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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145712/cartilage-microrna-dysregulation-during-the-onset-and-progression-of-mouse-osteoarthritis-is-independent-of-aggrecanolysis-and-overlaps-with-candidates-from-end-stage-human-disease
#1
Louise H W Kung, Varshini Ravi, Lynn Rowley, Constanza Angelucci, Amanda J Fosang, Katrina M Bell, Christopher B Little, John F Bateman
OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate microRNAs that potentially regulate the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced in 10-12 week old male wild-type C57BL6 mice and in mice resistant to aggrecanase cleavage (Acan p.374ALGS→374NVYS) by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Osteoarthritis pathology was scored histologically. RNA from cartilage and subchondral bone were harvested in parallel by laser micro-dissection at 1 and 6 weeks post-surgery...
November 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145694/engineered-and-natural-promoters-and-chromatin-modifying-elements-for-recombinant-protein-expression-in-cho-cells
#2
REVIEW
Nadiya Romanova, Thomas Noll
Promoters play a pivotal role in integrating and processing the signals related to transcription initiation. Strong natural viral promoters, such as hCMV or SV40E, have been routinely employed to achieve a high rate of gene expression in ubiquitously used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, viral promoters are susceptible to epigenetic silencing and lack precise regulation levers. This has paved the way to more sensible control elements: endogenous, inducible and synthetic promoters. In this review we summarise and discuss the use of natural viral, mammalian and endogenous promoters, as well as recent advances in synthetic promoters and inducible systems for protein expression in CHO cells...
November 16, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145618/the-histone-variant-h2a-z-promotes-initiation-of-meiotic-recombination-in-fission-yeast
#3
Shintaro Yamada, Kazuto Kugou, Da-Qiao Ding, Yurika Fujita, Yasushi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Murakami, Kunihiro Ohta, Takatomi Yamada
Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are mainly formed at recombination hotspots. Meiotic DSBs require multiple proteins including the conserved protein Spo11 and its cofactors, and are influenced by chromatin structure. For example, local chromatin around hotspots directly impacts DSB formation. Moreover, DSB is proposed to occur in a higher-order chromatin architecture termed 'axis-loop', in which many loops protrude from cohesin-enriched axis...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145502/hi-fidelity-discrimination-of-isomirs-using-g-quadruplex-gatekeepers
#4
Nianjia Seow, Renzo A Fenati, Ashley R Connolly, Amanda V Ellis
Core microRNA (miRNA) sequences exist as populations of variants called isomiRs made up of different lengths and nucleotide compositions. In particular, the short sequences of miRNA make single-base isomiR mismatches very difficult to be discriminated. Non-specific hybridizations often arise when DNA probe-miRNA target hybridization is the primary, or initial, mode of detection. These errors then become exacerbated through subsequent amplification steps. Here, we present the design of DNA probes modified with poly-guanine (PG) tracts that were induced to form G-quadruplexes (G4) for hi-fidelity discrimination of miRNA core target sequence from single-base mismatched isomiRs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145177/lncrna-cps1-it1-suppresses-cell-proliferation-invasion-and-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
Wei Zhang, Weitang Yuan, Junmin Song, Shijun Wang, Xiaoming Gu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidence demonstrates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate diverse cellular processes and cancer progression. Whether lncRNAs play any functional role in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of lncRNA CPS1 intronic transcript 1 (CPS1-IT1) in CRC. METHODS: Expression of CPS1-IT1 was initially assessed in human CRC tissues and in a series of CRC cell lines. The correlations between CPS1-IT1 levels and survival outcomes were analyzed to elucidate the clinical significance of CPS1-IT1 in CRC...
