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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238087/bone-regeneration-in-the-stem-cell-era-safe-play-for-the-patient
#1
Estella Musacchio, Nicola Veronese
The past decade has seen outstanding scientific progress in the field of stem cell (SC) research and clinical application. SCs are convenient both technically and biologically: they are easy to find and to culture and they can differentiate in virtually all tissues and even in whole organs. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSs) are a type of pluripotent SC generated in vitro directly from mature cells through the introduction of key transcription factors. The use of iPSs, however tantalizing, poses serious safety concerns because of their genomic instability...
February 25, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236044/burning-issues-cremation-and-incineration-in-modern-india
#2
David Arnold
The cremation of human bodies and the incineration of urban waste provide two interrelated examples of technologies using the destructive power of fire that "travelled" in both directions between India and the West in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rather than granting an automatic ascendency to western ways of burning the dead or disposing of urban rubbish, these case studies indicate the manner in which culture and environment inhibited or prevented their advance and favoured the survival or re-articulation of pre-existing technological practices and the socio-political infrastructure in which they were embedded...
February 24, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235439/implementation-of-community-wide-teen-pregnancy-prevention-initiatives-focus-on-partnerships
#3
Heather D Tevendale, Taleria R Fuller, L Duane House, Deborah L Dee, Emilia H Koumans
Seeking to reduce teen pregnancy and births in communities with rates above the national average, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program, developed a joint funding opportunity through which grantees worked to implement and test an approach involving community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. Once these projects had been in the field for 2.5 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff developed plans for a supplemental issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health to present findings from and lessons learned during implementation of the community-wide initiatives...
March 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217747/insights-into-photosystem-ii-from-isomorphous-difference-fourier-maps-of-femtosecond-x-ray-diffraction-data-and-quantum-mechanics-molecular-mechanics-structural-models
#4
REVIEW
Jimin Wang, Mikhail Askerka, Gary W Brudvig, Victor S Batista
Understanding structure-function relations in photosystem II (PSII) is important for the development of biomimetic photocatalytic systems. X-ray crystallography, computational modeling, and spectroscopy have played central roles in elucidating the structure and function of PSII. Recent breakthroughs in femtosecond X-ray crystallography offer the possibility of collecting diffraction data from the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) before radiation damage of the sample, thereby overcoming the main challenge of conventional X-ray diffraction methods...
February 10, 2017: ACS Energy Lett
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213145/how-are-you-feeling-a-personalized-methodology-for-predicting-mental-states-from-temporally-observable-physical-and-behavioral-information
#5
Suppawong Tuarob, Conrad S Tucker, Soundar Kumara, C Lee Giles, Aaron L Pincus, David E Conroy, Nilam Ram
It is believed that anomalous mental states such as stress and anxiety not only cause suffering for the individuals, but also lead to tragedies in some extreme cases. The ability to predict the mental state of an individual at both current and future time periods could prove critical to healthcare practitioners. Currently, the practical way to predict an individual's mental state is through mental examinations that involve psychological experts performing the evaluations. However, such methods can be time and resource consuming, mitigating their broad applicability to a wide population...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182613/news-on-viral-hepatitis-in-hiv-update-from-the-2016-gehep-conference
#6
Eva Poveda, Massimo Puoti, Miguel García-Deltoro, Juan A Pineda, Francisco Téllez, Rafael Granados, Luis Morano, Federico García
The II Conference of the Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis (GEHEP) (29 September-1 October, Spain) updated epidemiological, diagnostic and treatment aspects on viral hepatitis. The conference was mostly focused on the latest news related to HCV infection, including the successes achieved since the implementation of direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV therapy, but also in the new, future challenges for a real HCV eradication. The scenario for chronic HCV infection has dramatically changed in the last two years and most patients have been cured after 12 weeks of therapy with minimal side effects...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167576/phase-relations-in-a-forced-turbulent-boundary-layer-implications-for-modelling-of-high-reynolds-number-wall-turbulence
#7
Subrahmanyam Duvvuri, Beverley McKeon
Phase relations between specific scales in a turbulent boundary layer are studied here by highlighting the associated nonlinear scale interactions in the flow. This is achieved through an experimental technique that allows for targeted forcing of the flow through the use of a dynamic wall perturbation. Two distinct large-scale modes with well-defined spatial and temporal wavenumbers were simultaneously forced in the boundary layer, and the resulting nonlinear response from their direct interactions was isolated from the turbulence signal for the study...
