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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778009/exploring-opioid-use-disorder-its-impact-and-treatment-among-individuals-experiencing-homelessness-as-part-of-a-family
#1
Avik Chatterjee, Eun Jin Yu, Lindsay Tishberg
BACKGROUND: Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) causes significant morbidity and mortality among people experiencing homelessness. We aimed to explore the unique way in which OUD impacts individuals experiencing homelessness as part of a family. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with adults experiencing OUD staying in Boston-area family shelters along with dependent children. We used Borkan's Immersion-Crystallization method to uncover themes from interview transcripts...
May 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777784/cd146-mediates-an-e-cadherin-to-n-cadherin-switch-during-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#2
Yanbin Ma, Haofeng Zhang, Chaoliang Xiong, Zheng Liu, Qingji Xu, Jing Feng, Jun Zhang, Zhaoqing Wang, Xiyun Yan
Cadherin switch is an initiating factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is intimately correlated with cancer metastatic potential; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, using a transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EMT model, we provide explicit evidence that CD146, with elevated expression and activity in a variety of cancers, is a key factor involved in the cadherin switch. We show that CD146 can be induced by TGF-β signaling. Moreover, CD146 expression is positively correlated with the activation levels of STAT3/Twist and ERK pathways...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777223/card9-s12n-facilitates-the-production-of-il-5-by-alveolar-macrophages-for-the-induction-of-type-2-immune-responses
#3
Xia Xu, Jin-Fu Xu, Guoxing Zheng, Hai-Wen Lu, Jie-Lin Duan, Wei Rui, Jian-Hong Guan, Li-Qing Cheng, Dan-Dan Yang, Ming-Chao Wang, Quan-Zhen Lv, Jian-Xiong Li, Xueqiang Zhao, Chun-Xia Chen, Peng Shi, Xin-Ming Jia, Xin Lin
The adaptor CARD9 functions downstream of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) for the sensing of microbial infection, which leads to responses by the TH 1 and TH 17 subsets of helper T cells. The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4077515 at CARD9 in the human genome, which results in the substitution S12N (CARD9S12N ), is associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, the function of CARD9S12N has remained unknown. Here we generated CARD9S12N knock-in mice and found that CARD9S12N facilitated the induction of type 2 immune responses after engagement of CLRs...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776901/a-moderated-e-forum-for-adults-with-cardiovascular-disease-usability-study
#4
Rika Tanaka, Anita Banerjee, Jelena Surikova, Jacqueline Tracey, Ada Payne, Heather Ross, Robert Nolan
BACKGROUND: Self-care behaviors are commonly prescribed to manage both cardiovascular disease and hypertension to reduce modifiable risk factors and improve quality of life. Nevertheless, long-term adherence to self-care recommendations for cardiac patients has been problematic. In cardiac patients, moderated online forums have been found to be particularly useful in supporting maintenance of heart-healthy diet and fewer hospital visits. As such, we developed the e-Forum, a Web-based moderated forum designed to promote continued user engagement and long-term self-care adherence...
May 18, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775608/regulation-of-the-gyr-operon-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-overlapping-promoters-dna-topology-and-reiterative-transcription
#5
Rajiv Kumar Jha, Priyanka Tare, Valakunja Nagaraja
DNA gyrase introduces negative supercoils into DNA to maintain topological homeostasis. The genes encoding gyrase, gyrB and gyrA, form a dicistronic operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other actinobacteria. Earlier work indicated that DNA relaxation stimulates the expression of the gyr genes, a phenomenon termed relaxation-stimulated transcription (RST). The present study addresses the underlying mechanism of gyr operon regulation. The operon is regulated by overlapping and divergently oriented promoters located upstream of gyrB...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775583/correlating-transcription-initiation-and-conformational-changes-by-a-single-subunit-rna-polymerase-with-near-base-pair-resolution
#6
Hye Ran Koh, Rahul Roy, Maria Sorokina, Guo-Qing Tang, Divya Nandakumar, Smita S Patel, Taekjip Ha
We provide a comprehensive analysis of transcription in real time by T7 RNA Polymerase (RNAP) using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer by monitoring the entire life history of transcription initiation, including stepwise RNA synthesis with near base-pair resolution, abortive cycling, and transition into elongation. Kinetically branching pathways were observed for abortive initiation with an RNAP either recycling on the same promoter or exchanging with another RNAP from solution. We detected fast and slow populations of RNAP in their transition into elongation, consistent with the efficient and delayed promoter release, respectively, observed in ensemble studies...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#7
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774584/-i-can-see-fine-patient-knowledge-of-eye-care
#8
Elizabeth L Irving, Alisa M Sivak, Marlee M Spafford
PURPOSE: To learn more about the perceptions and attitudes toward eye care of members of the public - in particular, their knowledge of the purpose, components and providers of eye examinations, their ability to self-monitor ocular status and their awareness of major sight threatening eye conditions. METHODS: This study used the qualitative research strategy, grounded theory. Participants were recruited via poster and social media. Two researchers, one with optometric knowledge and one without, moderated seven 60- to 90-min, semi-structured focus group discussions, which were audiotaped and transcribed...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774376/roles-of-heat-shock-factor-1-beyond-the-heat-shock-response
#9
REVIEW
János Barna, Péter Csermely, Tibor Vellai
Various stress factors leading to protein damage induce the activation of an evolutionarily conserved cell protective mechanism, the heat shock response (HSR), to maintain protein homeostasis in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) plays a central role in the HSR. HSF1 was initially known as a transcription factor that upregulates genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs), also called molecular chaperones, which assist in refolding or degrading injured intracellular proteins. However, recent accumulating evidence indicates multiple additional functions for HSF1 beyond the activation of HSPs...