November 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145159/potential-link-between-m-6-a-modification-and-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
REVIEW
Lian-Ju Li, Yin-Guang Fan, Rui-Xue Leng, Hai-Feng Pan, Dong-Qing Ye
The field of m(6)A modification and epitranscriptomics has recently attracted much attention. More methods allowing for precise m(6)A site profiling and location are developed and crucial players of m(6)A modification machinery are increasingly identified. Although some challenges remain, m(6)A modification is found to modulate almost all aspects of RNA metabolism, such as splicing, stability, structure, translation, and export. Thus, m(6)A modification adds a new layer of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, and it is implicated in T cell response to HIV infection, type I interferon production, and T cell differentiation and homeostasis...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144988/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-enhances-melanoma-tumor-growth-via-differential-effect-on-m1-and-m2-polarized-macrophages-in-mouse-model
#7
Jae-Wook Lee, Sojin Park, Hae-Kyoung Han, Myung Chan Gye, Eun-Yi Moon
Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers that influence sexual and reproductive development. Here, we investigated whether di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects macrophage polarization that are associated with tumor initiation and progression. No changes were observed in LPS- or ConA-stimulated in vitro spleen B or T cell proliferation for 48 h, respectively. In contrast, macrophage functions were inhibited in response to DEHP for 12 h as judged by LPS-induced H2O2 and NO production and zymosan A-mediated phagocytosis...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144570/lncapc-drives-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-activation-and-liver-tic-self-renewal-through-ezh2-mediated-apc-transcriptional-inhibition
#8
Xiaomin Fu, Jizhen Lin, Fujun Qin, Zihe Yang, Yuechao Ding, Yong Zhang, Lu Han, Xiaoyan Zhu, Qinxian Zhang
Liver tumor initiating cells (TICs), a small subset cells in tumor bulk, are responsible for liver tumor initiation, metastasis and relapse. However, the regulatory mechanism of liver TICs remains largely unknown. Here we found a long noncoding RNA lncAPC, locating near from APC locus, was highly expressed in liver cancer and liver TICs. LncAPC was required for liver TIC self-renewal. Silencing and overexpressing lncAPC showed impaired and enhanced sphere formation capacity of liver TICs, respectively. By recruiting EZH2 to APC promoter, LncAPC inhibits APC transcription and thus drives the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144509/circular-rna-expression-is-suppressed-by-androgen-receptor-ar-regulated-adenosine-deaminase-that-acts-on-rna-adar1-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#9
Liang Shi, Peijian Yan, Yuelong Liang, Yin Sun, Jiliang Shen, Senjun Zhou, Hui Lin, Xiao Liang, Xiujun Cai
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous malignancy as a result of complex genetic and epigenetic alterations. HCC is characterized by a clear gender disparity for which there is lack of a clear mechanistic understanding. Androgen receptor (AR) is thought to be critical for such bias. Meanwhile, the potential function of circular RNA (circRNA), regulated by RNA editing enzyme, remained largely unknown in malignancy till now. By utilizing circRNA microarray survey coupled with in vitro analysis, we analyzed the influence of AR on circRNA expression in HCC...
November 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144447/bcat1-restricts-%C3%AE-kg-levels-in-aml-stem-cells-leading-to-idhmut-like-dna-hypermethylation
#10
Simon Raffel, Mattia Falcone, Niclas Kneisel, Jenny Hansson, Wei Wang, Christoph Lutz, Lars Bullinger, Gernot Poschet, Yannic Nonnenmacher, Andrea Barnert, Carsten Bahr, Petra Zeisberger, Adriana Przybylla, Markus Sohn, Martje Tönjes, Ayelet Erez, Lital Adler, Patrizia Jensen, Claudia Scholl, Stefan Fröhling, Sibylle Cocciardi, Patrick Wuchter, Christian Thiede, Anne Flörcken, Jörg Westermann, Gerhard Ehninger, Peter Lichter, Karsten Hiller, Rüdiger Hell, Carl Herrmann, Anthony D Ho, Jeroen Krijgsveld, Bernhard Radlwimmer, Andreas Trumpp
The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathway and high levels of BCAA transaminase 1 (BCAT1) have recently been associated with aggressiveness in several cancer entities. However, the mechanistic role of BCAT1 in this process remains largely uncertain. Here, by performing high-resolution proteomic analysis of human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) stem-cell and non-stem-cell populations, we find the BCAA pathway enriched and BCAT1 protein and transcripts overexpressed in leukaemia stem cells. We show that BCAT1, which transfers α-amino groups from BCAAs to α-ketoglutarate (αKG), is a critical regulator of intracellular αKG homeostasis...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143999/microrna-27a-3p-inhibits-cell-viability-and-migration-through-down-regulating-dusp16-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Jin-Mao Li, Jun Zhou, Zhen Xu, Hai-Jin Huang, Min-Jiang Chen, Jian-Song Ji
MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) has been shown to play an important role in the initiation and development in many different cancers. Here, we demonstrated down-regulated expression of miR-27a-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues in comparison with that in adjacent normal liver tissues based on the TCGA database. Cells viability and apoptosis was measured by CCK-8 and flow cytometry assay. Cell invasion and migration was measured by Transwell and wound healing assay. The effect of miR-27a-3p on DUSP16 expression was evaluated by luciferase assays, and western blot assay...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143607/features-of-ppd-b1-expression-regulation-and-their-impact-on-the-flowering-time-of-wheat-near-isogenic-lines
#12
Antonina A Kiseleva, Elena K Potokina, Elena A Salina
