keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

DNA structure review

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719387/pediatric-mitochondrial-diseases-and-the-heart
#1
Gregory M Enns
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mitochondrial disorders are an increasingly recognized cause of heart dysfunction, with the primary manifestations being cardiomyopathy and conduction defects. This review focuses on the complex genetics of mitochondrial disease and recently discovered conditions that affect mitochondrial function. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing techniques, especially whole-exome sequencing, have led to the discovery of a number of conditions that cause mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent cardiac abnormalities...
July 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718529/dna-fragmentation-in-spermatozoa-a-historical-review
#2
REVIEW
A S Rex, J Aagaard, J Fedder
Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated. In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA)...
July 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718433/mitotic-dna-damage-response-at-the-crossroads-of-structural-and-numerical-cancer-chromosome-instabilities
#3
REVIEW
Samuel F Bakhoum, Lilian Kabeche, Duane A Compton, Simon N Powell, Holger Bastians
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) prevent cells from entering mitosis allowing cells to repair their genomic damage. Little is known about the response to DSBs once cells have already committed to mitosis. Here, we review the genome-protective role of the mitotic DNA damage response (DDR) and evidence suggesting that its untimely activation induces chromosome segregation errors and paradoxically undermines genomic integrity. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells coopt this pathway to propagate structural and numerical chromosomal instabilities...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717046/from-structure-to-mechanism-understanding-initiation-of-dna-replication
#4
REVIEW
Alberto Riera, Marta Barbon, Yasunori Noguchi, L Maximilian Reuter, Sarah Schneider, Christian Speck
DNA replication results in the doubling of the genome prior to cell division. This process requires the assembly of 50 or more protein factors into a replication fork. Here, we review recent structural and biochemical insights that start to explain how specific proteins recognize DNA replication origins, load the replicative helicase on DNA, unwind DNA, synthesize new DNA strands, and reassemble chromatin. We focus on the minichromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) proteins, which form the core of the eukaryotic replication fork, as this complex undergoes major structural rearrangements in order to engage with DNA, regulate its DNA-unwinding activity, and maintain genome stability...
June 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712849/structure-function-and-mechanism-of-proline-utilization-a-puta
#5
REVIEW
Li-Kai Liu, Donald F Becker, John J Tanner
Proline has important roles in multiple biological processes such as cellular bioenergetics, cell growth, oxidative and osmotic stress response, protein folding and stability, and redox signaling. The proline catabolic pathway, which forms glutamate, enables organisms to utilize proline as a carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. FAD-dependent proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and NAD(+)-dependent glutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) convert proline to glutamate in two sequential oxidative steps. Depletion of PRODH and GSALDH in humans leads to hyperprolinemia, which is associated with mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705612/cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics-mir-mediated-regulation-during-cardiac-injury
#6
Anusha Sivakumar, Ramasamy Subbiah, Rekha Balakrishnan, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Mitochondrial integrity is indispensable for cardiac health. With the advent of modern imaging technologies, mitochondrial motility and dynamics within the cell are extensively studied. Terminally differentiated and well-structured cardiomyocytes depict little mitochondrial division and fusion, questioning the contribution of mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mitofusin 1/2 and Optic Atrophy 1 protein) and fission factors (Dynamin-like protein 1 and mitochondrial fission 1 protein) in cardiomyocyte homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701416/eukaryotic-transcription-factors-paradigms-of-protein-intrinsic-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Lasse Staby, Charlotte O'Shea, Martin Willemoës, Frederik Theisen, Birthe B Kragelund, Karen Skriver
Gene-specific transcription factors (TFs) are key regulatory components of signaling pathways, controlling, for example, cell growth, development, and stress responses. Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains targeting specific cis-acting elements in genes, and by the significant lack of fixed tertiary structure in their extensive intrinsically disordered regions. Recent research in protein intrinsic disorder (ID) has changed our understanding of transcriptional activation domains from 'negative noodles' to ID regions with function-related, short sequence motifs and molecular recognition features with structural propensities...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701329/multisubunit-dna-dependent-rna-polymerases-from-vaccinia-virus-and-other-nucleocytoplasmic-large-dna-viruses-impressions-from-the-age-of-structure
#8
REVIEW
Yeva Mirzakhanyan, Paul D Gershon
