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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642194/breaking-fat-the-regulation-and-mechanisms-of-lipophagy
#1
REVIEW
Ryan J Schulze, Aishwarya Sathyanarayan, Douglas G Mashek
Lipophagy is defined as the autophagic degradation of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs). While the field of lipophagy research is relatively young, an expansion of research in this area over the past several years has greatly advanced our understanding of lipophagy. Since its original characterization in fasted liver, the contribution of lipophagy is now recognized in various organisms, cell types, metabolic states and disease models. Moreover, recent studies provide exciting new insights into the underlying mechanisms of lipophagy induction as well as the consequences of lipophagy on cell metabolism and signaling...
June 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637571/workforce-issues-in-pediatric-surgery
#2
Don K Nakayama
High salaries indicate a demand for pediatric surgeons in excess of the supply, despite only a slight growth in the pediatric-age population and a sharp increase in numbers of trainees. Top-level neonatal intensive care units require 24-hour-7-day pediatric surgical availability, so hospitals are willing to pay surgeons a premium and engage high-priced locum tenens surgeons to fill vacancies in coverage. With increased supply comes an erosion of the numbers of cases performed by trainees and surgeons in practice...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#3
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636427/liver-directed-therapy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#4
Ciara M Kelly, Nancy E Kemeny
Colorectal cancer is a significant global health issue with over 1 million cases diagnosed annually throughout the world. 15% of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer will have liver metastases and 60% will develop liver metastases if they have metastatic disease. Oligometastatic colorectal cancer confined to the liver represents an intermediate state in the evolution of metastatic capacity that opens the opportunity for local interventions. Area's covered: The literature supports long-term survival if patients undergo liver resection of colorectal metastases...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629599/moral-learning-current-and-future-directions
#5
EDITORIAL
Fiery Cushman, Victor Kumar, Peter Railton
The past 15years occasioned an extraordinary blossoming of research into the cognitive and affective mechanisms that support moral judgment and behavior. This growth in our understanding of moral mechanisms overshadowed a crucial and complementary question, however: How are they learned? As this special issue of the journal Cognition attests, a new crop of research into moral learning has now firmly taken root. This new literature draws on recent advances in formal methods developed in other domains, such as Bayesian inference, reinforcement learning and other machine learning techniques...
June 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625941/meditation-and-successful-aging-can-meditative-practices-counteract-age-related-cognitive-decline
#6
Marco Sperduti, Dominique Makowski, Philippe Blondé, Pascale Piolino
Life expectancy is constantly increasing in the developed countries due to medical, hygiene and socio-economic advances. Unfortunately, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, aging is associated with growing risk factors for illness associated with societal conditions (isolation, maltreatment), and neurodegenerative diseases. Even normal aging is associated with a cognitive decline that can hinder independence and quality of life of elderly. Thus, one major societal challenge is to build policies that support people of all ages to maintain a maximum health and functional capacity throughout their lives...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625688/electrically-atomised-formulations-of-timolol-maleate-for-direct-and-on-demand-ocular-lens-coatings
#7
Prina Mehta, Ali Al-Kinani, Rita Haj-Ahmad, Muhammad Sohail Arshad, Ming-Wei Chang, G Raid Alany, Zeeshan Ahmad
Advances in nanotechnology have enabled solutions for challenging drug delivery targets. While the eye presents numerous emerging opportunities for delivery, analysis and sensing; issues persist for conventional applications. This includes liquid phase formulation localisation on the ocular surface once administered as formulated eye-drops; with the vast majority of dosage (>90%) escaping from the administered site due to tear production and various drainage mechanisms. The work presented here demonstrates a single needle electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering process to nano-coat (as an on demand and controllable fiber depositing method) the surface of multiple contact lenses rendering formulations to be stationary on the lens and at the bio-interface...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623155/care-toward-the-end-of-life-in-older-populations-and-its-implementation-facilitators-and-barriers-a-scoping-review
#8
REVIEW
Diane Erin Threapleton, Roger Y Chung, Samuel Y S Wong, Eliza L Y Wong, Nicole Kiang, Patsy Y K Chau, Jean Woo, Vincent C H Chung, Eng Kiong Yeoh
PURPOSE: To inform health system improvements for care of elderly populations approaching the end of life (EOL) by identifying important elements of care and implementation barriers and facilitators. DESIGN: A scoping review was carried out to identify key themes in EOL care. Articles were identified from MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, organizational websites, and internet searches. Eligible publications included reviews, reports, and policy documents published between 2005 and 2016...
