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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154531/study-of-graphene-oxide-structural-features-for-catalytic-antibacterial-gas-sensing-and-metals-decontamination-environmental-applications
#1
Shamaila Sajjad, Sajjad Ahmed Khan Leghari, Anum Iqbal
This study represents a comprehensive review about the structural features of graphene oxide (GO) and its significance in environmental applications. Two Dimensional (2D) GO is tremendously focused in advanced carbon based nanomaterial for environmental applications due to its tunable physicochemical characteristics. Herein, we report foundational structural models of GO and explore the chemical bonding of oxygen moieties with graphite basal plane using various characterization tools. Moreover, the impact of these oxygen moieties and morphology of GO for the environmental applications such as removal of metal ions, catalytic, antibacterial and gas sensing abilities has here been critically reviewed for the first time...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153875/the-role-of-operating-parameters-and-oxidative-damage-mechanisms-of-advanced-chemical-oxidation-processes-in-the-combat-against-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-resistance-genes-present-in-urban-wastewater
#2
REVIEW
I Michael-Kordatou, P Karaolia, D Fatta-Kassinos
An upsurge in the study of antibiotic resistance in the environment has been observed in the last decade. Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly clear that urban wastewater is a key source of antibiotic resistance determinants, i.e. antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARB&ARGs). Urban wastewater reuse has arisen as an important component of water resources management in the European Union and worldwide to address prolonged water scarcity issues. Especially, biological wastewater treatment processes (i...
October 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148314/clinical-decision-support-systems-in-hospital-care-using-ubiquitous-devices-current-issues-and-challenges
#3
Mirza Mansoor Baig, Hamid GholamHosseini, Aasia A Moqeem, Farhaan Mirza, Maria Lindén
Supporting clinicians in decision making using advanced technologies has been an active research area in biomedical engineering during the past years. Among a wide range of ubiquitous systems, smartphone applications have been increasingly developed in healthcare settings to help clinicians as well as patients. Today, many smartphone applications, from basic data analysis to advanced patient monitoring, are available to clinicians and patients. Such applications are now increasingly integrating into healthcare for clinical decision support, and therefore, concerns around accuracy, stability, and dependency of these applications are rising...
November 1, 2017: Health Informatics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133281/should-medical-assistance-in-dying-be-extended-to-incompetent-patients-with-dementia-research-protocol-of-a-survey-among-four-groups-of-stakeholders-from-quebec-canada
#4
Gina Bravo, Claudie Rodrigue, Vincent Thériault, Marcel Arcand, Jocelyn Downie, Marie-France Dubois, Sharon Kaasalainen, Cees M Hertogh, Sophie Pautex, Lieve Van den Block
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and related disorders affect a growing number of people worldwide. Quality of life is generally good in the early stages of these diseases. However, many individuals fear living through the advanced stages. Such fears are triggering requests for medical assistance in dying (MAiD) by patients with dementia. Legislation was recently passed in Canada and the province of Quebec allowing MAiD at the explicit request of a patient who meets a set of eligibility criteria, including competence...
November 13, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132215/in-vivo-molecular-epr-based-spectroscopy-and-imaging-of-tumor-microenvironment-and-redox-using-functional-paramagnetic-probes
#5
Valery V Khramtsov
<i><b>Significance:</b></i> A key role of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in cancer progression, treatment resistance and as a target for therapeutic intervention is increasingly appreciated. Among physiological components of the TME are tissue hypoxia, acidosis, high reducing capacity, elevated concentrations of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and interstitial inorganic phosphate (Pi). Noninvasive <i>in vivo</i> assessment of these parameters provide unique insights into biological processes in TME, and may serve as a tool for pre-clinical screening of anticancer drugs and optimizing TME-targeted therapeutic strategies...