May 17, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774125/the-critical-role-that-stat3-plays-in-glioma-initiating-cells-stat3-addiction-in-glioma
#10
Debolina Ganguly, Meiyun Fan, Chuan He Yang, Blazej Zbytek, David Finkelstein, Martine F Roussel, Lawrence M Pfeffer
Glioma-Initiating Cells (GICs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression and recurrence in glioblastoma (GBM). In previous studies, we reported the constitutive phosphorylation of the STAT3 transcription factor in GICs derived from GBM patient-derived xenografts, and that STAT3 played a critical role in GBM tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of STAT3 in an established GBM cell line markedly inhibited tumorigenesis by intracranial injection but had little effect on cell proliferation in vitro ...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773851/modeling-transcriptional-rewiring-in-neutrophils-through-the-course-of-treated-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#11
Zihua Hu, Kaiyu Jiang, Mark Barton Frank, Yanmin Chen, James N Jarvis
Neutrophils in children with the polyarticular form of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) display abnormal transcriptional patterns linked to fundamental metabolic derangements. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of therapy on mRNA and miRNA expression networks in polyarticular JIA. Using exon and miRNA microarrays, we studied children with untreated active JIA (ADU, n = 35), children with active disease on therapy with methotrexate ± etanercept (ADT, n = 26), and children with inactive disease also on therapy (ID, n = 14)...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773834/embryonic-pou5f1-is-required-for-expanded-bovine-blastocyst-formation
#12
Bradford W Daigneault, Sandeep Rajput, George W Smith, Pablo J Ross
POU5F1 is a transcription factor and master regulator of cell pluripotency with indispensable roles in early embryo development and cell lineage specification. The role of embryonic POU5F1 in blastocyst formation and cell lineage specification differs between mammalian species but remains completely unknown in cattle. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was utilized for targeted disruption of the POU5F1 gene by direct injection into zygotes. Disruption of the bovine POU5F1 locus prevented blastocyst formation and was associated with embryonic arrest at the morula stage...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773679/comparative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-regulatory-network-of-the-vea-gene-during-asexual-and-sexual-spore-development-of-aspergillus-cristatus
#13
Hui Liu, Shilei Sang, Hui Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yumei Tan, Wei Chen, Zuoyi Liu, Yongxiang Liu
Aspergillus cristatus belongs to the homothallic fungal group that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation under hypotonic conditions, while hypertonic medium induces initiation of the asexual stage and completely blocks sexual development. However, the veA deletion mutant only produces conidia in hypotonic medium after a 24 h culture, but both asexual and sexual spores are observed after 72 h. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of how VeA regulates asexual and sexual spore development in A. cristatus , two dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry analysis were applied to identify 173 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) by comparing the agamotype (24 h) and teleomorph (72 h) with wild-type A...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773426/stem-cell-transcription-factor-sox2-in-synovial-sarcoma-and-other-soft-tissue-tumors
#14
Heba Zayed, Iver Petersen
BACKGROUND: SOX2 has gained considerable interest as a pluripotency inducing gene. Co-transfection of SOX2 together with NANOG, KLF4 and c-MYC into adult fibroblasts was able to generate pluripotent stem cells. SOX2 has been reported to be expressed in synovial sarcoma, a tumor being characterized by the SS18-SSX gene fusion forming part of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex that affects histone methylation. The role of SOX2 in this tumor type as well as other soft tissue tumor entities however is still poorly characterized...
