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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335455/viral-protein-kinetics-of-piscine-orthoreovirus-infection-in-atlantic-salmon-blood-cells
#1
Hanne Merethe Haatveit, Øystein Wessel, Turhan Markussen, Morten Lund, Bernd Thiede, Ingvild Berg Nyman, Stine Braaen, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is ubiquitous in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and the cause of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. Erythrocytes are important target cells for PRV. We have investigated the kinetics of PRV infection in salmon blood cells. The findings indicate that PRV causes an acute infection of blood cells lasting 1-2 weeks, before it subsides into persistence. A high production of viral proteins occurred initially in the acute phase which significantly correlated with antiviral gene transcription...
March 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335027/a-transposon-derived-small-rna-regulates-gene-expression-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#2
Michael J Ellis, Ryan S Trussler, Onella Charles, David B Haniford
Bacterial sRNAs play an important role in regulating many cellular processes including metabolism, outer membrane homeostasis and virulence. Although sRNAs were initially found in intergenic regions, there is emerging evidence that protein coding regions of the genome are a rich reservoir of sRNAs. Here we report that the 5΄UTR of IS200 transposase mRNA (tnpA) is processed to produce regulatory RNAs that affect expression of over 70 genes in Salmonella Typhimurium. We provide evidence that the tnpA derived sRNA base-pairs with invF mRNA to repress expression...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334969/a-single-mir390-targeting-event-is-sufficient-for-triggering-tas3-tasirna-biogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#3
Felipe Fenselau de Felippes, Antonin Marchais, Alexis Sarazin, Stefan Oberlin, Olivier Voinnet
In plants, tasiRNAs form a class of endogenous secondary siRNAs produced through the action of RNA-DEPENDENT-RNA-POLYMERASE-6 (RDR6) upon microRNA-mediated cleavage of non-coding TAS RNAs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, TAS1, TAS2 and TAS4 tasiRNA production proceeds via a single cleavage event mediated by 22nt-long or/and asymmetric miRNAs in an ARGONAUTE-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. By contrast, tasiRNA production from TAS3 seems to follow the so-called 'two-hit' process, where dual targeting of TAS3, specifically mediated by the 21nt-long, symmetric miR390, initiates AGO7-dependent tasiRNA production...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334833/chip-seq-analysis-of-the-luxr-type-regulator-vjbr-reveals-novel-insights-into-the-brucella-virulence-gene-expression-network
#4
Claudia L Kleinman, Gabriela Sycz, Hernán R Bonomi, Romina M Rodríguez, Angeles Zorreguieta, Rodrigo Sieira
LuxR-type transcription factors control diverse physiological functions necessary for bacterial adaptation to environmental changes. In the intracellular pathogen Brucella, the LuxR homolog VjbR has been shown to regulate the expression of virulence factors acting at early stages of the intracellular infection and, directly or indirectly, hundreds of additional genes. However, the precise determination of VjbR direct targets has so far proved elusive. Here, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of VjbR followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq)...
March 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334758/n1-methyl-pseudouridine-in-mrna-enhances-translation-through-eif2%C3%AE-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms-by-increasing-ribosome-density
#5
Yuri V Svitkin, Yi Min Cheng, Tirtha Chakraborty, Vladimir Presnyak, Matthias John, Nahum Sonenberg
Certain chemical modifications confer increased stability and low immunogenicity to in vitro transcribed mRNAs, thereby facilitating expression of therapeutically important proteins. Here, we demonstrate that N1-methyl-pseudouridine (N1mΨ) outperforms several other nucleoside modifications and their combinations in terms of translation capacity. Through extensive analysis of various modified transcripts in cell-free translation systems, we deconvolute the different components of the effect on protein expression independent of mRNA stability mechanisms...
February 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334682/phytochemical-induced-nucleolar-stress-results-in-the-inhibition-of-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#6
Anna Lewinska, Diana Bednarz, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Maciej Wnuk
The nucleolus is a stress sensor and compromised nucleolar activity may be considered as an attractive anticancer strategy. In the present study, the effects of three plant-derived natural compounds, i.e., sulforaphane (SFN), ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on nucleolar state were investigated in breast cancer cell lines of different receptor status, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells. Cytostatic action of phytochemicals against breast cancer cells was observed at low micromolar concentration window (5-20µM) and mediated by elevated p21 levels, and cell proliferation of SFN-, UA- and BA-treated normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) was unaffected...