June 13, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620723/advances-in-ebi-development-for-diverse-populations-towards-a-science-of-intervention-adaptation
#9
Felipe Gonzalez Castro, Miwa Yasui
This introduction examines major issues and challenges as presented in this special issue of Prevention Science, "Challenges to the Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence Based Prevention Interventions for Diverse Populations." We describe the Fidelity-Adaptation Dilemma that became the origin of dynamic tensions in prevention science. It generated controversies and debates and new perspectives on the dissemination and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within diverse populations. The five articles in this special issue address many of these challenges...
June 16, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617197/chronic-early-life-stress-induced-by-limited-bedding-and-nesting-lbn-material-in-rodents-critical-considerations-of-methodology-outcomes-and-translational-potential
#10
Claire-Dominique Walker, Kevin G Bath, Marian Joels, Aniko Korosi, Muriel Larauche, Paul J Lucassen, Margaret J Morris, Charlis Raineki, Tania L Roth, Regina M Sullivan, Yvette Taché, Tallie Z Baram
The immediate and long term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans...
June 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616361/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-side-effects-defined-and-quantified
#11
REVIEW
Marvin Heyboer, Deepali Sharma, William Santiago, Norman McCulloch
Significance: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an important advanced therapy in the treatment of problem wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers and late effect radiation injury. HBOT remains among the safest therapies used today. Nonetheless, there are side effects associated with HBOT. It is important for providers to be able to identify, understand, and quantify these side effects for prevention, management, and informed consent. Recent Advances: The past two decades have seen significant advancements in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of HBOT...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616360/current-advancements-and-strategies-in-tissue-engineering-for-wound-healing-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
Jasmine Ho, Claire Walsh, Dominic Yue, Alan Dardik, Umber Cheema
Significance: With an aging population leading to an increase in diabetes and associated cutaneous wounds, there is a pressing clinical need to improve wound-healing therapies. Recent Advances: Tissue engineering approaches for wound healing and skin regeneration have been developed over the past few decades. A review of current literature has identified common themes and strategies that are proving successful within the field: The delivery of cells, mainly mesenchymal stem cells, within scaffolds of the native matrix is one such strategy...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616359/bioactive-antimicrobial-peptides-as-therapeutics-for-corneal-wounds-and-infections
#13
REVIEW
Gina L Griffith, Anne Kasus-Jacobi, H Anne Pereira
Significance: More than 2 million eye injuries and infections occur each year in the United States that leave civilians and military members with reduced or complete vision loss due to the lack of effective therapeutics. Severe ocular injuries and infections occur in varied settings including the home, workplace, and battlefields. In this review, we discuss the potential of developing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as therapeutics for the treatment of corneal wounds and infections for which the current treatment options are inadequate...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615392/family-medicine-around-the-world-overview-by-region-the-besrour-papers-a-series-on-the-state-of-family-medicine-in-the-world
#14
REVIEW
Neil Arya, Christine Gibson, David Ponka, Cynthia Haq, Stephanie Hansel, Bruce Dahlman, Katherine Rouleau
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how family medicine has been recognized and integrated into primary health care systems in contrasting contexts around the world and to provide an overview of how family physicians are trained and certified. COMPOSITION OF THE COMMITTEE: Since 2012, the College of Family Physicians of Canada has hosted the Besrour Conferences to reflect on its role in advancing the discipline of family medicine globally. The Besrour Papers Working Group, which was struck at the 2013 conference, was tasked with developing a series of papers to highlight the key issues, lessons learned, and outcomes emerging from the various activities of the Besrour collaboration...
