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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637242/yap-and-wwtr1-regulate-the-expression-of-sex-determining-genes-in-sertoli-cells-but-their-inactivation-does-not-cause-sex-reversal
#1
Adrien Levasseur, Marilène Paquet, Derek Boerboom, Alexandre Boyer
Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1) are two functionally redundant transcriptional regulators that are downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, and that act as major regulators of cell growth and differentiation. To elucidate their role in Sertoli cells, primary Sertoli cell culture from Yapflox/flox; Wwtr1flox/flox animals were infected with a Cre recombinase-expressing adenovirus. Concomitant inactivation of Yap and Wwtr1 resulted in a decrease in the mRNA levels of the male sex differentiation genes Dhh, Dmrt1, Sox9 and Wt1, whereas those of genes involved in female differentiation (Wnt4, Rspo1 and Foxl2) were induced...
June 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637005/cxcl13-is-androgen-responsive-and-involved-in-androgen-induced-prostate-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#2
Long Fan, Qingyi Zhu, Li Liu, Cuicui Zhu, Haojie Huang, Shan Lu, Ping Liu
Androgen receptor (AR) is a key transcription factor playing a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) initiation and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms of AR action in prostate cancer are not very clear. CXCL13, known as B cell attracting chemokine1 (BCA-1), is a member of CXC chemokine family and relevant to cancer metastasis. This study shows that CXCL13 is an androgen-responsive gene and involved in AR-induced PCa cell migration and invasion. In clinical specimens, expression of CXCL13 in PCa tissues is markedly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636612/laminin-211-inhibits-protein-kinase-a-in-schwann-cells-to-modulate-neuregulin-1-type-iii-driven-myelination
#3
Monica Ghidinelli, Yannick Poitelon, Yoon Kyoung Shin, Dominique Ameroso, Courtney Williamson, Cinzia Ferri, Marta Pellegatta, Kevin Espino, Amit Mogha, Kelly Monk, Paola Podini, Carla Taveggia, Klaus-Armin Nave, Lawrence Wrabetz, Hwan Tae Park, Maria Laura Feltri
Myelin is required for proper nervous system function. Schwann cells in developing nerves depend on extrinsic signals from the axon and from the extracellular matrix to first sort and ensheathe a single axon and then myelinate it. Neuregulin 1 type III (Nrg1III) and laminin α2β1γ1 (Lm211) are the key axonal and matrix signals, respectively, but how their signaling is integrated and if each molecule controls both axonal sorting and myelination is unclear. Here, we use a series of epistasis experiments to show that Lm211 modulates neuregulin signaling to ensure the correct timing and amount of myelination...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636277/esrrb-plays-a-crucial-role-in-the-promotion-of-porcine-cell-reprogramming
#4
Fan Yang, Yahui Ren, Huan Li Huayan Wang
The estrogen-related receptor b (ESRRB) is an orphan nuclear receptor and targets many genes involved in self-renewal and pluripotency. In mouse ES cells, overexpression of ESRRB can maintain LIF-independent self-renewal in the absence of Nanog. However, the fundamental features of porcine ESRRB remain elusive. In this study, we revealed the expression profiles of ESRRB in both porcine pluripotent stem cells and early stage embryos and dissected the functional domains of ESRRB protein to prove that ESRRB is a key transcription factor that enhanced porcine pluripotent gene activation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636132/trpc1-and-trpc3-dependent-ca-2-signaling-in-mouse-cortical-astrocytes-affects-injury-evoked-astrogliosis-in-vivo
#5
Thabet Belkacemi, Alexander Niermann, Laura Hofmann, Ulrich Wissenbach, Lutz Birnbaumer, Petra Leidinger, Christina Backes, Eckart Meese, Andreas Keller, Xianshu Bai, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff, Stephan E Philipp, Petra Weissgerber, Veit Flockerzi, Andreas Beck
Following brain injury astrocytes change into a reactive state, proliferate and grow into the site of lesion, a process called astrogliosis, initiated and regulated by changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) . Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels may contribute to Ca(2+) influx but their presence and possible function in astrocytes is not known. By RT-PCR and RNA sequencing we identified transcripts of Trpc1, Trpc2, Trpc3, and Trpc4 in FACS-sorted glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-positive cultured mouse cortical astrocytes and subcloned full-length Trpc1 and Trpc3 cDNAs from these cells...
June 21, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635660/diverse-regulation-of-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-expression-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-and-atra-in-murine-and-human-blood-cells-at-early-stages-of-their-differentiation
#6
Sylwia Janik, Urszula Nowak, Agnieszka Łaszkiewicz, Anastasiia Satyr, Michał Majkowski, Aleksandra Marchwicka, Łukasz Śnieżewski, Klaudia Berkowska, Marian Gabryś, Małgorzata Cebrat, Ewa Marcinkowska
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is present in multiple blood cells, and the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system. The role of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) in hematopoiesis is very important, as the fusion of RARα gene with PML gene initiates acute promyelocytic leukemia where differentiation of the myeloid lineage is blocked, followed by an uncontrolled proliferation of leukemic blasts. RARα takes part in regulation of VDR transcription, and unliganded RARα acts as a transcriptional repressor to VDR gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635585/the-meaning-and-experience-of-bereavement-support-a-qualitative-interview-study-of-bereaved-family-caregivers
#7
Emma Kirby, Katherine Kenny, Alex Broom, John MacArtney, Phillip Good
OBJECTIVE: Experiences of bereavement can be stressful and are frequently complicated by emotional, familial, and financial issues. Some-though not all-caregivers may benefit from bereavement support. While considered standard within palliative care services in Australia, bereavement support is not widely utilized by family caregivers. There is little research focused on the forms of bereavement support desired or required by family caregivers, how such care is viewed, and/or how bereavement support is experienced...