May 4, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772716/kinetic-basis-of-the-bifunctionality-of-ssoii-dna-methyltransferase
#15
Nadezhda A Timofeyeva, Alexandra Yu Ryazanova, Maxim V Norkin, Tatiana S Oretskaya, Olga S Fedorova, Elena A Kubareva
Type II restriction⁻modification (RM) systems are the most widespread bacterial antiviral defence mechanisms. DNA methyltransferase SsoII (M.SsoII) from a Type II RM system SsoII regulates transcription in its own RM system in addition to the methylation function. DNA with a so-called regulatory site inhibits the M.SsoII methylation activity. Using circular permutation assay, we show that M.SsoII monomer induces DNA bending of 31° at the methylation site and 46° at the regulatory site. In the M.SsoII dimer bound to the regulatory site, both protein subunits make equal contributions to the DNA bending, and both angles are in the same plane...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771928/chip-exo-interrogation-of-crp-dna-and-rnap-holoenzyme-interactions
#16
Haythem Latif, Stephen Federowicz, Ali Ebrahim, Janna Tarasova, Richard Szubin, Jose Utrilla, Karsten Zengler, Bernhard O Palsson
Numerous in vitro studies have yielded a refined picture of the structural and molecular associations between Cyclic-AMP receptor protein (Crp), the DNA motif, and RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme. In this study, high-resolution ChIP-exonuclease (ChIP-exo) was applied to study Crp binding in vivo and at genome-scale. Surprisingly, Crp was found to provide little to no protection of the DNA motif under activating conditions. Instead, Crp demonstrated binding patterns that closely resembled those generated by σ70...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771436/correlations-of-neuronal-apoptosis-with-expressions-of-c-fos-and-c-jun-in-rats-with-post-ischemic-reconditioning-damage
#17
P Xiao, X-W Liu, N-N Zhao, R Fang, Q Wen, K-X Zeng, Y-L Wang
OBJECTIVE: Transcription factors (c-Fos and c-Jun) have been considered to play roles in the initiation of programmed nerve cell death. However, the roles of c-Fos and c-Jun protein expressions in neuronal apoptosis of rats with post-ischemic reconditioning damage were not clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations of protein expressions of c-Fos and c-Jun with neuronal apoptosis of rats with post-ischemic reconditioning damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat models of post-ischemic reconditioning were established firstly...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770538/integral-bhlh-factor-regulation-of-cell-cycle-exit-and-rgc-differentiation
#18
Kate A Maurer, Angelica Kowalchuk, Farnaz Shoja-Taheri, Nadean L Brown
BACKGROUND: In the developing mouse embryo, the bHLH transcription factor Neurog2 is transiently expressed by retinal progenitor cells and required for the initial wave of neurogenesis. Remarkably, another bHLH factor, Ascl1, normally not present in the embryonic Neurog2 retinal lineage, can rescue the temporal phenotypes of Neurog2 mutants. RESULTS: Here we show that Neurog2 simultaneously promotes terminal cell cycle exit and retinal ganglion cell differentiation, using mitotic window labeling and integrating these results with retinal marker quantifications...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769349/hiv-1-activation-of-innate-immunity-depends-strongly-on-the-intracellular-level-of-trex1-and-sensing-of-incomplete-reverse-transcription-products
#19
Swati Kumar, James H Morrison, David Dingli, Eric Poeschla
TREX1 has been reported to degrade cytosolic immune-stimulatory DNA, including viral DNA generated during HIV-1 infection, but the dynamic range of its capacity to suppress innate immune stimulation is unknown and its full role in the viral life cycle remains unclear. A main purpose of our study was to determine how the intracellular level of TREX1 affects HIV-1 activation and avoidance of innate immunity. Using stable over-expression and CRISPR-mediated gene disruption, we engineered a range of TREX1 levels in human THP-1 monocytes...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768919/molecular-mechanism-of-modified-clay-controlling-the-brown-tide-organism-aureococcus-anophagefferens-revealed-by-transcriptome-analysis
#20
Jianan Zhu, Zhiming Yu, Liyan He, Xihua Cao, Shuya Liu, Xiuxian Song
The data and experiences in mitigating harmful algal blooms (HABs) by modified clay (MC) show that a bloom does not continue after the dispersal of the MC, even though the density of the residual cells in the water is still high, at 20-30% of the initial cell density. This interesting phenomenon indicates that in addition to flocculation, MC has an additional control mechanism. Here, transcriptome sequencing technology was used to study the molecular mechanism of MC in controlling HABs. In residual cells treated with MC, the photosynthetic light reaction was the most affected physiological process...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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