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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445401/tradeoff-in-the-nephron-a-theory-to-explain-the-primacy-of-phosphate-in-the-pathogenesis-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#1
Kenneth R Phelps
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The cardinal features of SHPT are persistence of normocalcemia as CKD progresses and dependence of the parathyroid hormone concentration ([PTH]) on phosphate influx (IP). The tradeoff-in-the-nephron hypothesis integrates these features. It states that as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls, the phosphate concentration ([P]CDN) rises in the cortical distal nephron, the calcium concentration ([Ca]CDN) in that segment falls, and [PTH] rises to maintain normal calcium reabsorption per volume of filtrate (TRCa/GFR)...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445206/independent-effects-of-blood-pressure-and-parathyroid-hormone-on-aortic-pulse-wave-velocity-in-untreated-chinese-patients
#2
Yi-Bang Cheng, Li-Hua Li, Qian-Hui Guo, Fei-Ka Li, Qi-Fang Huang, Chang-Sheng Sheng, Ji-Guang Wang, Jan A Staessen, Yan Li
OBJECTIVE: Whether or not calcium-regulating hormones stiffen arteries independent of blood pressure (BP) is uncertain. We investigated the independent associations of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) with 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 24-h ambulatory BP in untreated Chinese patients. METHODS: Consecutive untreated patients referred for ambulatory BP monitoring were recruited. PWV was measured with a high-fidelity micromanometer and the SphygmoCor software (AtCor Medical, West Ryde, New South Wales, Australia)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444710/can-we-define-and-characterize-the-aging-lower-urinary-tract-ici-rs-2015
#3
REVIEW
Bahareh Vahabi, Adrian S Wagg, Peter F W M Rosier, Kevin L J Rademakers, Marie-Astrid Denys, Michel Pontari, Thelma Lovick, Francoise A Valentini, Pierre P Nelson, Karl-Erik Andersson, Christopher H Fry
The prevalence of lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms increases with age but the etiology is unknown. This article aims to identify research directions that clarify the basis of this association. The initial question is whether biological age is the variable of interest or a time-dependent accumulation of factors that impact on LUT function at rates that differ between individuals. In particular, the accumulation of conditions or agents due to inflammatory states or tissue ischemia is important. Much of the above has been concerned with changes to bladder function and morphology...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444704/how-does-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction-lutd-affect-sexual-function-in-men-and-women-ici-rs-2015-part-2
#4
REVIEW
Apostolos Apostolidis, Angie Rantell, Ralf Anding, Ruth Kirschner-Hermanns, Linda Cardozo
AIM: To discuss available data on the links between LUTD and sexual dysfunction, what is still unknown about the causative effect of disease processes on sexual function (SF), and to suggest proposals for further research. METHODS: At the 2015 International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS), a multi-disciplinary group presented a literature search of what is known about the effect of LUTD on SF in men and women. Wider discussions regarding knowledge gaps, and ideal research methodology ensued and are presented...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444664/endocrine-complications-of-surgical-treatment-of-thyroid-cancer-an-update
#5
Pedro Iglesias, Juan José Díez
Postoperative hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) and hypothyroidism (HypoT) are the main endocrine complications after the surgical treatment for thyroid cancer. Postsurgical HypoPT can be transient, protracted or permanent. Its frequency varies according to the underlying cervical pathology, surgical technique, and mainly the experience of the surgeon. Risk factors for HypoPT include aggressiveness of the tumor, extent of surgery, the presence of parathyroid gland in the pathologic specimen, and surgeon experience...
April 25, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441547/phthalate-exposure-even-below-us-epa-reference-doses-was-associated-with-semen-quality-and-reproductive-hormones-prospective-marhcs-study-in-general-population
#6
Qing Chen, Huan Yang, Niya Zhou, Lei Sun, Huaqiong Bao, Lu Tan, Hongqiang Chen, Xi Ling, Guowei Zhang, Linping Huang, Lianbing Li, Mingfu Ma, Hao Yang, Xiaogang Wang, Peng Zou, Kaige Peng, Taixiu Liu, Xiefei Shi, Dejian Feng, Ziyuan Zhou, Lin Ao, Zhihong Cui, Jia Cao
BACKGROUND: Environment-Protection-Agency Reference Doses (EPA RfDs) for phthalate intakes are based on limited evidence, especially regarding low-dose male-reproductive toxicity. This study investigates the association between phthalate exposure and semen parameters and reproductive hormones in a general population with low phthalate exposure compared to the EPA RfDs. METHODS: The MARHCS (Male-Reproductive-Health-in-Chongqing-College-Students) cohort recruited 796 male students, who experienced a relocation of campuses and shifting environmental exposure...
