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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820390/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-dna-pk-for-tumor-sensitization-to-anticancer-therapy
#1
M Pospisilova, M Seifrtova, M Rezacova
The most sensitive cell structure - a DNA molecule, is the common target of cancer therapy. DNA damage response (controlled by enzymes from the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases family - PIKK) presents many encouraging targets for improving both conventional cytotoxic anticancer therapy and individualized monotherapy. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a member of the PIKK superfamily and plays an important role in the detection and repair of DNA double-strand breaks via the non-homologous end-joining pathway...
June 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816066/stressing-the-epi-genome-dealing-with-ros-in-cancer
#2
Akshay V Bhat, Shainan Hora, Ananya Pal, Sudhakar Jha, Reshma Taneja
SIGNIFICANCE: Growing evidence indicates cross-talk between Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and several key epigenetic processes like DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in normal physiology and human pathologies including cancer. This review focuses on how ROS-induced oxidative stress, metabolic intermediates and epigenetic processes influence each other in various cancers. Recent Advances: ROS alters chromatin structure and metabolism which impact the epigenetic landscape in cancer cells...
August 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808044/germline-mutation-contribution-to-chromosomal-instability
#3
REVIEW
Sock Hoai Chan, Joanne Ngeow
Genomic instability is a feature of cancer that fuels oncogenesis through increased frequency of genetic disruption, leading to loss of genomic integrity and promoting clonal evolution as well as tumor transformation. A form of genomic instability prevalent across cancer types is chromosomal instability, which involves karyotypic changes including chromosome copy number alterations as well as gross structural abnormalities such as transversions and translocations. Defects in cellular mechanisms that are in place to govern fidelity of chromosomal segregation, DNA repair and ultimately genomic integrity are known to contribute to chromosomal instability...
September 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801479/the-role-of-interactions-of-long-non-coding-rnas-and-heterogeneous-nuclear-ribonucleoproteins-in-regulating-cellular-functions
#4
REVIEW
Xinghui Sun, Mohamed Sham Shihabudeen Haider Ali, Matthew Moran
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as critical regulators of various biological processes and human diseases. The mechanisms of action involve their interactions with proteins, RNA and genomic DNA. Most lncRNAs display strong nuclear localization. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of RNA-binding proteins that are important for multiple aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. hnRNPs are also predominantly expressed in the nucleus. This review discusses the interactions of lncRNAs and hnRNPs in regulating gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels or by changing genomic structure, highlighting their involvements in glucose and lipid metabolism, immune response, DNA damage response, and other cellular functions...
August 11, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800257/the-inherent-asymmetry-of-dna-replication
#5
Jonathan Snedeker, Matthew Wooten, Xin Chen
Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this elegant mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis...
August 11, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799793/towards-quantitative-analysis-of-gene-regulation-by-enhancers
#6
Ekaterina V Nizovtseva, Stefjord Todolli, Wilma K Olson, Vasily M Studitsky
Enhancers are regulatory DNA sequences that can activate transcription over large distances. Recent studies have revealed the widespread role of distant activation in eukaryotic gene regulation and in the development of various human diseases, including cancer. Here we review recent progress in the field, focusing on new experimental and computational approaches that quantify the role of chromatin structure and dynamics during enhancer-promoter interactions in vitro and in vivo.
August 11, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799013/phospho-mimicking-atf1-mutants-bypass-the-transcription-activating-function-of-the-map-kinase-sty1-of-fission-yeast
#7
REVIEW
Laura Sánchez-Mir, Clàudia Salat-Canela, Esther Paulo, Mercè Carmona, José Ayté, Baldo Oliva, Elena Hidalgo
Stress-dependent activation of signaling cascades is often mediated by phosphorylation events, but the exact nature and role of these phosphorelays are frequently poorly understood. Here, we review which are the consequences of the stress-dependent phosphorylation of a transcription factor on gene activation. In fission yeast, the MAP kinase Sty1 is activated upon several environmental hazards and promotes cell adaptation and survival, greatly through activation of a gene program mediated by the transcription factor Atf1...