June 21, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634583/circular-rnas-biogenesis-function-and-role-in-human-diseases
#8
REVIEW
John Greene, Anne-Marie Baird, Lauren Brady, Marvin Lim, Steven G Gray, Raymond McDermott, Stephen P Finn
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are currently classed as non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that, unlike linear RNAs, form covalently closed continuous loops and act as gene regulators in mammals. They were originally thought to represent errors in splicing and considered to be of low abundance, however, there is now an increased appreciation of their important function in gene regulation. circRNAs are differentially generated by backsplicing of exons or from lariat introns. Unlike linear RNA, the 3' and 5' ends normally present in an RNA molecule have been joined together by covalent bonds leading to circularization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634236/alternative-evolutionary-pathways-for-drug-resistant-small-colony-variant-mutants-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Sha Cao, Douglas L Huseby, Gerrit Brandis, Diarmaid Hughes
Staphylococcus aureus is known to generate small colony variants (SCVs) that are resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics and can cause persistent and recurrent infections. The SCV phenotype is unstable, and compensatory mutations lead to restored growth, usually with loss of resistance. However, the evolution of improved growth, by mechanisms that avoid loss of antibiotic resistance, is very poorly understood. By selection with serial passaging, we isolated and characterized different classes of extragenic suppressor mutations that compensate for the slow growth of small colony variants...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634226/phostine-pst3-1a-targets-mgat5-and-inhibits-glioblastoma-initiating-cell-invasiveness-and-proliferation
#10
Zahra Hassani, Ali Saleh, Soumaya Turpault, Salim Khiati, Willy Morelle, Jacques Vignon, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste, Philippe Legrand, Marcel Delaforge, Séverine Loiseau, Ludovic Clarion, Marc Lecouvey, Jean-Noël Volle, David Virieux, Jean-Luc Pirat, Hugues Duffau, Norbert Bakalara
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and accounts for a significant proportion of all primary brain tumors. Median survival after treatment is around 15 months. Remodeling of N-glycans by the N-acetylglucosamine glycosyltransferase (MGAT5) regulates tumoral development. Here, perturbation of MGAT5 enzymatic activity by the small-molecule inhibitor 3-Hydroxy-4,5-bis-benzyloxy-6-benzyloxymethyl-2-phenyl2-oxo-2λ5-[1,2]oxaphosphinane (PST3.1a) restrains GBM growth. In cell based assays it is demonstrated that PST3...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634071/the-novel-yap-target-gene-sgk1-upregulates-taz-activity-by-blocking-gsk3%C3%AE-mediated-taz-destabilization
#11
Geon Yoo, Tackhoon Kim, Chaeuk Chung, Deog-Su Hwang, Dae-Sik Lim
YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcription activator with PDZ binding motif) are important in tissue regeneration and cancer development, highlighting the importance of discovering partners that regulate their oncogenicity. SGK1 (serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1), initially identified as a homolog of Akt in phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling, acts as a serine/threonine protein kinase in multiple oncogenic pathways. However, possible links between SGK1 and Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling remain unexplored...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634046/tumor-antigen-prame-is-up-regulated-by-mzf1-in-cooperation-with-dna-hypomethylation-in-melanoma-cells
#12
Yong-Kyu Lee, Ui-Hyun Park, Eun-Joo Kim, Jin-Taek Hwang, Ji-Cheon Jeong, Soo-Jong Um
Elevated expression of preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) has been implicated in disease progression in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of PRAME remain largely unexplored. Initially, we observed that PRAME was elevated in proportion to the malignant potential of melanoma cells. From the in silico prediction of PRAME gene structure, we identified the putative myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) binding sites, which overlap with a CpG-rich region located in the first intron...
June 17, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633978/airborne-nitro-pahs-induce-nrf2-are-defense-system-against-oxidative-stress-and-promote-inflammatory-process-by-activating-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-a549-cells
#13
Yu Shang, Qian Zhou, Tiantian Wang, Yuting Jiang, Yufang Zhong, Guangren Qian, Tong Zhu, Xinghua Qiu, Jing An
Ambient particulate matter (PM) is a worldwide health issue of concern. However, limited information is available regarding the toxic contributions of the nitro-derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). This study intend to examine whether 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF) could activate the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) antioxidant defense system, and whether the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway participates in regulating pro-inflammatory responses in A549 cells...