April 22, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433999/circadian-plasma-cortisol-measurements-reflect-severity-of-hypercortisolemia-in-children-with-different-etiologies-of-endogenous-cushing-syndrome
#7
Amit Tirosh, Maya B Lodish, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Elena Belyavskaya, Georgios Z Papadakis, Constantine A Stratakis
BACKGROUND: The utility of circadian cortisol variation in estimating the degree of hypercortisolemia in different forms of endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) has not been evaluated in children yet. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study, including children who underwent surgery due to CS (n = 115), was divided into children with a pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease) (n = 88), primary adrenal CS (n = 21), or ectopic adrenocorticotropin- or corticotropin-releasing hormone (ACTH-/CRH)-secreting tumors (n = 6)...
April 21, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433267/dose-response-effects-of-supplementation-with-calcifediol-on-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-status-and-its-metabolites-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-older-adults
#8
Anouk M M Vaes, Michael Tieland, Margot F de Regt, Jonas Wittwer, Luc J C van Loon, Lisette C P G M de Groot
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral supplementation with vitamin D is recommended for older adults to maintain a sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status throughout the year. While supplementation with vitamin D2 or D3 is most common, alternative treatment regimens exist which require further investigation with respect to increasing 25(OH)D concentration. We investigated the dose-response effects of supplementation with calcifediol compared to vitamin D3 and assessed the dose which results in mean serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations between 75 and 100 nmol/L...
March 31, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428084/metabolomics-of-fescue-toxicosis-in-grazing-beef-steers
#9
Ryan S Mote, Nicholas S Hill, Karan Uppal, ViLinh T Tran, Dean P Jones, Nikolay M Filipov
Fescue toxicosis (FT) results from consumption of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with an endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) that produces ergot alkaloids (EA), which are considered key etiological agents of FT. Decreased weight gains, hormonal imbalance, circulating cholesterol disruption, and decreased volatile fatty acid absorption suggest toxic (E+) fescue-induced metabolic perturbations. Employing untargeted high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) to analyze E+ grazing-induced plasma and urine metabolome changes, fescue-naïve Angus steers were placed on E+ or non-toxic (Max-Q) fescue pastures and plasma and urine were sampled before, 1, 2, 14, and 28 days after pasture assignment...
April 18, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427038/urinary-triclosan-concentrations-during-pregnancy-and-birth-outcomes
#10
Taylor M Etzel, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Aimin Chen, Bruce P Lanphear, David A Savitz, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M Braun
BACKGROUND: Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical used in consumer products, and exposure is ubiquitous among pregnant women in the United States. Triclosan may reduce the levels of thyroid hormones that are important for fetal growth and development. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship of prenatal triclosan exposure with birth anthropometry and gestational duration. METHODS: We used data from 378 mother-child pairs participating in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort from Cincinnati, OH...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425581/clinical-biochemical-and-genetic-features-of-41-han-chinese-families-with-primary-hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-and-their-therapeutic-response-to-etoricoxib-results-from-a-6-months-prospective-clinical-intervention
#11
Shan-Shan Li, Jin-We He, Wen-Zhen Fu, Yu-Juan Liu, Yun-Qiu Hu, Zhen-Lin Zhang
Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is a rare inherited disease caused by genetic defects in prostaglandin metabolism pathway; disturbed prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) catabolism resulting in increased PGE2 levels is suggested in the pathogenesis. Forty-three Han Chinese patients with PHO were studied and 41 of them were treated. Mutations in HPGD gene, causing hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary, autosomal recessive 1 (PHOAR1; OMIM 259100), were identified in 7 patients, and mutations in SLCO2A1 gene, causing hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary, autosomal recessive 2 (PHOAR2; OMIM 614441), were identified in 36 patients...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420227/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-a-plant-based-multi-component-cream-ginetrox%C3%A2-in-vulvovaginal-disorders-of-the-genitourinary-syndrome-during-menopause
#12
Roberto Marrai, Giovanni Lissi, Stefano Togni, Giada Maramaldi, Marco Barbara, Luca Giacomelli
BACKGROUND: Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a symptomatic condition including vaginal dryness, irritation, dyspareunia and recurrent urinary tract infections which affects 40-54% of post-menopausal women. Although several estrogen-based therapies are available, it is generally preferable to avoid hormonal therapy, particularly in women with mild symptoms or at risk for estrogen-responsive neoplasia. Therefore, the most common treatment options are over-the-counter vaginal creams for symptomatic relief...