March 14, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334506/molecular-features-of-the-yap-inhibitor-verteporfin-synthesis-of-hexasubstituted-dipyrrins-as-potential-inhibitors-of-yap-taz-the-downstream-effectors-of-the-hippo-pathway
#7
Floriane Gibault, Fabrice Bailly, Matthieu Corvaisier, Mathilde Coevoet, Guillemette Huet, Patricia Melnyk, Philippe Cotelle
Porphyrin derivatives, and in particular Verteporfin (VP), a photosensitizer initially designed for cancer therapy, have been identified as inhibitors of YAP-TEAD interaction and transcriptional activity. We herein report the efficient convergent synthesis of the dipyrrin western half-part of protoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PPIX-DME) where the sensitive vinyl group was created at the final stage by a dehydroiodation reaction. Two other dipyrrin derivatives were synthesized including dipyrrin 19 containing two vinyl groups...
March 23, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333141/npas2-promotes-cell-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-transactivating-cdc25a
#8
Peng Yuan, Jibin Li, Feng Zhou, Qichao Huang, Jiansheng Zhang, Xu Guo, Zhuomin Lyu, Hongxin Zhang, Jinliang Xing
Emerging evidences show that disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with tumor initiation and progression. Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2), one of the core circadian molecules, has been proved to be a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal and breast cancers. However, to date, the potential functional roles and molecular mechanisms by which NPAS2 affects cancer cell survival are greatly unclear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first investigated the expression of NPAS2 and its clinical significance in HCC...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333115/modeling-and-targeting-myc-genes-in-childhood-brain-tumors
#9
REVIEW
Sonja Hutter, Sara Bolin, Holger Weishaupt, Fredrik J Swartling
Brain tumors are the second most common group of childhood cancers, accounting for about 20%-25% of all pediatric tumors. Deregulated expression of the MYC family of transcription factors, particularly c-MYC and MYCN genes, has been found in many of these neoplasms, and their expression levels are often correlated with poor prognosis. Elevated c-MYC/MYCN initiates and drives tumorigenesis in many in vivo model systems of pediatric brain tumors. Therefore, inhibition of their oncogenic function is an attractive therapeutic target...
March 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332923/different-types-of-pausing-modes-during-transcription-initiation
#10
Eitan Lerner, Antonino Ingargiola, Jookyung J Lee, Sergei Borukhov, Xavier Michalet, Shimon Weiss
In many cases, initiation is rate limiting to transcription. This due in part to the multiple cycles of abortive transcription that delay promoter escape and the transition from initiation to elongation. Pausing of transcription in initiation can further delay promoter escape. The previously hypothesized pausing in initiation was confirmed by two recent studies from Duchi et al. (1) and from Lerner, Chung et al. (2) In both studies, pausing is attributed to lack of forward translocation of the nascent transcript during initiation...
March 23, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332494/pten%C3%AE-is-an-alternatively-translated-isoform-of-pten-that-regulates-rdna-transcription
#11
Hui Liang, Xi Chen, Qi Yin, Danhui Ruan, Xuyang Zhao, Cong Zhang, Michael A McNutt, Yuxin Yin
PTEN is a critical tumour suppressor that is frequently mutated in human cancer. We have previously identified a CUG initiated PTEN isoform designated PTENα, which functions in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here we report the identification of another N-terminal extended PTEN isoform, designated PTENβ. PTENβ translation is initiated from an AUU codon upstream of and in-frame with the AUG initiation sequence for canonical PTEN. We show that the Kozak context and a downstream hairpin structure are critical for this alternative initiation...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332352/development-of-inhibitors-targeting-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-and-2-for-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Tianchi Yu, Bo Tang, Xueying Sun
Hypoxia is frequently observed in solid tumors and also one of the major obstacles for effective cancer therapies. Cancer cells take advantage of their ability to adapt hypoxia to initiate a special transcriptional program that renders them more aggressive biological behaviors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the key factors that control hypoxia-inducible pathways by regulating the expression of a vast array of genes involved in cancer progression and treatment resistance. HIFs, mainly HIF-1 and -2, have become potential targets for developing novel cancer therapeutics...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#13
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331636/patient-experiences-of-decentralized-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-plateau-state-north-central-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#14
Grace O Kolawole, Hannah N Gilbert, Nancin Y Dadem, Becky L Genberg, Patricia A Agaba, Prosper Okonkwo, Oche O Agbaji, Norma C Ware
Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected...
