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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331803/caspases-are-key-regulators-of-inflammatory-and-innate-immune-responses-mediated-by-tlr3-in-vivo
#1
Abeer Shaalan, Guy Carpenter, Gordon Proctor
Understanding the key regulators which impact the innate immune response during initial phases of tissue injury, can advance the use of therapeutic approaches which aim at attenuating inflammation and organ damage. Recognition of microbial components by TLRs, initiates the transcription of innate immune signal pathways, that induce the expression of key inflammatory mediators: cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. Beside regulating apoptotic cell death, recent studies have revealed distinct roles for caspases in the optimal production of inflammatory cytokines and host defense against injurious infections...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331794/melatonin-suppresses-eosinophils-and-th17-cells-in-hamsters-treated-with-a-combination-of-human-liver-fluke-infection-and-a-chemical-carcinogen
#2
Wachanan Wongsena, Lakhanawan Charoensuk, Rungtiwa Dangtakot, Porntip Pinlaor, Kitti Intuyod, Somchai Pinlaor
BACKGROUND: The combination of Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection and chemical carcinogen induces cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in hamsters via inflammation-mediated mechanisms. Thus, suppression of inflammatory cells at the initial stages of CCA development would be of benefit. We aimed to investigate whether IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17) and CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells (Treg) are involved in the early stages of CCA genesis and can be targeted for suppression by melatonin. METHODS: Inflammation, an initial stage of CCA development, was induced in hamsters by a combination of O...
July 26, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331418/non-coding-rnas-in-cancer-stem-cells
#3
Huiwen Yan, Pengcheng Bu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to play a key role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Despite their potential clinical importance, the mechanism of CSC regulation is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that different types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), such as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (LncRNA), play a role in regulating CSC growth and replication by modulating transcription factors and downstream signaling pathways activated in CSCs. Here, we review the recent major findings about how they affect stem cell quality acquisition and maintenance in CSCs, as well as metastasis and therapy resistance...
January 10, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330937/first-time-detection-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv-infection-in-uruguay
#4
N Ramos, S Mirazo, G Castro, K Cabrera, F Osorio, J Arbiza
Within the last two decades, several high-impact viruses have emerged in the global swine population, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). In Uruguay, the more recent serological survey for PRRSV and other notifiable diseases such as Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) dated from year 2000. The main purpose of this study was to update our information on the infection status of PRRSV, ADV and CSFV in Uruguayan pig herds, in order to keep informed about the epidemiological situation of these notifiable infections in the country...
January 12, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330753/transfer-of-critically-ill-adults-assessing-the-need-for-training
#5
Ruth-Aoibheann O'Leary, Brian Marsh, Paul O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Transfer of critically ill patients within the hospital is commonly associated with adverse incidents, but, despite this, no standardised training exists on how to carry out this task. Very little information is published in the literature on the learning needs of staff undertaking these transfers, and this limits our ability to provide a focused and appropriate educational intervention. AIMS: This study aimed to explore the organisational, environmental and individual issues that increase risk to patients during intrahospital transport (IHT) and to explore the potential educational solutions to these issues as articulated by these practitioners...
