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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238174/human-polyomaviruses-the-battle-of-large-and-small-tumor-antigens
#1
REVIEW
Camila Freze Baez, Rafael Brandão Varella, Sonia Villani, Serena Delbue
About 40 years ago, the large and small tumor antigens (LT-Ag and sT-Ag) of the polyomavirus (PyVs) simian vacuolating virus 40 have been identified and characterized. To date, it is well known that all the discovered human PyVs (HPyVs) encode these 2 multifunctional and tumorigenic proteins, expressed at viral replication early stage. The 2 T-Ags are able to transform cells both in vitro and in vivo and seem to play a distinct role in the pathogenesis of some tumors in humans. In addition, they are involved in viral DNA replication, transcription, and virion assembly...
2017: Virology: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234500/moving-from-information-and-collaboration-to-action-report-from-the-3rd-international-dog-health-workshop-paris-in-april-2017
#2
Dan G O'Neill, Sylvia F A Keijser, Åke Hedhammar, Caroline Kisko, Gregoire Leroy, Aimée Llewellyn-Zaidi, Sofia Malm, Patricia N Olson, Rowena M A Packer, Jean Francois Rousselot, Ian J Seath, Jason W Stull, Brenda N Bonnett
Background: Breed-related health problems in dogs have received increased focus over the last decade. Responsibility for causing and/or solving these problems has been variously directed towards dog breeders and kennel clubs, the veterinary profession, welfare scientists, owners, regulators, insurance companies and the media. In reality, all these stakeholders are likely to share some responsibility and optimal progress on resolving these challenges requires all key stakeholders to work together...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232197/dna-based-construction-at-the-nanoscale-emerging-trends-and-applications
#3
Lourdu Xavier Paulraj, Arun Richard Chandrasekaran
The field of structural DNA nanotechnology has reached adolescence - starting with the creation of artificial immobile junctions leading to the recent DNA-protein hybrid nanoscale shapes - in a span of about 35 years. It is now possible to create complex DNA-based nanoscale shapes and assemblies with greater stability and predictability, thanks to the development of computational tools and advances in experimental techniques. Although started with the original goal of DNA-assisted structure determination of difficult-to-crystallize molecules, DNA nanotechnology has found its applications in a myriad of fields...
December 12, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231137/therapeutic-role-of-harmalol-targeting-nucleic-acids-biophysical-perspective-and-in-vitro-cytotoxicity
#4
Sarita Sarkar, Kakali Bhadra
BACKGROUND: Harmalol, a beta carboline alkaloid, shows remarkable importance in the contemporary biomedical research and drug discovery programs. With time, there is growing interest in search for anti-cancer drugs of plant origin with high efficacy, low toxicity and minimum side effects. Most of the chemotherapeutic agents due to their non-selective nature and dose limiting toxicity, use is often restricted, necessitating search for newer drugs having greater potentiality. OBJECTIVE: The review highlighted the interaction of harmalol with nucleic acids of different motifs as sole target biomolecules and in vitro cytotoxicity of the alkaloid in human cancer cell lines with special emphasis on its apoptotic induction ability...
December 11, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230873/non-coded-amino-acids-in-protein-engineering-structure-activity-relationship-studies-of-hirudin-thrombin-interaction
#5
Vincenzo De Filippis, Laura Acquasaliente, Giulia Pontarollo, Daniele Peterle
The advent of recombinant DNA technology allowed to site-specifically insert, delete or mutate almost any amino acid in a given protein, significantly improving our knowledge of protein structure, stability and function. Nevertheless, a quantitative description of the physical and chemical basis that makes a polypeptide chain to efficiently fold into a stable and functionally active conformation is still elusive. This mainly originates from the fact that nature combined, in a yet unknown manner, different properties (i...
December 12, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228337/triplex-forming-oligonucleotides-a-third-strand-for-dna-nanotechnology
#6
Arun Richard Chandrasekaran, David A Rusling
DNA self-assembly has proved to be a useful bottom-up strategy for the construction of user-defined nanoscale objects, lattices and devices. The design of these structures has largely relied on exploiting simple base pairing rules and the formation of double-helical domains as secondary structural elements. However, other helical forms involving specific non-canonical base-base interactions have introduced a novel paradigm into the process of engineering with DNA. The most notable of these is a three-stranded complex generated by the binding of a third strand within the duplex major groove, generating a triple-helical ('triplex') structure...