August 10, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#8
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794225/the-divided-bacterial-genome-structure-function-and-evolution
#9
REVIEW
George C diCenzo, Turlough M Finan
Approximately 10% of bacterial genomes are split between two or more large DNA fragments, a genome architecture referred to as a multipartite genome. This multipartite organization is found in many important organisms, including plant symbionts, such as the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, and plant, animal, and human pathogens, including the genera Brucella, Vibrio, and Burkholderia. The availability of many complete bacterial genome sequences means that we can now examine on a broad scale the characteristics of the different types of DNA molecules in a genome...
September 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792224/supramolecular-protein-assemblies-based-on-dna-templates
#10
Chunxi Hou, Shuwen Guan, Ruidi Wang, Wei Zhang, Fanchao Meng, Linlu Zhao, Jiayun Xu, Junqiu Liu
DNA plays an important role in the process of protein assembly. DNA viruses such as M13 virus are typical examples in which single DNA genome behaves as template to induce multiple major coat protein (PⅧ) monomers assembling. Thus, design of protein assemblies based on DNA templatesattracts much interest in construction of supramolecular structructures and materials. With the development of DNA nanotechnology, precise 1D and 3D protein nanostructures have been designed and constructed by using DNA templates through DNA-protein interactions, protein-ligand interactions and protein-adapter interactions...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791585/transcription-factors-potential-cell-death-markers-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Ronglin Wang, Shaosong Yang, Tiejian Nie, Gang Zhu, Dayun Feng, Qian Yang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a long preclinical phase. The continuous loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is one of the pathogenic hallmarks of PD. Diagnosis largely depends on clinical observation, but motor dysfunctions do not emerge until 70%-80% of the nigrostriatal nerve terminals have been destroyed. Therefore, a biomarker that indicates the degeneration of DA neurons is urgently needed. Transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate RNA synthesis from a DNA template...
August 8, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789584/monoclonal-antibodies-technologies-for-early-discovery-and-engineering
#12
Patrick J Kennedy, Carla Oliveira, Pedro L Granja, Bruno Sarmento
Antibodies are essential in modern life sciences biotechnology. Their architecture and diversity allow for high specificity and affinity to a wide array of biochemicals. Combining monoclonal antibody (mAb) technology with recombinant DNA and protein expression links antibody genotype with phenotype. Yet, the ability to select and screen for high affinity binders from recombinantly-displayed, combinatorial libraries unleashes the true power of mAbs and a flood of clinical applications. The identification of novel antibodies can be accomplished by a myriad of in vitro display technologies from the proven (e...
August 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783137/acetylation-and-methylation-related-epigenetic-proteins-in-the-context-of-their-targets
#13
REVIEW
Nasir Javaid, Sangdun Choi
The nucleosome surface is covered with multiple modifications that are perpetuated by eight different classes of enzymes. These enzymes modify specific target sites both on DNA and histone proteins, and these modifications have been well identified and termed "epigenetics". These modifications play critical roles, either by affecting non-histone protein recruitment to chromatin or by disturbing chromatin contacts. Their presence dictates the condensed packaging of DNA and can coordinate the orderly recruitment of various enzyme complexes for DNA manipulation...
August 7, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781144/regulation-of-repair-pathway-choice-at-two-ended-dna-double-strand-breaks
#14
REVIEW
Atsushi Shibata
A DNA double-strand break (DSB) is considered to be a critical DNA lesion because its misrepair can cause severe mutations, such as deletions or chromosomal translocations. For the precise repair of DSBs, the repair pathway that is optimal for the particular circumstance needs to be selected. Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) functions in G1/S/G2 phase, while homologous recombination (HR) becomes active only in S/G2 phase after DNA replication. DSB end structure is another factor affecting the repair pathway...