BACKGROUND: Photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a alleles determine early flowering of wheat. Increased expression of homoeologous Ppd-D1a and Ppd-A1a result from deletions in the promoter region, and elevated expression of Ppd-B1a is determined by an increased copy number. RESULTS: In this study, using bread wheat cultivars Sonora and PSL2, which contrast in flowering time, and near-isogenic lines resulting from their cross, "Ppd-m" and "Ppd-w" with Ppd-B1a introgressed from Sonora, we investigated the putative factors that influence Ppd-B1a expression...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142744/-who-has-to-do-it-at-the-end-of-the-day-programme-officials-or-hospital-authorities-airborne-infection-control-at-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-dr-tb-centres-of-karnataka-india-a-mixed-methods-study
#13
Kibballi Madhukeshwar Akshaya, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Ottapura Prabhakaran Aslesh, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Abhay Subashrao Nirgude, Anil Singarajipura, Anil G Jacob
Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) centers admit patients with DR-TB for initiation of treatment and thereby concentrate the patients under one setting. It becomes imperative to assess the compliance of DR-TB centres to national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines and explore the provider perspectives into reasons for unsatisfactory compliance. Methods: This mixed methods study (triangulation design) was carried out across all the six DR-TB centers of Karnataka state, India, between November 2016 and April 2017...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142594/micrornas-a-subpopulation-of-regulators-are-involved-in-breast-cancer-progression-through-regulating-breast-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Xuemei Fan, Wei Chen, Ziyi Fu, Lihua Zeng, Yongmei Yin, Hongyan Yuan
Cancer stem cells (CSCs; also known as tumor-initiating cells) are essential effectors of tumor progression due to their self-renewal capacity, differentiation potential, tumorigenic ability and resistance to chemotherapy, all of which contribute to cancer relapse, metastasis and a poor prognosis. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been identified to be involved in the processes of BC initiation, growth and recurrence. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs of 19-23 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through various mechanisms, and serve critical roles in cancer progression...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142505/targeting-deubiquitinating-enzymes-in-cancer-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Hu Lei, Huizhuang Shan, Yingli Wu
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare but accounted for tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, relapse and therapeutic resistance. Ubiquitination and deubiquitination of stemness-related proteins are essential for CSC maintenance and differentiation, even leading to execute various stem cell fate choices. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), specifically disassembling ubiquitin chains, are important to maintain the balance between ubiquitination and deubiquitination. In this review, we have focused on the DUBs regulation of stem cell fate determination...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142404/chalepin-a-compound-from-ruta-angustifolia-l-pers-exhibits-cell-cycle-arrest-at-s-phase-suppresses-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-signal-transducer-and-activation-of-transcription-3-stat3-phosphorylation-and-extrinsic-apoptotic-pathway-in-non-small-cell
#16
Jaime Stella Moses Richardson, Norhaniza Aminudin, Sri Nurestri Abd Malek
Background: Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. Objective: A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142233/crystal-structure-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-human-cdc73-and-its-implications-for-the-hyperparathyroidism-jaw-tumor-hpt-jt-syndrome
#17
Wei Sun, Xiao-Lin Kuang, Yan-Ping Liu, Li-Fei Tian, Xiao-Xue Yan, Wenqing Xu
CDC73/Parafibromin is a critical component of the Paf1 complex (PAF1C), which is involved in transcriptional elongation and histone modifications. Mutations of the human CDC73/HRPT2 gene are associated with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder. CDC73/parafibromin was initially recognized as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation via repression of cyclin D1 and c-myc genes. In recent years, it has also shown oncogenic features by activating the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142132/identification-of-a-small-molecule-that-compromises-the-structural-integrity-of-viroplasms-and-rotavirus-double-layered-particles
#18
Catherine Eichwald, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Elisabeth M Schraner, Guido Papa, Michela Bollati, Paolo Swuec, Matteo de Rosa, Mario Milani, Eloise Mastrangelo, Mathias Ackermann, Oscar R Burrone, Francesca Arnoldi
Despite the availability of two attenuated vaccines, rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis remains an important cause of mortality among children in developing countries causing about 215,000 infant deaths annually. Currently, there are no specific antiviral therapies available. RV is a non-enveloped virus with a segmented double-stranded RNA genome. Viral genome replication and assembly of transcriptionally active double-layered particles (DLPs) take place in cytoplasmic viral structures called viroplasms. In this study, we describe strong impairment of the early stages of RV replication induced by a small molecule known as RNA polymerase III inhibitor, ML-60218 (ML)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142123/initiation-elongation-and-realignment-during-influenza-virus-mrna-synthesis
#19
Aartjan J W Te Velthuis, Judith Oymans
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the influenza A virus replicates and transcribes the viral genome segments in the nucleus of the host cell. To transcribe these viral genome segments, the RdRp 'snatches' capped RNA oligonucleotides from nascent host cell mRNAs and aligns these primers to the ultimate or penultimate nucleotide of the segments for the initiation of viral mRNA synthesis. It has been proposed that this initiation process is not processive and that the RdRp uses a prime-realign mechanism during transcription...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141972/epigenetic-regulation-of-centromere-chromatin-stability-by-dietary-and-environmental-factors
#20
REVIEW
Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Rita S Strakovsky, Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
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