June 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614079/do-not-resuscitate-with-no-surrogate-and-no-advance-directive-an-ethics-case-study
#15
Jamie Diamond, Umesh Gidwani, Rosamond Rhodes
Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders are typically signed by physicians in conjunction with patients or their surrogate decision makers in order to instruct healthcare providers not to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Both the medical literature and CPR guidelines fail to address when it is appropriate for physicians to sign DNR orders without any knowledge of a patient's wishes. We explore the ethical issues surrounding instituting a two-physician DNR for a dying patient with multiple comorbidities and no medical record on file, no advance directives, and no surrogate decision maker...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609433/prioritising-action-on-occupational-carcinogens-in-europe-a-socioeconomic-and-health-impact-assessment
#16
J W Cherrie, S Hutchings, M Gorman Ng, R Mistry, C Corden, J Lamb, A Sánchez Jiménez, A Shafrir, M Sobey, M van Tongeren, L Rushton
BACKGROUND: Work-related cancer is an important public health issue with a large financial impact on society. The key European legislative instrument is the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive (2004/37/EC). In preparation for updating the Directive, the European Commission commissioned a study to provide a socioeconomic, health and environmental impact assessment. METHODS: The evaluation was undertaken for 25 preselected hazardous substances or mixtures. Estimates were made of the number of cases of cancer attributable to workplace exposure, both currently and in the future, with and without any regulatory interventions, and these data were used to estimate the financial health costs and benefits...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608999/specimen-acquisition-roses-gardeners-and-gatekeepers
#17
Adele O Kraft
The use of minimally invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment decisions means that very often cytological samples are the only material available for testing. Cytology has evolved from a strictly morphological approach to the routine use of immunohistochemistry. The advent of personalized medicine has increased the demand for molecular testing, making rapid on-site evaluation even more relevant. This article presents current rapid on-site evaluation practice patterns in different settings, with a special focus on the variety of professionals involved...
June 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608994/hiv-in-the-dialysis-population-current-issues-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Suzanne M Boyle, Dong H Lee, Christina M Wyatt
Antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced mortality due to HIV infection, but the aging HIV-positive patient population now faces a growing burden of comorbidity. This review describes the changing epidemiology of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in this population, and highlights recent advances in antiretroviral therapy and kidney transplantation that directly impact the care of patients with HIV infection and end-stage renal disease.
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606763/application-of-eye-tracking-in-medicine-a-survey-research-issues-and-challenges
#19
Katarzyna Harezlak, Pawel Kasprowski
The performance and quality of medical procedures and treatments are inextricably linked to technological development. The application of more advanced techniques provides the opportunity to gain wider knowledge and deeper understanding of the human body and mind functioning. The eye tracking methods used to register eye movement to find the direction and targets of a person's gaze are well in line with the nature of the topic. By providing methods for capturing and processing images of the eye it has become possible not only to reveal abnormalities in eye functioning but also to conduct cognitive studies focused on learning about peoples' emotions and intentions...
May 30, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602414/the-older-adult-with-locoregionally-advanced-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-knowledge-gaps-and-future-direction-in-assessment-and-treatment
#20
Ronald Maggiore, Zachary S Zumsteg, Karlynn BrintzenhofeSzoc, Kelly M Trevino, Ajeet Gajra, Beatriz Korc-Grodzicki, Joel B Epstein, Stewart M Bond, Ira Parker, Julie A Kish, Barbara A Murphy, Noam A VanderWalde
Older adults with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) pose unique treatment and supportive care challenges to oncologists and other cancer care providers. The majority of patients with HNSCC present with locoregionally advanced disease, for which combined-modality treatment integrating chemotherapy and radiation therapy is often necessary to maximize tumor control. However, applying these approaches to an older population with concomitant comorbidities and a higher risk of functional impairments remains challenging and is exacerbated by the paucity of studies involving older adults...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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