January 12, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330548/shox-haploinsufficiency-presenting-with-isolated-short-long-bones-in-the-second-and-third-trimester
#6
Shwetha Ramachandrappa, Abhijit Kulkarni, Hina Gandhi, Cheryl Ellis, Renata Hutt, Lesley Roberts, Rosol Hamid, Aris Papageorghiou, Sahar Mansour
Haploinsufficiency of the transcription factor short stature homeobox (SHOX) manifests as a spectrum of clinical phenotypes, ranging from disproportionate short stature and Madelung deformity to isolated short stature. Here, we describe five infants with molecularly confirmed diagnoses of SHOX haploinsufficiency who presented in utero with short long bones during routine antenatal scanning from as early as 19 weeks gestation. Other foetal growth parameters were normal. The molecular basis of SHOX haploinsufficiency was distinct in each case...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330371/transcriptional-inaccuracy-threshold-attenuates-differences-in-rna-dependent-dna-synthesis-fidelity-between-retroviral-reverse-transcriptases
#7
Alba Sebastián-Martín, Verónica Barrioluengo, Luis Menéndez-Arias
In M13mp2 lacZα forward mutation assays measuring intrinsic fidelity of DNA-dependent DNA synthesis, wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RTs of group M/subtype B previously showed >10-fold higher error rates than murine leukaemia virus (MLV) and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) RTs. An adapted version of the assay was used to obtain error rates of RNA-dependent DNA synthesis for several RTs, including wild-type HIV-1BH10, HIV-1ESP49, AMV and MLV RTs, and the high-fidelity mutants of HIV-1ESP49 RT K65R and K65R/V75I...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330352/dbf4-recruitment-by-forkhead-transcription-factors-defines-an-upstream-rate-limiting-step-in-determining-origin-firing-timing
#8
Dingqiang Fang, Armelle Lengronne, Di Shi, Romain Forey, Magdalena Skrzypczak, Krzysztof Ginalski, Changhui Yan, Xiaoke Wang, Qinhong Cao, Philippe Pasero, Huiqiang Lou
Initiation of eukaryotic chromosome replication follows a spatiotemporal program. The current model suggests that replication origins compete for a limited pool of initiation factors. However, it remains to be answered how these limiting factors are preferentially recruited to early origins. Here, we report that Dbf4 is enriched at early origins through its interaction with forkhead transcription factors Fkh1 and Fkh2. This interaction is mediated by the Dbf4 C terminus and was successfully reconstituted in vitro...
January 12, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330298/stemness-is-enhanced-in-gastric-cancer-by-a-set-pp2a-e2f1-axis
#9
Shuhei Enjoji, Ryotaro Yabe, Shunya Tsuji, Kazuhiro Yoshimura, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Masashi Sakurai, Yusuke Sakai, Hiroko Takenouchi, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Hiroaki Nagano, Hiroko Oshima, Masanobu Oshima, Michael P Vitek, Tetsuya Matsuura, Yoshitaka Hippo, Tatsuya Usui, Takashi Ohama, Koichi Sato
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chemotherapies against gastric cancer often fail, with cancer recurrence due potentially to the persistence of cancer stem cells. This unique subpopulation of cells in tumors possess the ability to self-renew and de-differentiate. These cancer stem cells are critical for initiation, maintenance, metastasis, and relapse of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms supporting cancer stemness remain largely unknown...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330205/clinical-utility-of-a-stat3-regulated-microrna-200-family-signature-with-prognostic-potential-in-early-gastric-cancer
#10
Liang Yu, Di Wu, Hugh Gao, Jesse Balic, Anna Tsykin, Tae-Su Han, You Dong Liu, Catherine Lydia Kennedy, Ji-Kun Li, Jie-Qi Mao, Patrick Tan, Masanobu Oshima, Gregory J Goodall, Brendan J Jenkins
PURPOSE: The majority of gastric cancer (GC) patients are diagnosed with late stage disease, for which distinct molecular subtypes have been identified that are potentially amenable to targeted therapies. However, there exists no molecular classification system with prognostic power for early stage GC (EGC) because the molecular events promoting GC initiation remain ill-defined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA microarrays were performed on gastric tissue from the gp130F/F preclinical EGC mouse model, prior to tumor initiation...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330113/runt-related-transcription-factor-1-runx1-deficiency-attenuates-inflammation-induced-pro-inflammatory-and-pro-labour-mediators-in-myometrium
#11
Martha Lappas
Identifying new targets that regulate myometrial activation are required to develop effective treatments to stop preterm labor. Inflammation, which can be induced by sterile or infective insults, plays a role in initiating and maintaining uterine contractions. Several high throughput transcription screening studies have identified an upregulation of runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) mRNA expression in myometrium with labor. The role of RUNX1 in labor, however, is not known. We report increased RUNX1 during late gestation which was further augmented in labor, suggesting that RUNX1 may be involved in the transition of the myometrium from a quiescent into a contractile state in preparation for labor...