The past 17 years have been marked by a revolution in our understanding of cellular multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (MSDDRPs) at the structural level. A parallel development over the past 15 years has been the emerging story of the giant viruses, which encode MSDDRPs. Here we link the two in an attempt to understand the specialization of multisubunit RNA polymerases in the domain of life encompassing the large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses (NCLDV), a superclade that includes the giant viruses and the biochemically well-characterized poxvirus vaccinia virus...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699519/the-tat-p-tefb-protein-protein-interaction-determining-transcriptional-activation-of-hiv
#9
Kaori Asamitsu, Takashi Okamoto
Human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV) transcription is crucial for its life cycle and is primarily involved in the maintenance of viral latency. HIV transcription is regulated by both viral and cellular transcription factors. Numerous epigenetic factors, as well as transcriptional suppressor proteins, play major roles in the maintenance of transcriptional silencing of viral gene expression from the proviral DNA. Once inducible transcription factors such as nuclear factor B are activated through extracellular signaling, viral latency is terminated and transcription from the silenced proviral DNA is initiated...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698521/chromatin-dynamics-in-genome-stability-roles-in-suppressing-endogenous-dna-damage-and-facilitating-dna-repair
#10
REVIEW
Nidhi Nair, Muhammad Shoaib, Claus Storgaard Sørensen
Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote access of relevant enzymes to specific DNA regions for signaling and repair. Furthermore, recent data highlight genome maintenance roles of chromatin through the regulation of endogenous DNA-templated processes including transcription and replication...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696245/the-histone-codes-for-meiosis
#11
REVIEW
Lina Wang, Zhiliang Xu, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Chao Liu, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specialized process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells by a single round of DNA replication followed by two successive cell divisions. It contains many special events, such as programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, homologous recombination, crossover formation and resolution. These events are associated with dynamically regulated chromosomal structures, the dynamic transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling are mainly modulated by histone modifications, termed 'histone codes'...
September 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695818/progress-in-molecular-genetic-study-of-mitochondrial-cardiomyopathy
#12
Ruiqi Zhuge, Rong Zhou, Xinhai Ni
Mitochondria plays a key role in providing ATP for the energy-consuming cardiac tissues. Mitochondrial cardiomyopathy is a myocardial condition characterized by abnormal heart structure and/or function secondary to genetic defects involving the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The typical cardiac manifestations of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy include hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy,while left ventricular myocardial noncompaction is less common. Recent research has suggested that most mitochondrial diseases result from mitochondrial DNA mutation,which can be found in genes that encode ancillary proteins needed for genetic transcription (tRNA),in genes that encode subunits of the electron transport chain complexes,or in genes that control the activities of the mitochondria called D-loop zone...
June 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690840/making-the-clock-tick-the-transcriptional-landscape-of-the-plant-circadian-clock
#13
REVIEW
James Ronald, Seth J Davis
Circadian clocks are molecular timekeepers that synchronise internal physiological processes with the external environment by integrating light and temperature stimuli. As in other eukaryotic organisms, circadian rhythms in plants are largely generated by an array of nuclear transcriptional regulators and associated co-regulators that are arranged into a series of interconnected molecular loops. These transcriptional regulators recruit chromatin-modifying enzymes that adjust the structure of the nucleosome to promote or inhibit DNA accessibility and thus guide transcription rates...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689380/-conformations-of-multi-domain-and-partially-disordered-proteins-simulations-and-experiments
#14
Bartosz Różycki
Structural biology unravels three-dimensional structures of macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, and their complexes in the attempt to explain the basic mechanisms of their functions. Among the proteins that are most difficult to characterize structurally are those which have several large domains connected by long, unstructured polypeptide segments. Such proteins perform diverse functions in living organisms and, at the same time, they are very difficult to characterize using conventional methods of structural biology...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686566/guidelines-to-statistical-analysis-of-microbial-composition-data-inferred-from-metagenomic-sequencing
#15
Vera Odintsova, Alexander Tyakht, Dmitry Alexeev
Metagenomics, the application of high-throughput DNA sequencing for surveys of environmental samples, has revolutionized our view on the taxonomic and genetic composition of complex microbial communities. An enormous richness of microbiota keeps unfolding in the context of various fields ranging from biomedicine and food industry to geology. Primary analysis of metagenomic reads allows to infer semi-quantitative data describing the community structure. However, such compositional data possess statistical specific properties that are important to be considered during preprocessing, hypothesis testing and interpreting the results of statistical tests...
