptosis and autophagy within host cells. Tumor cells can develop defects in mitochondrial function, presenting a potential strategy for designing selective anticancer therapies. Therefore, cancer has been the main focus of recent research to uncover possible mitochondrial targets for therapeutic benefit. This comprehensive review covers not only the recent discoveries of the roles of mitochondria in cancer development, progression and therapeutic implications but also the findings regarding emerging mitochondrial therapeutic targets and mitochondria-targeted agents...
November 28, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180745/molecular-variation-of-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-in-the-insect-vector-bemisia-tabaci
#15
Xiuling Yang, Bi Wang, Junbo Luan, Yan Xie, Shusheng Liu, Xueping Zhou
Insect vectors play significant roles in geminivirus spread and evolution in nature. To date little is known about the population dynamics of begomoviruses in their insect vector Bemisia tabaci. In this study we analyzed the genetic variation of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in its host plant, Solanum lycopersicum, in its transmission vector B. tabaci raised on TYLCV-infected S. lycopersicum plants, and in B. tabaci after being transferred from S. lycopersicum to Gossypium hirsutum. We found that the levels of variability of TYLCV remained stable in S...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177480/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-acanthamoeba-endosymbionts-highlights-the-role-of-amoebae-as-a-melting-pot-shaping-the-rickettsiales-evolution
#16
Zhang Wang, Martin Wu
Amoebae have been considered as a genetic 'melting pot' for its symbionts, facilitating genetic exchanges of the bacteria that co-inhabit the same host. To test the 'melting pot' hypothesis, we analyzed six genomes of amoeba endosymbionts within Rickettsiales, four of which belong to family Holosporaceae and two to Candidatus Midichloriaceae. For the first time, we identified plasmids in obligate amoeba endosymbionts, which suggests conjugation as a potential mechanism for lateral gene transfers (LGTs) that underpin the 'melting pot' hypothesis...
November 21, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171119/abundant-recent-activity-of-retrovirus-like-retrotransposons-within-and-among-flycatcher-species-implies-a-rich-source-of-structural-variation-in-songbird-genomes
#17
Alexander Suh, Linnéa Smeds, Hans Ellegren
Transposable elements (TEs) are genomic parasites capable of inserting virtually anywhere in the host genome, with manifold consequences for gene expression, DNA methylation, and genomic stability. Notably, they can contribute to phenotypic variation and hence be associated with, for example, local adaptation and speciation. However, some organisms such as birds have been widely noted for the low densities of TEs in their genomes and this has been attributed to a potential dearth in transposition during their evolution...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170664/the-intra-dependence-of-viruses-and-the-holobiont
#18
Juris A Grasis
Animals live in symbiosis with the microorganisms surrounding them. This symbiosis is necessary for animal health, as a symbiotic breakdown can lead to a disease state. The functional symbiosis between the host, and associated prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses in the context of an environment is the holobiont. Deciphering these holobiont associations has proven to be both difficult and controversial. In particular, holobiont association with viruses has been of debate even though these interactions have been occurring since cellular life began...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162141/more-than-meets-the-i-the-diverse-antiviral-and-cellular-functions-of-interferon-induced-transmembrane-proteins
#19
REVIEW
Guoli Shi, Olivier Schwartz, Alex A Compton
The first responders of human antiviral immunity are components of the intrinsic immune response that reside within each and every one of our cells. This cell-autonomous arsenal consists of nucleic acid sensors and antiviral effectors strategically placed by evolution to detect and restrict invading viruses. While some factors are present at baseline to allow for constant surveillance of the cell interior, others are upregulated by cytokines (such as interferons) that signal a viral infection underway in neighboring cells...
November 21, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161832/a-simple-model-of-hiv-epidemic-in-italy-the-role-of-the-antiretroviral-treatment
#20
Federico Papa, Francesca Binda, Giovanni Felici, Marco Franzetti, Alberto Gandolfi, Carmela Sinisgalli, Claudia Balotta
In the present paper we propose a simple time-varying ODE model to describe the evolution of HIV epidemic in Italy. The model considers a single population of susceptibles, without distinction of high-risk groups within the general population, and accounts for the presence of immigration and emigration, modelling their effects on both the general demography and the dynamics of the infected subpopulations. To represent the intra-host disease progression, the untreated infected population is distributed over four compartments in cascade according to the CD4 counts...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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