January 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329412/lhx8-ablation-leads-to-massive-autophagy-of-mouse-oocytes-associated-with-dna-damage
#12
Emanuele Pelosi, Laura D'Ignazio, Marc Michel, Melissa Beyer, Kassimier Thompson, Antonino Forabosco, David Schlessinger
Following proliferation of oogonia in mammals, great numbers of germ cells are discarded, primarily by apoptosis, while the remainder form primordial follicles (the ovarian reserve) that determine fertility and reproductive lifespan. More massive, rapid, and essentially total loss of oocytes, however, occurs when the transcription factor Lhx8 is ablated-though the cause and mechanism of germ cell loss from the Lhx8-/- ovaries has been unknown. We found that Lhx8-/- ovaries maintain the same number of germ cells throughout embryonic development; rapid decrease in the pool of oocytes starts shortly before birth...
January 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329320/atypical-e2f-functions-are-critical-for-pancreas-polyploidization
#13
Ramadhan B Matondo, Eva Moreno, Mathilda J M Toussaint, Peter C J Tooten, Saskia C van Essen, Elsbeth A van Liere, Sameh A Youssef, Laura Bongiovanni, Alain de Bruin
The presence of polyploid cells in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas has been reported for four decades. In rodents, pancreatic polyploidization is initiated after weaning and the number of polyploid cells increases with age. Surprisingly the molecular regulators and biological functions of polyploidization in the pancreas are still unknown. We discovered that atypical E2f activity is essential for polyploidization in the pancreas, using an inducible Cre/LoxP approach in new-born mice to delete ubiquitously the atypical E2f transcription factors, E2f7 and E2f8...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329179/should-asymptomatic-men-who-have-sex-with-men-be-screened-for-oropharyngeal-chlamydia-clinical-outcomes-from-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Jason J Ong, Eric P F Chow, Vesna De Petra, Deborah Williamson, Irene Pelatosis, Ben Howden, Lei Zhang, Marcus Y Chen, Catriona S Bradshaw, Jane Hocking, Christopher K Fairley
OBJECTIVE: To help inform screening guidelines, we estimated the proportion of asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) with oropharyngeal chlamydia. STUDY DESIGN: An audit of asymptomatic MSM attending a sexual health service from March 2015 to April 2016 was conducted. They each had an oropharyngeal swab that was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis by transcription-mediated nucleic acid amplification. In addition, a random sample of 17 swabs that initially tested positive had confirmatory testing to determine the likelihood of true positivity...
February 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328432/a-double-edged-function-of-ddx3-as-an-oncogene-or-tumor-suppressor-in-cancer-progression-review
#15
Yu He, Dan Zhang, Yanfang Yang, Xixi Wang, Xinyu Zhao, Peng Zhang, Hongxia Zhu, Ningzhi Xu, Shufang Liang
DEAD-box RNA helicase 3 (DDX3) is a highly conserved family member of DEAD-box proteins in all eukaryotes from yeasts to human beings. Accumulating studies have confirmed DDX3 has the ability to regulate different steps of RNA metabolism, including RNA splicing, RNA export, transcription and translation initiation. Moreover, DDX3 is involved in many biological processes, such as stress response, cell apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and virus infection. In recent years, DDX3 is getting increasing attention due to its essential roles in cancer progression...