July 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685689/arylurea-derivatives-a-class-of-potential-cancer-targeting-agents
#16
Jia-Nian Chen, De-Wen Wu, Ting Li, Kang-Jian Yang, Li Cheng, Zu-Ping Zhou, Shi-Ming Pu, Wan-Hua Lin
Arylurea derivatives, an important class of small molecules, have received considerable attention in recent years due to their wide range of biological applications. Various molecular targeted agents with arylurea scaffold as potential enzyme/receptor inhibitors were constructed with the successful development of sorafenib and regorafenib. This review focuses on those arylureas possessing anti-cancer activities from 2010 to date. According to their different mechanisms of action, these arylureas are divided into the following six categories: (1) Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway inhibitors; (2) tumor angiogenesis inhibitors, their targets include vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), c-Kit, MET, and Smoothened (Smo); (3) PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway inhibitors; (4) cell cycle inhibitors, their targets include checkpoint kinases (Chks), cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), Aurora, SUMO activating enzyme 1 (SUMO E1), tubulin, and DNA; (5) tumor differentiation, migration, and invasion inhibitors, their targets include matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), LIM kinase (Limk), nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), and histone deacetylase (HDAC); (6) arylureas from the rational modification of natural products...
July 7, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681859/building-membrane-nanopores
#17
REVIEW
Stefan Howorka
Membrane nanopores-hollow nanoscale barrels that puncture biological or synthetic membranes-have become powerful tools in chemical- and biosensing, and have achieved notable success in portable DNA sequencing. The pores can be self-assembled from a variety of materials, including proteins, peptides, synthetic organic compounds and, more recently, DNA. But which building material is best for which application, and what is the relationship between pore structure and function? In this Review, I critically compare the characteristics of the different building materials, and explore the influence of the building material on pore structure, dynamics and function...
July 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681201/gene-editing-tools-state-of-the-art-and-the-road-ahead-for-the-model-and-non-model-fishes
#18
REVIEW
Hirak Kumar Barman, Kiran Dashrath Rasal, Vemulawada Chakrapani, A S Ninawe, Doyil T Vengayil, Syed Asrafuzzaman, Jitendra K Sundaray, Pallipuram Jayasankar
Advancements in the DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have revolutionized genome/transcriptome sequencing of non-model fishes at an affordable cost. This has led to a paradigm shift with regard to our heightened understandings of structure-functional relationships of genes at a global level, from model animals/fishes to non-model large animals/fishes. Whole genome/transcriptome sequencing technologies were supplemented with the series of discoveries in gene editing tools, which are being used to modify genes at pre-determined positions using programmable nucleases to explore their respective in vivo functions...
July 5, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681113/structure-and-mechanisms-of-viral-transcription-factors-in-archaea
#19
REVIEW
Carol Sheppard, Finn Werner
Virus-encoded transcription factors have been pivotal in exploring the molecular mechanisms and regulation of gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes since the birth of molecular biology, while our understanding of viral transcription in archaea is still in its infancy. Archaeal viruses do not encode their own RNA polymerases (RNAPs) and are consequently entirely dependent on their hosts for gene expression; this is fundamentally different from many bacteriophages and requires alternative regulatory strategies...
July 5, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680532/mitochondrial-nucleoid-shield-and-switch-of-the-mitochondrial-genome
#20
REVIEW
Sung Ryul Lee, Jin Han
Mitochondria preserve very complex and distinctively unique machinery to maintain and express the content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Similar to chromosomes, mtDNA is packaged into discrete mtDNA-protein complexes referred to as a nucleoid. In addition to its role as a mtDNA shield, over 50 nucleoid-associated proteins play roles in mtDNA maintenance and gene expression through either temporary or permanent association with mtDNA or other nucleoid-associated proteins. The number of mtDNA(s) contained within a single nucleoid is a fundamental question but remains a somewhat controversial issue...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
keyword
keyword
117449
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"