December 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227354/current-views-on-the-pathogenesis-of-sjgren-s-syndrome
#7
Elena Pontarini, Davide Lucchesi, Michele Bombardieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjgren's Syndrome (pSS), highlighting recent findings with potential therapeutic repercussions. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 2 years, epigenetic analyses provided new insights into pSS pathogenesis. Characterization of DNA methylation patterns, chromatin structures and microRNA confirmed the importance of aberrant interferon and B-cell responses in the development of the disease...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226983/combing-chromosomal-dna-mediated-by-the-smc-complex-structure-and-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Katsuhiko Kamada, Daniela Barillà
Genome maintenance requires various nucleoid-associated factors in prokaryotes. Among them, the SMC (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes) protein has been thought to play a static role in the organization and segregation of the chromosome during cell division. However, recent studies have shown that the bacterial SMC is required to align left and right arms of the emerging chromosome and that the protein dynamically travels from origin to Ter region. A rod form of the SMC complex mediates DNA bridging and has been recognized as a machinery responsible for DNA loop extrusion, like eukaryotic condensin or cohesin complexes, which act as chromosome organizers...
December 11, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216742/redox-sensing-iron-sulfur-cluster-regulators
#9
Jason C Crack, Nick E Le Brun
SIGNIFICANCE: Iron-sulfur cluster proteins carry out a wide range of functions, including as regulators of gene transcription/translation in response to environmental stimuli. In all known cases, the cluster acts as the sensory module, where the inherent reactivity/fragility of iron-sulfur clusters towards small/redox active molecules is exploited to effect conformational changes that modulate binding to DNA regulatory sequences. This promotes an often substantial re-programming of the cellular proteome that enables the organism or cell to adapt to, or counteract, its changing circumstances...
December 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216365/tyrosyl-dna-phosphodiesterases-rescuing-the-genome-from-the-risks-of-relaxation
#10
Ajinkya S Kawale, Lawrence F Povirk
Tyrosyl-DNA Phosphodiesterases 1 (TDP1) and 2 (TDP2) are eukaryotic enzymes that clean-up after aberrant topoisomerase activity. While TDP1 hydrolyzes phosphotyrosyl peptides emanating from trapped topoisomerase I (Top I) from the 3' DNA ends, topoisomerase 2 (Top II)-induced 5'-phosphotyrosyl residues are processed by TDP2. Even though the canonical functions of TDP1 and TDP2 are complementary, they exhibit little structural or sequence similarity. Homozygous mutations in genes encoding these enzymes lead to the development of severe neurodegenerative conditions due to the accumulation of transcription-dependent topoisomerase cleavage complexes underscoring the biological significance of these enzymes in the repair of topoisomerase-DNA lesions in the nervous system...
December 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215640/catching-dna-with-hoops-biophysical-approaches-to-clarify-the-mechanism-of-smc-proteins
#11
REVIEW
Jorine Eeftens, Cees Dekker
Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are central regulators of chromosome architecture that are essential in all domains of life. For decades, the structural biology field has been debating how these conserved protein complexes use their intricate ring-like structures to structurally organize DNA. Here, we review the contributions of single-molecule biophysical approaches to resolving the molecular mechanism of SMC protein function.
December 7, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206193/every-ogt-is-illuminated-%C3%A2-by-fluorescent-and-synchrotron-lights
#12
REVIEW
Riccardo Miggiano, Anna Valenti, Franca Rossi, Menico Rizzi, Giuseppe Perugino, Maria Ciaramella
O⁶-DNA-alkyl-guanine-DNA-alkyl-transferases (OGTs) are evolutionarily conserved, unique proteins that repair alkylation lesions in DNA in a single step reaction. Alkylating agents are environmental pollutants as well as by-products of cellular reactions, but are also very effective chemotherapeutic drugs. OGTs are major players in counteracting the effects of such agents, thus their action in turn affects genome integrity, survival of organisms under challenging conditions and response to chemotherapy. Numerous studies on OGTs from eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea have been reported, highlighting amazing features that make OGTs unique proteins in their reaction mechanism as well as post-reaction fate...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206178/around-and-beyond-53bp1-nuclear-bodies
#13
REVIEW
Anne Fernandez-Vidal, Julien Vignard, Gladys Mirey
Within the nucleus, sub-nuclear domains define territories where specific functions occur. Nuclear bodies (NBs) are dynamic structures that concentrate nuclear factors and that can be observed microscopically. Recently, NBs containing the p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), a key component of the DNA damage response, were defined. Interestingly, 53BP1 NBs are visualized during G1 phase, in daughter cells, while DNA damage was generated in mother cells and not properly processed. Unlike most NBs involved in transcriptional processes, replication has proven to be key for 53BP1 NBs, with replication stress leading to the formation of these large chromatin domains in daughter cells...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204810/high-risk-palliative-care-patients-knowledge-and-attitudes-about-hereditary-cancer-testing-and-dna-banking
#14
John M Quillin, Oluwabunmi Emidio, Brittany Ma, Lauryn Bailey, Thomas J Smith, In Guk Kang, Brandon J Yu, Oluwafemi Patrick Owodunni, Mohammed Abusamaan, Rab Razzak, Joann N Bodurtha
Even at the end of life, testing cancer patients for inherited susceptibility may provide life-saving information to their relatives. Prior research suggests palliative care inpatients have suboptimal understanding of genetic importance, and testing may be underutilized in this clinical setting. These conclusions are based on limited research. This study aimed to estimate genetic testing prevalence among high-risk palliative care patients in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198584/aptamers-targeting-cell-surface-proteins
#15
REVIEW
Masaki Takahashi
High affinity binders targeting specific cell surface proteins are vital for developing basic and applied biosciences. However, despite sustained efforts to generate such binders by chemicals and antibodies, there are still many cell surface proteins that lack high affinity binders. Nucleic acids, referred to as aptamers, appear to be potential binders to capture cell surface proteins because single-strand DNA/RNA can form distinct structures of high affinity and specificity to a wide range of targets. Aptamers are isolated from large combinatorial libraries using a unique iterative selection-amplification process known as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX)...