November 13, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129010/social-simulation-models-at-the-ethical-crossroads
#6
Pawel Sobkowicz
Computational models of group opinion dynamics are one of the most active fields of sociophysics. In recent years, advances in model complexity and, in particular, the possibility to connect these models with detailed data describing individual behaviors, preferences and activities, have opened the way for the simulations to describe quantitatively selected, real world social systems. The simulations could be then used to study 'what-if' scenarios for opinion change campaigns, political, ideological or commercial...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121773/systems-biology-approaches-to-redox-metabolism-in-stress-and-disease-states
#7
Rui-Sheng Wang, William M Oldham, Bradley A Maron, Joseph Loscalzo
Significance All cellular metabolic processes are tied to the cellular redox environment. Therefore, maintaining redox homeostasis is critically important for normal cell function. Indeed, redox stress contributes to the pathobiology of many human diseases. The cellular redox response system is composed of numerous interconnected components including free radicals, redox couples, protein thiols, enzymes, metabolites, and transcription factors. Moreover, interactions between and among these factors are regulated in time and space...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119934/direct-acting-antivirals-for-hiv-hcv-co-infected-individuals-as-good-as-it-gets
#8
Giuseppe Bruno, Annalisa Saracino
Although HIV/HCV co-infected individuals were historically considered a "difficult to treat" population in the era of Interferon (IFN)-based anti-HCV treatment, the introduction of direct-acting antivirals, characterized by excellent efficacy and good safety profile, has widely revolutionized the HCV treatment scenario. Recent real life studies reported excellent sustained virological response rates in HIV/HCV co-infected subjects, thus confirming data obtained in randomized clinical trials. However, certain issues have recently emerged in this population...
November 8, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113458/biological-production-detection-and-fate-of-hydrogen-peroxide
#9
Christine C Winterbourn
Hydrogen peroxide is a generated in numerous biological processes. It transmits cellular signals, contributes to oxidative folding of exported proteins, and in excess can be damaging to cells and tissues. Although a strong oxidant, high activation energy barriers make it unreactive with most biological molecules. Its main reactions are with transition metal centers, selenoproteins and selected thiol proteins, with glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins being major targets. It reacts slowly with most thiol proteins and how they become oxidized during redox signal transmission is not well understood...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113450/physiological-significance-of-plant-peroxiredoxins-prxs-and-the-structure-related-and-multi-functional-biochemistry-of-prx1
#10
Eun Seon Lee, Chang Ho Kang, Joung Hun Park, Sang Yeol Lee
<b><i>Significance:</i></b> Sessile plants respond to oxidative stress caused by internal and external stimuli by producing diverse forms of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) in plants, including the Prx1, Prx5, Prx6, and PrxQ isoforms, constitute a family of antioxidant enzymes and play important functions in cells. Each Prx localizes to a specific subcellular compartment and has a distinct function in the control of plant growth, development, cellular metabolism, and various aspects of defense signaling...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113449/where-hematopoietic-stem-cells-live-the-bone-marrow-niche
#11
Krzysztof Tomasz Szade, Gunsagar Singh Gulati, Charles K F Chan, Kevin S Kao, Masanori Miyanishi, Kristopher Marjon, Rahul Sinha, Benson George, James Y Chen, Irving Weissman
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can sustain the production of blood throughout one's lifetime. However, for proper self-renewal of its own population and differentiation to blood, the HSC requires a specialized microenvironment called the "niche". Recent Advances: Recent studies using novel mouse models have shed new light on the cellular architecture and function of the HSC niche. Here, we review the different cells that constitute the HSC niche and the molecular mechanisms that underlie HSC and niche interaction...
November 7, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112389/electrode-electrolyte-interfaces-in-lithium-sulfur-batteries-with-liquid-or-inorganic-solid-electrolytes
#12
Xingwen Yu, Arumugam Manthiram
Electrode-electrolyte interfacial properties play a vital role in the cycling performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The issues at an electrode-electrolyte interface include electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring at the interface, formation mechanism of interfacial layers, compositional/structural characteristics of the interfacial layers, ionic transport across the interface, and thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors at the interface. Understanding the above critical issues is paramount for the development of strategies to enhance the overall performance of Li-S batteries...
November 7, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112175/the-virtual-environment-for-rapid-prototyping-of-the-intelligent-environment
#13
Yannick Francillette, Eric Boucher, Abdenour Bouzouane, Sébastien Gaboury
Advances in domains such as sensor networks and electronic and ambient intelligence have allowed us to create intelligent environments (IEs). However, research in IE is being held back by the fact that researchers face major difficulties, such as a lack of resources for their experiments. Indeed, they cannot easily build IEs to evaluate their approaches. This is mainly because of economic and logistical issues. In this paper, we propose a simulator to build virtual IEs. Simulators are a good alternative to physical IEs because they are inexpensive, and experiments can be conducted easily...
