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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930971/determination-of-the-optimal-chromosomal-location-s-for-a-dna-element-in-escherichia-coli-using-a-novel-transposon-mediated-approach
#1
Jakob Frimodt-Møller, Godefroid Charbon, Karen A Krogfelt, Anders Løbner-Olesen
The optimal chromosomal position(s) of a given DNA element was/were determined by transposon-mediated random insertion followed by fitness selection. In bacteria, the impact of the genetic context on the function of a genetic element can be difficult to assess. Several mechanisms, including topological effects, transcriptional interference from neighboring genes, and/or replication-associated gene dosage, may affect the function of a given genetic element. Here, we describe a method that permits the random integration of a DNA element into the chromosome of Escherichia coli and select the most favorable locations using a simple growth competition experiment...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930662/the-kinase-mtorc1-promotes-the-generation-and-suppressive-function-of-follicular-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Lifan Xu, Qizhao Huang, Haoqiang Wang, Yaxing Hao, Qiang Bai, Jianjun Hu, Yiding Li, Pengcheng Wang, Xiangyu Chen, Ran He, Bingshou Li, Xia Yang, Tingting Zhao, Yanyan Zhang, Yifei Wang, Juanjuan Ou, Houjie Liang, Yuzhang Wu, Xinyuan Zhou, Lilin Ye
Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells differentiate from conventional regulatory T (Treg) cells and suppress excessive germinal center (GC) responses by acting on both GC B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we examined the impact of mTOR, a serine/threonine protein kinase that senses and integrates diverse environmental cues, on the differentiation and functional competency of Tfr cells in response to protein immunization or viral infection. By genetically deleting Rptor or Rictor, essential components for mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), respectively, we found that mTORC1 but not mTORC2 is essential for Tfr differentiation...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930171/comprehensive-evaluation-of-tff3-promoter-hypomethylation-and-molecular-biomarker-potential-for-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#3
Maibritt Nørgaard, Christa Haldrup, Tine Maj Storebjerg, Else Marie Vestergaard, Peter J Wild, Søren Høyer, Michael Borre, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors remains a major problem in prostate cancer (PC) due to suboptimal diagnostic and prognostic tools. Thus, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the biomarker potential of Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) promoter methylation and RNA expression levels for PC. Initially, by quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) analysis of a large radical prostatectomy (RP) cohort (n = 292), we found that the TFF3 promoter was significantly hypomethylated in PC compared to non-malignant (NM) prostate tissue samples (p < 0...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929622/endonuclease-regnase-1-monocyte-chemotactic-protein-1-induced-protein-1-mcpip1-in-controlling-immune-responses-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Osamu Takeuchi
The activation of inflammatory cells is controlled at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Posttranscriptional regulation modifies mRNA stability and translation, allowing for elaborate control of proteins required for inflammation, such as proinflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin synthases, cell surface co-stimulatory molecules, and even transcriptional modifiers. Such regulation is important for coordinating the initiation and resolution of inflammation, and is mediated by a set of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including Regnase-1, Roquin, Tristetraprolin (TTP), and AU-rich elements/poly(U)-binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1)...
September 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928821/involvement-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-in-androgen-receptor-induced-growth-inhibition-in-prostate-cancer-pc-3-cells
#5
Long Xiao, Minhui Xiao, Linbo Gao, Wanchao Xu
Previous studies have suggested that changes in sex hormone receptor expression may be associated with the initiation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association and possible pathways between two sex hormone receptors and PCa by measuring the expression levels of the androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in prostatic cancer PC-3 cell lines. The pcDNA3.1-hERβ plasmid was transfected into PC-3 cell lines...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928744/ccctc-binding-factor-locks-premature-igh-germline-transcription-and-restrains-class-switch-recombination
#6
Ester Marina-Zárate, Arantxa Pérez-García, Almudena R Ramiro
In response to antigenic stimulation B cells undergo class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) to replace the primary IgM/IgD isotypes by IgG, IgE, or IgA. CSR is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) through the deamination of cytosine residues at the switch (S) regions of IgH. B cell stimulation promotes germline transcription (GLT) of specific S regions, a necessary event prior to CSR because it facilitates AID access to S regions. Here, we show that CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-deficient mice are severely impaired in the generation of germinal center B cells and plasma cells after immunization in vivo, most likely due to impaired cell survival...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928141/a-genetic-screen-for-impaired-systemic-rnai-highlights-the-crucial-role-of-dicer-like-2
#7
Christelle Taochy, Nial R Gursanscky, Jiangling Cao, Stephen J Fletcher, Uwe Dressel, Neena Mitter, Matthew R Tucker, Anna M Koltunow, John L Bowman, Hervé Vaucheret, Bernard J Carroll
Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of transgenes involves abundant 21 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and low abundance 22 nt siRNAs produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by DCL4 and DCL2, respectively. However, DCL2 facilitates the recruitment of RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6) to ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1)-derived cleavage products, resulting in more efficient amplification of secondary and transitive dsRNA and siRNAs. Here, we describe a reporter system where RDR6-dependent PTGS is initiated by restricted expression of an inverted-repeat dsRNA specifically in the root tip, allowing a genetic screen to identify mutants impaired in RDR6-dependent systemic PTGS...
