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DNA structure review

D Chandran, M C Wildermuth
Recent studies have revealed that several mutualistic and parasitic biotrophic microbes induce a cell cycle variant termed the endocycle in host cells to support their growth and reproduction. Endoreduplication is a process in which cells successively replicate their genomes without mitosis resulting in an increase in nuclear DNA ploidy. Depending on the interaction, endoreduplication can support biotroph colonization and feeding structure initiation/development, and/or serve as a mechanism to support enhanced metabolic demands of the microbe...
2016: Enzymes
Agata Swiatkowska, Paulina Zydowicz, Joanna Sroka, Jerzy Ciesiołka
The p53 tumour suppressor protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and protection against cancer development. This is why it is often referred to as "the guardian of the genome". On the other hand, mutations in the p53 gene are connected with more than 50% of tumours of various types. The thirty-six years of extensive research on the p53 gene and its protein products have shown how sophisticated the p53-based cell system control is. An additional level of complexity of the p53 research is connected with at least twelve p53 isoforms which have been identified in the cell...
October 25, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Abdul Hameed, Mariya Al-Rashida, Maliha Uroos, Syed Ali, Khalid M Khan
Schiff bases are synthetically accessible and structurally diverse compounds, typically obtained by facile condensation between an aldehyde, or a ketone with primary amines. Schiff bases contain an azomethine (-C=N-) linkage that stitches together two or more biologically active aromatic/heterocyclic scaffolds to form various molecular hybrids with interesting biological properties. Schiff bases are versatile metal complexing agents and have been known to coordinate all metals to form stable metal complexes with vast therapeutic applications...
October 24, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Samuel M Cohen, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J Gooderham, F Peter Guengerich, Stephen S Hecht, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Robert L Smith, Maria Bastaki, Christie L Harman, Margaret M McGowen, Sean V Taylor
p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-al is a naturally occurring cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde that is used as a flavoring substance throughout the world. Due to the chemical structure and the potential DNA reactivity of the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl moiety, a battery of genotoxicity assays was requested by the European Food Safety Authority. Previous genotoxicity studies on the substance gave mixed results, but both positive and negative results were hampered by not always being performed to any standard guideline...
October 20, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Matthias Groh, Laura Oana Albulescu, Agnese Cristini, Natalia Gromak
R-loops comprise an RNA/DNA hybrid and displaced single-stranded DNA. They play crucial biological functions and are implicated in neurological diseases, including ataxias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, nucleotide expansion disorders (Friedreich ataxia, Fragile X syndrome) and cancer. Currently it is unclear which mechanisms cause R-loops structures to become pathogenic. The RNA/DNA helicase Senataxin (SETX) is one of the best characterised R-loop-binding factors in vivo. Mutations in SETX are linked to two neurodegenerative disorders: ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Agata A Cisek, Iwona Dąbrowska, Karolina P Gregorczyk, Zbigniew Wyżewski
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a double-stranded DNA virus with a complex molecular structure. Its large genome, encoding multiple virulence factors, allows for efficient replication, which takes place predominantly in the cytoplasm of monocytes and macrophages. Also, ASFV has the ability to interfere with cell signalling pathways, which leads to various modulations in the synthesis profiles of interferon and other cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Katsuhiko Hirota, Hiromichi Yumoto, Bayarmagnai Sapaar, Takashi Matsuo, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Yoichiro Miyake
Candida albicans is commonly found as a member of the human microflora and a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen. A perturbation of the microbiome can lead to infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including C. albicans. Moreover, the interactions between C. albicans and bacteria are considered to play critical roles in human health. The major biological feature of C. albicans, which impacts human health, resides in its ability to form biofilms. In particular, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of Candida biofilm plays a multifaceted role and therefore may be considered as a highly attractive target to combat biofilm-related infectious diseases...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
Ming Chen, Shun-Ping Chang, Gwo-Chin Ma, Wen-Hsian Lin, Hsin-Fu Chen, Shee-Uan Chen, Horng-Der Tsai, Feng-Po Tsai, Ming-Ching Shen
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a powerful tool to tackle the transmission of monogenic inherited disorders in families carrying the diseases from generation to generation. It currently remains a challenging task, despite PGD having been developed over 25 years ago. The major difficulty is it does not have an easy and general formula for all mutations. Different gene locus needs individualized, customized design to make the diagnosis accurate enough to be applied on PGD, in which the quantity of DNA is scanty, whereas timely laboratory diagnosis is mandatory if fresh embryo transfer is desired occasionally...
2016: Thrombosis Journal
Irina Trofimova, Alla Krasikova
Tandemly organized highly repetitive DNA sequences are crucial structural and functional elements of eukaryotic genomes. Despite extensive evidence, satellite DNA remains an enigmatic part of the eukaryotic genome, with biological role and significance of tandem repeat transcripts remaining rather obscure. Data on tandem repeats transcription in amphibian and avian model organisms is fragmentary despite their genomes being thoroughly characterized. Review systematically covers historical and modern data on transcription of amphibian and avian satellite DNA in somatic cells and during meiosis when chromosomes acquire special lampbrush form...
October 20, 2016: RNA Biology
Gordon G Carmichael
Murine polyomavirus (MPyV) infects mouse cells and is highly oncogenic in immunocompromised hosts and in other rodents. Its genome is a small, circular DNA molecule of just over 5000 base pairs and it encodes only seven polypeptides. While seemingly simply organized, this virus has adopted an unusual genome structure and some unusual uses of cellular quality control pathways that, together, allow an amazingly complex and varied pattern of gene regulation. In this review we discuss how MPyV leverages these various pathways to control its life cycle...