November 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110939/analysis-of-landfill-design-variables-based-on-scientific-computing
#14
Miguel Cuartas, Ana López, Fernando Pérez, Amaya Lobo
The optimal design of waste landfills is a complex, still unsolved issue. Each design variable influences the rest and it is difficult to quantify their interactions. Recent advances in scientific computing, however, allow this problem to be approached from a new perspective. Thus, in this paper a new method is proposed for the analysis and optimization of design variables in waste landfills. This method is based on the computer simulation of multiple models and the systematic analysis of the resulting data to extract knowledge...
October 27, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109032/molecular-mechanisms-of-cardiac-pathology-in-diabetes-experimental-insights
#15
REVIEW
U Varma, P Koutsifeli, V L Benson, K M Mellor, L M D Delbridge
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a distinct pathology independent of co-morbidities such as coronary artery disease and hypertension. Diminished glucose uptake due to impaired insulin signaling and decreased expression of glucose transporters is associated with a shift towards increased reliance on fatty acid oxidation and reduced cardiac efficiency in diabetic hearts. The cardiac metabolic profile in diabetes is influenced by disturbances in circulating glucose, insulin and fatty acids, and alterations in cardiomyocyte signaling...
November 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105284/estimating-hcv-disease-burden-volume-4-editorial
#16
G J Dore, A Hatzakis, F Negro, I Waked
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global public health issue, with an estimated 71 million people living with HCV infection and a rising burden of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related mortality. The advent of interferon-free, direct acting antiviral-based (DAA) therapies, with short duration (8-12 weeks), high efficacy, excellent tolerability and ease of delivery (once daily oral dosing), is one of the major advances in clinical medicine in recent decades, and provides the opportunity to address this growing global HCV burden...
October 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093034/media-multitasking-and-cognitive-psychological-neural-and-learning-differences
#17
REVIEW
Melina R Uncapher, Lin Lin, Larry D Rosen, Heather L Kirkorian, Naomi S Baron, Kira Bailey, Joanne Cantor, David L Strayer, Thomas D Parsons, Anthony D Wagner
American youth spend more time with media than any other waking activity: an average of 7.5 hours per day, every day. On average, 29% of that time is spent juggling multiple media streams simultaneously (ie, media multitasking). This phenomenon is not limited to American youth but is paralleled across the globe. Given that a large number of media multitaskers (MMTs) are children and young adults whose brains are still developing, there is great urgency to understand the neurocognitive profiles of MMTs. It is critical to understand the relation between the relevant cognitive domains and underlying neural structure and function...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078647/vats-and-open-chest-surgery-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-benign-pleural-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Periklis Perikleous, Sridhar Rathinam, David A Waller
A negative pressure normally exists between the visceral and parietal pleurae in the lungs, which can act as vacuum for fluid, air and small particles from different parts of the body, allowing them to move into the pleural space and be retained in it, thus resulting to different manifestations of pleural disorders. A pleural effusion is the result of fluid collection between the parietal and visceral pleural surfaces. The most common cause in developed countries is congestive heart failure, followed by pneumonia and malignancy...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078095/attention-to-distinguishing-features-in-object-recognition-an-interactive-iterative-framework
#19
Orit Baruch, Ruth Kimchi, Morris Goldsmith
This article advances a framework that casts object recognition as a process of discrimination between alternative object identities, in which top-down and bottom-up processes interact-iteratively when necessary-with attention to distinguishing features playing a critical role. In two experiments, observers discriminated between different types of artificial fish. In parallel, a secondary, variable-SOA visual-probe detection task was used to examine the dynamics of visual attention. In Experiment 1, the fish varied in three distinguishing features: one indicating the general category (saltwater, freshwater), and one of the two other features indicating the specific type of fish within each category...
October 24, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072477/mindfulness-based-interventions-for-addictive-behaviors-implementation-issues-on-the-road-ahead
#20
Adam D Wilson, Corey R Roos, Charles S Robinson, Elena R Stein, Jacob A Manuel, Matthew C Enkema, Sarah Bowen, Katie Witkiewitz
Over the past 35 years, mindfulness meditation practices have increasingly been integrated into Western medical settings. Research into the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) continues to expand, such that there are currently more than a dozen different protocolled MBIs for patients suffering from a variety of physical and psychological disorders. In the last decade, a number of MBIs specifically designed to treat addictive behaviors have been developed and tested. This review first provides a brief overview of the current state of the science with respect to the efficacy of MBIs for addictive behaviors, and some of the proposed mechanisms underlying the efficacy of MBIs...
October 26, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
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