March 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165866/direct-quantification-of-autophagic-flux-by-a-single-molecule-based-probe
#8
Jiefei Geng, Daniel J Klionsky
Macroautophagy/autophagy remains a rapidly advancing research topic, and there continues to be a need for constantly evolving methodology to investigate this pathway at each individual step. Accordingly, new assays to measure autophagic flux in a robust and reliable manner are essential to understand the mechanism and physiological roles of autophagy. Kaizuka et al. recently reported a new fluorescence probe, GFP-LC3-RFP-LC3δG to directly demonstrate autophagic flux without being combined with lysosomal inhibitors (see the punctum in this issue of the journal)...
February 6, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165829/an-overview-of-nanofiber-based-antibacterial-drug-design
#9
Semih Calamak, Reza Shahbazi, Ipek Eroglu, Merve Gultekinoglu, Kezban Ulubayram
Introduction Conventional administration of antibacterial drugs to the human body can cause vital problems such as dose dependent systemic toxicity and bacterial resistance which prevent the healing process. In this regard, recent studies have been devoted to producing nanofiber based antibacterial drug delivery approaches which surpass bacterial resistance and toxicological issues. Areas covered This review summarizes latest developments in the production of antibacterial nanofibers, nanofiber based antibacterial action mechanisms and release profiles of nanofibers...
February 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163129/biotransformation-of-lignocellulosic-materials-into-value-added-products-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Asgher, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Hongbo Hu, Xuehong Zhang
In the past decade, with the key biotechnological advancements, lignocellulosic materials have gained a particular importance. In serious consideration of global economic, environmental and energy issues, research scientists have been re-directing their interests in (re)-valorizing naturally occurring lignocellulosic-based materials. In this context, lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) have gained considerable attention in numerous industrial and biotechnological processes. However, their lower catalytic efficiencies and operational stabilities limit their practical and multipurpose applications in various sectors...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156497/the-integration-of-palliative-care-into-treatment-of-oncology-patients-at-the-istituto-oncologico-veneto-iov-the-interdisciplinary-clinic-of-simultaneous-care
#11
Stefania Schiavon, Antonella Brunello, Michela Michielotto, Irene Guglieri, Maria Teresa Nardi, Evelina Lamberti, Annalisa Stablum, Eleonora Capovilla, Leonardo Trentin, Vittorina Zagonel
: 150 Background: WHO defines palliative care as an approach that improves the quality of life of patients (pts) and their families facing problems associated with life threatening illnesses. This occurs by means of early identification, assessment and treatment of pain and other problems physical, psychosocial, and spiritual. Recently, palliative care has been incorporated into the treatment of oncology pts earlier in the course of their disease. We aimed to explore this approach at our institution...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152760/patients-as-partners-in-managing-cancer-treatment-related-toxicity
#12
Kathy Vu, Meaghan Wright, Colleen Fox, Noor Ahmad, Vicky Simanovski, Leonard Kaizer, Monika K Krzyzanowska
: 215 Background: Cancer Care Ontario is the government agency responsible for improving cancer services across Ontario's 14 regions. To promote advances in best practices related to systemic treatment, Cancer Care Ontario hosts annual Systemic Treatment Safety Symposia, which serve as a platform to discuss quality and safety issues and results of quality improvement (QI) initiatives in alignment with the Systemic Treatment Provincial Plan. For the first time, the 2015 Symposium brought together patients and providers to discuss gaps and opportunities for improvement in relation to toxicity management (TM) during chemotherapy...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151827/ethics-of-research-for-patients-in-pain
#13
David B Waisel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes advances in rising and continuing ethical issues in research in patients in pain. Although some of the issues focus directly on pain research, such as research in neonatal pain management, others focus on widespread ethical issues that are relevant to pain research, such as scientific misconduct, deception, placebo use and genomics. RECENT FINDINGS: Scientific misconduct is more widespread than realized and requires greater awareness of the markers of misconduct like irreproducibility...
February 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147212/advance-care-directive-documentation-issues-for-clinicians-in-new-south-wales
#14
Mark I Friedewald, Peter A Cleasby
Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the characteristics of documents presented as advance care directives (ACDs) at a public health organisation in New South Wales (NSW). It was envisaged that the findings would inform the refinement of locally developed educational strategies.Methods All ACD documents provided during hospital admissions and entered into the electronic medical record system over a 12-month period were reviewed. An audit tool was developed and used to identify whether key requirements for ACDs in NSW had been addressed...