September 19, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927448/barriers-and-facilitators-to-implementing-addiction-medicine-fellowships-a-qualitative-study-with-fellows-medical-students-residents-and-preceptors
#8
J Klimas, W Small, K Ahamad, W Cullen, A Mead, L Rieb, E Wood, R McNeil
BACKGROUND: Although progress in science has driven advances in addiction medicine, this subject has not been adequately taught to medical trainees and physicians. As a result, there has been poor integration of evidence-based practices in addiction medicine into physician training which has impeded addiction treatment and care. Recently, a number of training initiatives have emerged internationally, including the addiction medicine fellowships in Vancouver, Canada. This study was undertaken to examine barriers and facilitators of implementing addiction medicine fellowships...
September 20, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927253/comparative-aspects-of-microrna-expression-in-canine-and-human-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Kabiru Sahabi, Gayathri Thevi Selvarajah, Rasedee Abdullah, Cheah Yoke Kqueen, Tan Geok Chin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important players in all biological pathways in multicellular organisms. Over 1,400 human miRNAs have been identified, and many are conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates. MicroRNA regulation is the most abundant mode of post-transcriptional gene regulation. MicroRNAs that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers are termed oncomiRs, several of which have been identified in canine and human cancer. Similarly, several miRNAs have been reported to be down-regulated in cancers of the two species...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#10
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926586/sox14-activates-the-p53-signaling-pathway-and-induces-apoptosis-in-a-cervical-carcinoma-cell-line
#11
Danijela Stanisavljevic, Isidora Petrovic, Vladanka Vukovic, Marija Schwirtlich, Marija Gredic, Milena Stevanovic, Jelena Popovic
SOX14 is a member of the SOX family of transcription factors mainly involved in the regulation of neural development. Recently, it became evident that SOX14 is one of four hypermethylated genes in cervical carcinoma, considered as a tumor suppressor candidate in this type of malignancy. In this paper we elucidated the role of SOX14 in the regulation of malignant properties of cervical carcinoma cells in vitro. Functional analysis performed in HeLa cells revealed that SOX14 overexpression decreased viability and promoted apoptosis through altering the expression of apoptosis related genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926431/epigenetic-regulation-of-dendritic-cell-development-and-function
#12
Yuanyuan Tian, Lijun Meng, Yi Zhang
The immune system is characterized by the generation of structurally and functionally heterogeneous immune cells that constitute complex innate and adaptive immunity. This heterogeneity of immune cells results from changes in the expression of genes without altering DNA sequence. To achieve this heterogeneity, immune cells orchestrate the expression and functional status of transcription factor (TF) networks, which can be broadly categorized into 3 classes: pioneer TFs that facilitate initial commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, subset-specific TFs that promote the generation of selected cell lineages, and immune-signaling TFs that regulate specialized function in differentiated cells...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925469/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-regulates-t-lymphocyte-proliferation-through-activation-of-p53-and-inhibition-of-erk1-2-signaling-pathway-in-children-with-kawasaki-disease
#13
X-L Qi, L-L Chen, X-G Sun, X-M Li, L-H Zhao, D-J Kong
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on T lymphocytes in Kawasaki disease and to further investigate its molecular mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 30 child patients was diagnosed as Kawasaki disease, 60 child patients were diagnosed as infectious fever, and 60 normal children, were selected. 4 mL peripheral blood was collected before treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and separated using the Facollin method and cultured...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925404/ing5-activity-in-self-renewal-of-glioblastoma-stem-cells-via-calcium-and-follicle-stimulating-hormone-pathways
#14
F Wang, A Y Wang, C Chesnelong, Y Yang, A Nabbi, S Thalappilly, V Alekseev, K Riabowol
Stem cell-like brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) cause recurrence of glioblastomas, with BTIC 'stemness' affected by epigenetic mechanisms. The ING family of epigenetic regulators (ING1-5) function by targeting histone acetyltransferase (HAT) or histone deacetylase complexes to the H3K4me3 mark to alter histone acetylation and subsequently, gene expression. Here we find that ectopic expression of ING5, the targeting subunit of HBO1, MOZ and MORF HAT complexes increases expression of the Oct4, Olig2 and Nestin stem cell markers, promotes self-renewal, prevents lineage differentiation and increases stem cell pools in BTIC populations...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925398/functional-significance-and-therapeutic-implication-of-ring-type-e3-ligases-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
L Liu, C C Wong, B Gong, J Yu
Accumulative studies revealed that E3 ubiquitin ligases have important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. The pathogenic mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression are complex and heterogeneous, involving somatic mutations, abnormal gene fusion, deletion or amplification and epigenetic alteration, which may cause aberrant expression or altered function of E3 ligases in CRC. Defects of E3 ligases have been reported to be involved in the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of CRC. The aberrant expressed E3 ligases can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending on ubiquiting target substrates in CRC...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924602/factors-defining-expertise-in-screening-colonoscopy
#16
Kinesh Patel, Anna Pinto, Omar Faiz, Matt Rutter, Siwan Thomas-Gibson
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:  There is very little literature defining characteristics of expert endoscopists. It is hypothesised that previously undetermined human factors may correlate with high performance in screening colonoscopists. The aim of this study was to determine factors contributing towards expertise in screening colonoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A focus group was used to hypothesise skills considered to be relevant to high performance in colonoscopy...