January 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327716/genomic-heterogeneity-of-alk-fusion-breakpoints-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Jason N Rosenbaum, Ryan Bloom, Jason T Forys, Jeff Hiken, Jon R Armstrong, Julie Branson, Samantha McNulty, Priya D Velu, Kymberlie Pepin, Haley Abel, Catherine E Cottrell, John D Pfeifer, Shashikant Kulkarni, Ramaswamy Govindan, Eric Q Konnick, Christina M Lockwood, Eric J Duncavage
In lung adenocarcinoma, canonical EML4-ALK inversion results in a fusion protein with a constitutively active ALK kinase domain. Evidence of ALK rearrangement occurs in a minority (2-7%) of lung adenocarcinoma, and only ~60% of these patients will respond to targeted ALK inhibition by drugs such as crizotinib and ceritinib. Clinically, targeted anti-ALK therapy is often initiated based on evidence of an ALK genomic rearrangement detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of interphase cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections...
January 12, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325710/wnt5b-regulates-apoptosis-in-litopenaeus-vannamei-against-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#17
Chuanqi Wang, Lingwei Ruan, Hong Shi, Xun Xu
The Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt proteins that orchestrate and influence a myriad of cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, apoptosis, and participation in immune defense during microbe infection. Wnt5b is one of the Wnt signaling molecules that initiate the cascade. In this study, we cloned and characterized a Wnt5b homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei designed as LvWnt5b. The full length of LvWnt5b transcript was 1726 bp with an 1107 bp open reading frame that encoded a 368 aa protein, which contained 24 discontinuous and highly conserved cysteine...
January 8, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324888/transcription-factor-runx1-is-pro-neurogenic-in-adult-hippocampal-precursor-cells
#18
Hirokazu Fukui, Annette Rünker, Klaus Fabel, Frank Buchholz, Gerd Kempermann
Transcription factor Runx1 (Runt Related Transcription Factor 1), plays an important role in the differentiation of hematopoetic stem cells, angiogenesis and the development of nociceptive neurons. These known functions have in common that they relate to lineage decisions. We thus asked whether such role might also be found for Runx1 in adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a process, in which such decisions have to be regulated lifelong. Runx1 shows a widespread low expression in the adult mouse brain, not particularly prominent in the hippocampus and the resident neural precursor cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324782/mafb-is-dispensable-for-the-fetal-testis-morphogenesis-and-the-maintenance-of-spermatogenesis-in-adult-mice
#19
Hossam H Shawki, Hisashi Oishi, Toshiaki Usui, Yu Kitadate, Walaa A Basha, Ahmed M Abdellatif, Kazunori Hasegawa, Risa Okada, Keiji Mochida, Hany A El-Shemy, Masafumi Muratani, Atsuo Ogura, Shosei Yoshida, Satoru Takahashi
The transcription factor MAFB is an important regulator of the development and differentiation of various organs and tissues. Previous studies have shown that MAFB is expressed in embryonic and adult mouse testes and is expected to act as the downstream target of retinoic acid (RA) to initiate spermatogenesis. However, its exact localization and function remain unclear. Here, we localized MAFB expression in embryonic and adult testes and analyzed its gene function using Mafb-deficient mice. We found that MAFB and c-MAF are the only large MAF transcription factors expressed in testes, while MAFA and NRL are not...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324704/dissection-of-myogenic-differentiation-signatures-in-chickens-by-rna-seq-analysis
#20
Tingting Li, Genxi Zhang, Pengfei Wu, Lian Duan, Guohui Li, Qiuhong Liu, Jinyu Wang
A series of elaborately regulated and orchestrated changes in gene expression profiles leads to muscle growth and development. In this study, RNA sequencing was used to profile embryonic chicken myoblasts and fused myotube transcriptomes, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) at four stages of myoblast differentiation. Of a total of 2484 lncRNA transcripts, 2288 were long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and 198 were antisense lncRNAs. Additionally, 1530 lncRNAs were neighboring 2041 protein-coding genes (<10 kb upstream and downstream) and functionally enriched in several pathways related to skeletal muscle development that have been extensively studied, indicating that these genes may be in cis-regulatory relationships...
January 11, 2018: Genes
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