October 17, 2016: Viruses
Mirela Enache, Ana Maria Toader, Madalin Iancu Enache
Mitoxantrone is a synthetic anticancer drug used clinically in the treatment of different types of cancer. It was developed as a doxorubicin analogue in a program to find drugs with improved antitumor activity and decreased cardiotoxicity compared with the anthracyclines. As the cell membrane is the first barrier encountered by anticancer drugs before reaching the DNA sites inside the cells and as surfactant micelles are known as simple model systems for biological membranes, the drugs-surfactant interaction has been the subject of great research interest...
October 13, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Gunther Boysen, Semini Sumanasuriya, George Seed, Angelo M De Marzo, Johann de Bono
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease and current treatment strategies are based largely on anatomical and pathological parameters. In the recent past, several DNA sequencing studies of primary and advanced PCa have revealed recurrent patterns of genomic aberrations that expose mechanisms of resistance to available therapies and potential new drug targets. Suppression of androgen receptor (AR) signalling is the cornerstone of advanced prostate cancer treatment. Genomic aberrations of the androgen receptor or alternative splicing of its mRNA are increasingly recognized as biomarkers of resistance to AR-targeted therapy such as abiraterone or enzalutamide...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Stefanie Luecke, Søren R Paludan
Nucleic acids sensors of the innate immune system recognize various RNA and DNA structures during infection to induce transcription of interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of inflammasomes. Cytosolic RNA is recognized by RIG-I and MDA5, while intracellular DNA is sensed among others by cGAS, AIM2, IFI16 and RNA polymerase III. The diversity of nucleic acid species produced during infection in the cytosol and nucleus and the limited chemical differences between self and non-self nucleic acids challenge the host's innate pattern recognition system to ensure reliable sensing while avoiding immune activation by self nucleic acids...
October 14, 2016: Cytokine
Steven W Barger
Ask any neuroscientist to name the most profound discoveries in the field in the past 60 years, and at or near the top of the list will be a phenomenon or technique related to genes and their expression. Indeed, our understanding of genetics and gene regulation has ushered in whole new systems of knowledge and new empirical approaches, many of which could not have even been imagined prior to the molecular biology boon of recent decades. Neurochemistry, in the classic sense, intersects with these concepts in the manifestation of neuropeptides, obviously dependent upon the central dogma (the established rules by which DNA sequence is eventually converted into protein primary structure) not only for their conformation but also for their levels and locales of expression...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Maria Letizia Di Martino, Maurizio Falconi, Gioacchino Micheli, Bianca Colonna, Gianni Prosseda
Shigella is a highly adapted human pathogen, mainly found in the developing world and causing a severe enteric syndrome. The highly sophisticated infectious strategy of Shigella banks on the capacity to invade the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause its inflammatory destruction. The cellular pathogenesis and clinical presentation of shigellosis are the sum of the complex action of a large number of bacterial virulence factors mainly located on a large virulence plasmid (pINV). The expression of pINV genes is controlled by multiple environmental stimuli through a regulatory cascade involving proteins and sRNAs encoded by both the pINV and the chromosome...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
I-Min A Chen, Victor M Markowitz, Ken Chu, Krishna Palaniappan, Ernest Szeto, Manoj Pillay, Anna Ratner, Jinghua Huang, Evan Andersen, Marcel Huntemann, Neha Varghese, Michalis Hadjithomas, Kristin Tennessen, Torben Nielsen, Natalia N Ivanova, Nikos C Kyrpides
The Integrated Microbial Genomes with Microbiome Samples (IMG/M: system contains annotated DNA and RNA sequence data of (i) archaeal, bacterial, eukaryotic and viral genomes from cultured organisms, (ii) single cell genomes (SCG) and genomes from metagenomes (GFM) from uncultured archaea, bacteria and viruses and (iii) metagenomes from environmental, host associated and engineered microbiome samples. Sequence data are generated by DOE's Joint Genome Institute (JGI), submitted by individual scientists, or collected from public sequence data archives...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Peter J Christie
Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative and -positive bacteria employ type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to translocate DNA and protein substrates, generally by contact-dependent mechanisms, to other cells. The T4SSs functionally encompass two major subfamilies, the conjugation systems and the effector translocators. The conjugation systems are responsible for interbacterial transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence determinants, and genes encoding other traits of potential benefit to the bacterial host...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Ying Wang, Wen-Yuan Li, Zhi-Gang Li, Li-Xin Guan, Ling-Xiao Deng
Injury to the nervous system induces localized damage in neural structures and neuronal death through the primary insult, as well as delayed atrophy and impaired plasticity of the delicate dendritic fields necessary for interneuronal communication. Excitotoxicity and other secondary biochemical events contribute to morphological changes in neurons following injury. Evidence suggests that various transcription factors are involved in the dendritic response to injury and potential therapies. Transcription factors play critical roles in the intracellular regulation of neuronal morphological plasticity and dendritic growth and patterning...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
Jose Maria Carnerero, Aila Jimenez-Ruiz, Paula Margarita Castillo, Rafael Prado-Gotor
The interactions of DNA, whether long, hundred base pair chains or short-chained oligonucleotides, with ligands play a key role in the field of structural biology. Its biological activity not only depends on the thermodynamic properties of DNA-ligand complexes, but can and often is conditioned by the formation kinetics of those complexes. On the other hand, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have long been known to present excellent biocompatibility with biomolecules and are themselves remarkable for their structural, electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties, radically different from those of their counterpart bulk materials, and which make them an important asset in multiple applications...
October 10, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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