July 29, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777930/from-peas-to-disease-modifier-genes-network-resilience-and-the-genetics-of-health
#15
REVIEW
Jesse D Riordan, Joseph H Nadeau
Phenotypes are rarely consistent across genetic backgrounds and environments, but instead vary in many ways depending on allelic variants, unlinked genes, epigenetic factors, and environmental exposures. In the extreme, individuals carrying the same causal DNA sequence variant but on different backgrounds can be classified as having distinct conditions. Similarly, some individuals that carry disease alleles are nevertheless healthy despite affected family members in the same environment. These genetic background effects often result from the action of so-called "modifier genes" that modulate the phenotypic manifestation of target genes in an epistatic manner...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774407/the-virological-aspects-of-hepatitis-b
#16
REVIEW
Zina S Valaydon, Stephen A Locarnini
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that is responsible for a significant burden of disease, causing liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a small DNA virus with a replication strategy that is similar to that of a retrovirus. HBV is prone to mutagenesis and under the influence of diverse selection pressures, has evolved into a pool of quasispecies, genotypes and mutants, which confers a significant survival advantage. The genome is small, circular, and compact but has a complex replication strategy...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771827/glucocorticoids-the-mode-of-action-in-bullous-pemphigoid
#17
REVIEW
Minna E Kubin, Lars Hellberg, Riitta Palatsi
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common of pemphigoid diseases caused by autoantibodies against the structures of dermoepidermal junction followed by complement activation, innate immune cell infiltration, neutrophil proteinase secretion and subepidermal blister formation. The first line treatment of BP is topical and systemic glucocorticoids (GC). Regulation of the immune system and inflammatory cells is the main target of GC actions. GCs act through genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates most of the biologic effects of glucocorticoids: cytosolic GR binds GCs and is capable to bind to glucocorticoid response elements in DNA and either transactivate or transrepress genes depending on the tissue and cell-type...
August 3, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770671/marine-algae-as-attractive-source-to-skin-care
#18
Jean-Yves Berthon, Rachida Nachat-Kappes, Mathieu Bey, Jean-Paul Cadoret, Isabelle Renimel, Edith Filaire
As the largest organ in the human body, the skin has multiple functions of which one of the most important is the protection against various harmful stressors. The keratinised stratified epidermis and an underlying thick layer of collagen-rich dermal connective tissues are important components of the skin. The environmental stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and pollution increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to clinical manifestations such as wrinkle formation and skin aging...
June 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770209/aaa-machines-of-protein-destruction-in-mycobacteria
#19
REVIEW
Adnan Ali H Alhuwaider, David A Dougan
The bacterial cytosol is a complex mixture of macromolecules (proteins, DNA, and RNA), which collectively are responsible for an enormous array of cellular tasks. Proteins are central to most, if not all, of these tasks and as such their maintenance (commonly referred to as protein homeostasis or proteostasis) is vital for cell survival during normal and stressful conditions. The two key aspects of protein homeostasis are, (i) the correct folding and assembly of proteins (coupled with their delivery to the correct cellular location) and (ii) the timely removal of unwanted or damaged proteins from the cell, which are performed by molecular chaperones and proteases, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764736/quadriacanthus-species-monogenea-dactylogyridae-from-catfishes-teleostei-siluriformes-in-eastern-africa-new-species-new-records-and-first-insights-into-interspecific-genetic-relationships
#20
Kateřina Francová, Mária Seifertová, Radim Blažek, Milan Gelnar, Zuheir N Mahmoud, Eva Řehulková
BACKGROUND: African catfishes of the families Bagridae and Clariidae are known to be parasitized with monogeneans of Quadriacanthus Paperna, 1961 (Dactylogyridae). The genus remains taxonomically challenging due to its speciose nature and relatively wide host range representing two fish orders, i.e. Siluriformes and Osteoglossiformes, in Africa and Asia. Here, we investigated diversity of Quadriacanthus spp. parasitizing Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), Heterobranchus bidorsalis Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Bagrus docmak (Forsskål) collected in the Lake Turkana (Kenya) and Nile River Basin (Sudan)...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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