February 2, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140351/predicting-path-from-undulations-for-i-c-elegans-i-using-linear-and-nonlinear-resistive-force-theory
#15
Eric Keaveny, Andre Brown
A basic issue in the physics of behaviour is the mechanical relationship between an animal and its surroundings. The model nematode <i>C. elegans</i> provides an excellent platform to explore this relationship due to its anatomical simplicity. Nonetheless, the physics of nematode crawling, in which the worm undulates its body to move on a wet surface, is not completely understood and the mathematical models often used to describe this phenomenon are empirical. We confirm that linear resistive force theory, one such empirical model, is effective at predicting a worm's path from its sequence of body postures for forward crawling, reversing, and turning and for a broad range of different behavioural phenotypes observed in mutant worms...
January 31, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138072/eukaryotic-aspects-of-translation-initiation-brought-into-focus
#16
REVIEW
Christopher H S Aylett, Nenad Ban
In all organisms, mRNA-directed protein synthesis is catalysed by ribosomes. Although the basic aspects of translation are preserved in all kingdoms of life, important differences are found in the process of translation initiation, which is rate-limiting and the most important step for translation regulation. While great strides had been taken towards a complete structural understanding of the initiation of translation in eubacteria, our understanding of the eukaryotic process, which includes numerous eukaryotic-specific initiation factors, was until recently limited owing to a lack of structural information...
March 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135824/primer-in-genetics-and-genomics-article-2-advancing-nursing-research-with-genomic-approaches
#17
Hyunhwa Lee, Jessica Gill, Taura Barr, Sijung Yun, Hyungsuk Kim
PURPOSE: Nurses investigate reasons for variable patient symptoms and responses to treatments to inform how best to improve outcomes. Genomics has the potential to guide nursing research exploring contributions to individual variability. This article is meant to serve as an introduction to the novel methods available through genomics for addressing this critical issue and includes a review of methodological considerations for selected genomic approaches. APPROACH: This review presents essential concepts in genetics and genomics that will allow readers to identify upcoming trends in genomics nursing research and improve research practice...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135379/comparison-of-nurses-self-reported-and-objectively-measured-evidence-based-practice-knowledge
#18
Amy Hagedorn Wonder, Angela M McNelis, Darrell Spurlock, Pamela M Ironside, Shelley Lancaster, Carmen R Davis, Marlena Gainey, Nancy Verwers
BACKGROUND: This study provides a first-time, objective assessment of the evidence-based practice (EBP) knowledge of RNs working in Magnet(®)-designated hospitals. METHOD: This multisite, cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational study uses the Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge Assessment in Nursing (EKAN) and Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (EBPQ). RESULTS: EBPQ subscale scores revealed overall positive self-ratings of EBP knowledge/skills, attitudes, and practice/use...
1, 2017: Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132673/recent-advances-in-the-study-and-design-of-parahydrophobic-surfaces-from-natural-examples-to-synthetic-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Caroline R Szczepanski, Frédéric Guittard, Thierry Darmanin
Parahydrophobic surfaces are an interesting class of materials that combines both high contact angles and very strong adhesion with wetting fluids, most commonly water. This unique set of properties makes parahydrophobic surfaces attractive for a variety of applications, including water harvesting and collection, guided fluid transport, and membrane development, amongst many others. Taking inspiration from natural surfaces that display this same behavior such as rose petals and gecko feet, synthetic approaches aim to incorporate the nano- and micro-scale topography as well as the low surface energy chemistry found on these interfaces...
January 19, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125354/engineered-probiotics-applications-and-biological-containment
#20
Babasola Sola-Oladokun, Eamonn P Culligan, Roy D Sleator
Bioengineered probiotics represent the next generation of whole cell-mediated biotherapeutics. Advances in synthetic biology, genome engineering, and DNA sequencing and synthesis have enabled scientists to design and develop probiotics with increased stress tolerance and the ability to target specific pathogens and their associated toxins, as well as to mediate targeted delivery of vaccines, drugs, and immunomodulators directly to host cells. Herein, we review the most significant advances in the development of this field...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
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