November 30, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198386/x-linked-glomerulopathy-due-to-col4a5-founder%C3%A2-variant
#16
Moumita Barua, Rohan John, Lorenzo Stella, Weili Li, Nicole M Roslin, Bedra Sharif, Saidah Hack, Ginette Lajoie-Starkell, Andrew L Schwaderer, Brian Becknell, Matthias Wuttke, Anna Köttgen, Daniel Cattran, Andrew D Paterson, York Pei
Alport syndrome is a rare hereditary disorder caused by rare variants in 1 of 3 genes encoding for type IV collagen. Rare variants in COL4A5 on chromosome Xq22 cause X-linked Alport syndrome, which accounts for ∼80% of the cases. Alport syndrome has a variable clinical presentation, including progressive kidney failure, hearing loss, and ocular defects. Exome sequencing performed in 2 affected related males with an undefined X-linked glomerulopathy characterized by global and segmental glomerulosclerosis, mesangial hypercellularity, and vague basement membrane immune complex deposition revealed a COL4A5 sequence variant, a substitution of a thymine by a guanine at nucleotide 665 (c...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196610/single-molecule-live-cell-imaging-of-bacterial-dna-repair-and-damage-tolerance
#17
REVIEW
Harshad Ghodke, Han Ho, Antoine M van Oijen
Genomic DNA is constantly under threat from intracellular and environmental factors that damage its chemical structure. Uncorrected DNA damage may impede cellular propagation or even result in cell death, making it critical to restore genomic integrity. Decades of research have revealed a wide range of mechanisms through which repair factors recognize damage and co-ordinate repair processes. In recent years, single-molecule live-cell imaging methods have further enriched our understanding of how repair factors operate in the crowded intracellular environment...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194812/versatile-cell-surface-structures-of-archaea
#18
REVIEW
Paushali Chaudhury, Tessa Quax, Sonja-Verena Albers
Archaea are ubiquitously present in nature and colonize environments with broadly varying growth conditions. Several surface appendages support their colonization of new habitats. A hallmark of archaea seems to be the high abundance of type IV pili (T4P). However, some unique non T4 filaments are present in a number of archaeal species. Archaeal surface structures can mediate different processes such as cellular surface adhesion, DNA exchange, motility, biofilm formation and represent an initial attachment site for infecting viruses...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178820/nucleases-acting-at-stalled-forks-how-to-reboot-the-replication-program-with-a-few-shortcuts
#19
Philippe Pasero, Alessandro Vindigni
In a lifetime, a human being synthesizes approximately 2×1016 meters of DNA, a distance that corresponds to 130,000 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. This daunting task is executed by thousands of replication forks, which progress along the chromosomes and frequently stall when they encounter DNA lesions, unusual DNA structures, RNA polymerases, or tightly-bound protein complexes. To complete DNA synthesis before the onset of mitosis, eukaryotic cells have evolved complex mechanisms to process and restart arrested forks through the coordinated action of multiple nucleases, topoisomerases, and helicases...
November 27, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178071/the-role-of-dna-repair-in-maintaining-mitochondrial-dna-stability
#20
Linlin Zhang, Aurelio Reyes, Xiangdong Wang
Mitochondria are vital double-membrane organelles that act as a "powerhouse" inside the cell and have essential roles to maintain cellular functions, e.g., ATP production, iron-sulfur synthesis metabolism, and steroid synthesis. An important difference with other organelles is that they contain their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Such powerful organelles are also sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous factors that can cause lesions to their structural components and their mtDNA, resulting in gene mutations and eventually leading to diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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