2017: AIDS Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331573/evolution-of-the-spatula-alcatraz-gene-lineage-and-expression-analyses-in-the-basal-eudicot-bocconia-frutescens-l-papaveraceae
#15
Cecilia Zumajo-Cardona, Barbara Ann Ambrose, Natalia Pabón-Mora
BACKGROUND: SPATULA (SPT) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) are recent paralogs that belong to the large bHLH transcription factor family. Orthologs of these genes have been found in all core eudicots, whereas pre-duplication genes, named paleoSPATULA/ALCATRAZ, have been found in basal eudicots, monocots, basal angiosperms and gymnosperms. Nevertheless, functional studies have only been performed in Arabidopsis thaliana, where SPT and ALC are partially redundant in carpel and valve margin development and ALC has a unique role in the dehiscence zone...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331099/interferon-inducible-oligoadenylate-synthetase-like-protein-acts-as-an-antiviral-effector-against-classical-swine-fever-virus-via-the-mda5-mediated-type-i-interferon-signaling-pathway
#16
Lian-Feng Li, Jiahui Yu, Yuexiu Zhang, Qian Yang, Yongfeng Li, Lingkai Zhang, Jinghan Wang, Su Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), which poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. Interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) play a key role in host antiviral defense. We have previously screened the porcine 2' -5' -oligoadenylate synthase-like protein (pOASL) as a potential anti-CSFV ISG using a reporter CSFV. This study aimed to clarify the underlying antiviral mechanism of pOASL against CSFV. We confirmed that CSFV replication was significantly suppressed in lentivirus-delivered, pOASL-overexpressing PK-15 cells, whereas silencing the expression of endogenous pOASL by small interfering RNAs markedly enhanced CSFV growth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331082/kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-hijacks-rna-polymerase-ii-to-create-a-viral-transcriptional-factory
#17
Christopher Phillip Chen, Yuanzhi Lyu, Frank Chuang, Kazushi Nakano, Chie Izumiya, Di Jin, Mel Campbell, Yoshihiro Izumiya
Locally concentrated nuclear factors ensure efficient binding to the DNA templates, facilitating RNA polymerase II recruitment and frequent reutilization of stable pre-initiation complexes. Here we have uncovered a mechanism for effective viral transcription by focal assembly of RNA polymerase II around KSHV genomes in the host cell nucleus. Using immunofluorescent labeling of latent nuclear antigen (LANA) protein, together with fluorescence in situ RNA hybridization (RNA-FISH) of the intron region of immediate-early transcripts, we visualized active transcription of viral genomes in naturally infected cells...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330929/the-role-of-pias-sumo-e3-ligases-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Andrea Rabellino, Cristina Andreani, Pier Paolo Scaglioni
SUMOylation modifies the interactome, localization, activity, and lifespan of its target proteins. This process regulates several cellular machineries, including transcription, DNA damage repair, cell-cycle progression, and apoptosis. Accordingly, SUMOylation is critical in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and its deregulation leads to the corruption of a plethora of cellular processes that contribute to disease states. Among the proteins involved in SUMOylation, the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) E3-ligases were initially described as transcriptional coregulators...
March 22, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330896/cell-specific-variation-in-e-selectin-ligand-expression-among-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-implications-for-immunosurveillance-and-pathobiology
#19
Mariana Silva, Ronald Kam Fai Fung, Conor Brian Donnelly, Paula Alexandra Videira, Robert Sackstein
Both host defense and immunopathology are shaped by the ordered recruitment of circulating leukocytes to affected sites, a process initiated by binding of blood-borne cells to E-selectin displayed at target endothelial beds. Accordingly, knowledge of the expression and function of leukocyte E-selectin ligands is key to understanding the tempo and specificity of immunoreactivity. In this study, we performed E-selectin adherence assays under hemodynamic flow conditions coupled with flow cytometry and Western blot analysis to elucidate the function and structural biology of glycoprotein E-selectin ligands expressed on human PBMCs...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330496/calcium-dysregulation-functional-calpainopathy-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-sporadic-inclusion-body-myositis
#20
David R Amici, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Davi A G Mázala, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrea M Corse, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Andrew L Mammen, Eva R Chin
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common primary myopathy in the elderly, but its pathoetiology is still unclear. Perturbed myocellular calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis can exacerbate many of the factors proposed to mediate muscle degeneration in IBM, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Ca(2+) dysregulation may plausibly be initiated in IBM by immune-mediated membrane damage and/or abnormally accumulating proteins, but no studies to date have investigated Ca(2+) regulation in IBM patients...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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