June 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633482/markers-of-adipogenesis-but-not-inflammation-in-adipose-tissue-are-independently-related-to-insulin-sensitivity
#14
Natalia Matulewicz, Magdalena Stefanowicz, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
Context: In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) undergoes dynamic remodeling, including an alternations in adipogenesis, AT-resident cell content, angiogenesis and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Studies on AT in humans have been carried out mostly on people with severe metabolic abnormalities, like type 2 diabetes or morbid obesity. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate subcutaneous AT gene expression of markers of adipogenesis, ECM remodeling and inflammation in young, healthy, overweight or obese subjects...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633434/psip1-p75-promotes-tumorigenicity-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-promoting-the-transcription-of-cell-cycle-genes
#15
Deepak K Singh, Omid Gholamalamdari, Mahdieh Jadaliha, Xiao Ling Li, Yo-Chuen Lin, Yang Zhang, Shuomeng Guang, Seyedsasan Hashemikhabir, Saumya Tiwari, Yuelin J Zhu, Abid Khan, Anu Thomas, Arindam Chakraborty, Virgilia Macias, Andre K Balla, Rohit Bhargava, Sarath Chandra Janga, Jian Ma, Supriya G Prasanth, Ashish Lal, Kannanganattu V Prasanth
Breast cancer (BC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, both at the pathological and molecular level, and several chromatin-associated proteins play crucial roles in breast cancer initiation and progression. Here, we demonstrate the role of PSIP1 (PC4 and SF2 interacting protein)/p75 (LEDGF) in breast cancer progression. PSIP1/p75, previously identified as a chromatin-adaptor protein, is found to be upregulated in basal-like/triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patient samples and cell lines. Immunohistochemistry in tissue arrays showed elevated levels of PSIP1 in metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma...
June 17, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631378/runx2-i-is-an-early-regulator-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-cell-transition-in-the-chick-embryo
#16
Andre L P Tavares, Jessie A Brown, Emily C Ulrich, Katerina Dvorak, Raymond B Runyan
BACKGROUND: Though normally linked to bone and cartilage development, the Runt-related transcription factor, RUNX2, was reported in the mouse heart during development of the valves. We examined RUNX2 expression and function in the developing avian heart as it related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the atrioventricular canal. EMT can be separated into an activation stage involving hypertrophy and cell separation and an invasion stage where cells invade the extracellular matrix...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630491/chronic-high-fat-feeding-restricts-islet-mrna-translation-initiation-independently-of-er-stress-via-dna-damage-and-p53-activation
#17
Masayuki Hatanaka, Emily Anderson-Baucum, Alexander Lakhter, Tatsuyoshi Kono, Bernhard Maier, Sarah A Tersey, Yukio Tanizawa, Carmella Evans-Molina, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Emily K Sims
Under conditions of high fat diet (HFD) consumption, glucose dyshomeostasis develops when β-cells are unable to adapt to peripheral insulin demands. Few studies have interrogated the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction at the level of mRNA translation under such conditions. We sought to address this issue through polyribosome profile analysis of islets from mice fed 16-weeks of 42% HFD. HFD-islet analysis revealed clear trends toward global reductions in mRNA translation with a significant reduction in the polyribosome/monoribosome ratio for Pdx1 mRNA...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630443/chemical-chaperone-tudca-unlike-pba-mitigates-protein-aggregation-efficiently-and-resists-er-and-non-er-stress-induced-hepg2-cell-death
#18
Jagadeesh Kumar Uppala, Amina R Gani, Kolluru V A Ramaiah
Stress induced BSA (bovine serum albumin) protein aggregation is effectively mitigated in vitro by TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) than by PBA (4- phenylbutyric acid), chemical chaperones approved by FDA for the treatment of biliary cirrhosis and urea cycle disorders respectively. TUDCA, unlike PBA, enhances trypsin mediated digestion of BSA. TUDCA activates PERK, an ER-resident kinase that phosphorylates the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor2 (eIF2α) and promotes the expression of activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in HepG2 cells...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630109/macrophage-mediated-inflammation-in-normal-and-diabetic-wound-healing
#19
REVIEW
Anna E Boniakowski, Andrew S Kimball, Benjamin N Jacobs, Steven L Kunkel, Katherine A Gallagher
The healing of cutaneous wounds is dependent on the progression through distinct, yet overlapping phases of wound healing, including hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and resolution/remodeling. The failure of these phases to occur in a timely, progressive fashion promotes pathologic wound healing. The macrophage (MΦ) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the inflammatory phase of tissue repair, where its dynamic plasticity allows this cell to mediate both tissue-destructive and -reparative functions...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629792/alternative-splicing-and-start-sites-lessons-from-the-grainyhead-like-family
#20
REVIEW
Lee B Miles, Sebastian Dworkin, Charbel Darido
The two main mechanisms that expand the proteomic output of eukaryotic genes are alternative splicing and alternative translation initiation signals. Despite being essential to generate isoforms of gene products that create functional diversity during development, the impact of these mechanisms on fine-tuning regulatory gene networks is still underappreciated. In this review, we use the Grainyhead-like (Grhl) family as a case study to illustrate the importance of isoforms when investigating transcription factor family function during development and disease, and highlight the potential for differential modulation of downstream target genes...
June 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
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