September 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924045/interaction-between-repressor-opi1p-and-er-membrane-protein-scs2p-facilitates-transit-of-phosphatidic-acid-from-the-er-to-mitochondria-and-is-essential-for-ino1-gene-expression-in-the-presence-of-choline
#17
Maria L Gaspar, Yu-Fang Chang, Stephen A Jesch, Manuel Aregullin, Susan A Henry
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Opi1p repressor controls the expression of INO1 via the Opi1p/Ino2p-Ino4p regulatory circuit. Inositol depletion favors Opi1p interaction with both Scs2p and phosphatidic acid at the ER membrane. Inositol supplementation, however, favors the translocation of Opi1p from the ER into the nucleus where it interacts with the Ino2p-Ino4p complex, attenuating transcription of INO1. A strain devoid of Scs2p (scs2) and a mutant, OPI1FFAT, lacking the ability to interact with Scs2p were utilized to examine the specific role(s) of the Opi1p-Scs2p interaction in the regulation of INO1 expression and overall lipid metabolism...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924029/circuitry-linking-the-global-csr-and-%C3%AF-e-dependent-cell-envelope-stress-response-systems
#18
Helen Yakhnin, Robert Aichele, Sarah E Ades, Tony Romeo, Paul Babitzke
CsrA of Escherichia coli is an RNA-binding protein that globally regulates a wide variety of cellular processes and behaviors including carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and the stringent response. CsrB and CsrC are sRNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing CsrA-mRNA interaction. RpoE (σ(E)) is the extracytoplasmic stress response sigma factor of E. coli Previous RNA-seq studies identified rpoE mRNA as a CsrA target. Here we explored the regulation of rpoE by CsrA and found that CsrA represses rpoE translation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923978/mcam-contributes-to-the-establishment-of-cell-autonomous-polarity-in-myogenic-and-chondrogenic-differentiation
#19
Artal Moreno-Fortuny, Laricia Bragg, Giulio Cossu, Urmas Roostalu
Cell polarity has a fundamental role in shaping the morphology of cells and growing tissues. Polarity is commonly thought to be established in response to extracellular signals. Here we used a minimal in vitro assay that enabled us to monitor the determination of cell polarity in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in the absence of external signalling gradients. We demonstrate that the initiation of cell polarity is regulated by melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM). We found highly polarized localization of MCAM, Moesin (MSN), Scribble (SCRIB) and Van-Gogh-like 2 (VANGL2) at the distal end of elongating myotubes...
September 18, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923960/igh-isotype-specific-b-cell-receptor-expression-influences-b-cell-fate
#20
Pei Tong, Alessandra Granato, Teng Zuo, Neha Chaudhary, Adam Zuiani, Seung Seok Han, Rakesh Donthula, Akritee Shrestha, Debattama Sen, Jennifer M Magee, Michael P Gallagher, Cees E van der Poel, Michael C Carroll, Duane R Wesemann
Ig heavy chain (IgH) isotypes (e.g., IgM, IgG, and IgE) are generated as secreted/soluble antibodies (sIg) or as membrane-bound (mIg) B cell receptors (BCRs) through alternative RNA splicing. IgH isotype dictates soluble antibody function, but how mIg isotype influences B cell behavior is not well defined. We examined IgH isotype-specific BCR function by analyzing naturally switched B cells from wild-type mice, as well as by engineering polyclonal Ighγ1/γ1 and Ighε/ε mice, which initially produce IgG1 or IgE from their respective native genomic configurations...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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