June 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417429/approach-to-androgen-deprivation-in-the-prostate-cancer-patient-with-pre-existing-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Alyssa K Greiman, Thomas E Keane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay of treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Several studies have reported an association between ADT and an increase in cardiovascular events, especially in those receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists compared to GnRH antagonists. We review the body of literature reporting the association of ADT and cardiovascular morbidity, and discuss the proposed mechanism of cardiovascular disease due to ADT including metabolic changes that may promote atherosclerosis and local hormonal effects that may increase plaque rupture and thrombosis...
June 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416260/late-genitourinary-toxicity-outcomes-in-300-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-dose-escalated-image-guided-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy
#14
K Byrne, G Hruby, A Kneebone, D Whalley, L Guo, P McCloud, T Eade
AIMS: To quantify and qualify late genitourinary toxicity in a cohort of patients with localised prostate cancer treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to doses ≥78 Gy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cohort consisted of 300 patients treated with definitive dose-escalated IMRT between 2007 and 2013. Ninety-seven patients received 78-80 Gy in 38 fractions, and 203 received 82-84 Gy in 40 fractions. International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS) and supplemental quality of life data were recorded at baseline, weekly during treatment and at follow-up...
April 14, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414302/increased-salt-consumption-induces-body-water-conservation-and-decreases-fluid-intake
#15
Natalia Rakova, Kento Kitada, Kathrin Lerchl, Anke Dahlmann, Anna Birukov, Steffen Daub, Christoph Kopp, Tetyana Pedchenko, Yahua Zhang, Luis Beck, Bernd Johannes, Adriana Marton, Dominik N Müller, Manfred Rauh, Friedrich C Luft, Jens Titze
BACKGROUND: The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. METHODS: Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414251/impact-of-metabolic-status-on-the-association-of-serum-vitamin-d-with-hypogonadism-and-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#16
Sun Gu Park, Jeong Kyun Yeo, Dae Yeon Cho, Min Gu Park
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of metabolic status on associations of serum vitamin D with hypogonadism and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 612 men underwent physical examination, biochemical/hormonal blood testing, and transrectal prostate ultrasound. Moreover, the subjects filled out standard questionnaires for identification and grading of LUTS and hypogonadism symptoms...
April 17, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410473/thyroid-hormone-parameters-during-pregnancy-in-relation-to-urinary-bisphenol-a-concentrations-a-repeated-measures-study
#17
Max T Aung, Lauren E Johns, Kelly K Ferguson, Bhramar Mukherjee, Thomas F McElrath, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Maternal supply of thyroid hormones during pregnancy serves a critical role in fetal development. Although animal and in vitro studies provide evidence for thyroid hormone disruption as a result of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure, there is still a lack of evidence in human studies, particularly in the context of pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the associations between urinary BPA concentrations and plasma thyroid hormone parameters during gestation in pregnant women, and also investigated potential windows of vulnerability during gestation...
April 11, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410414/phthalate-exposure-and-reproductive-hormones-and-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-before-puberty-phthalate-contaminated-foodstuff-episode-in-taiwan
#18
Hui-Ju Wen, Chu-Chih Chen, Ming-Tsang Wu, Mei-Lien Chen, Chien-Wen Sun, Wen-Chiu Wu, I-Wen Huang, Po-Chin Huang, Tzu-Yun Yu, Chao A Hsiung, Shu-Li Wang
BACKGROUND: In May 2011, a major incident involving phthalates-contaminated foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was added to foodstuffs, mainly juice, jelly, tea, sports drink, and dietary supplements. Concerns arose that normal pubertal development, especially reproductive hormone regulation in children, could be disrupted by DEHP exposure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels among children following potential exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405606/changes-in-markers-of-mineral-metabolism-after-living-kidney-donation
#19
Sven-Jean Tan, Tim D Hewitson, Peter D Hughes, Stephen G Holt, Nigel D Toussaint
BACKGROUND: Living kidney donors (LKDs) experience reduction in kidney function, however serum phosphate (sPi) levels are lower compared to patients with chronic kidney disease matched for reduced kidney function. Mineral metabolism adaptations that occur in LKDs have not been adequately investigated. To evaluate the effect of nephrectomy on markers of mineral metabolism in LKDs compared to healthy volunteers (HV) over 12 months. METHODS: Mineral parameters were evaluated in twenty-one adult LKDs and twenty HVs...
April 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401955/incontinence-in-the-elderly-normal-ageing-or-unaddressed-pathology
#20
REVIEW
William Gibson, Adrian Wagg
The prevalence of urinary incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) increases in association with increasing age. This effect is more noticeable in men after the seventh decade of life and, in women, postmenopausally. However, the changes in the lower urinary tract, peripheral nervous system and central nervous system that underpin this observation are both multifactorial and inadequately understood; much debate exists regarding whether these observed changes are pathological or are a part of the 'normal' ageing process; with both health professionals and older people often holding the view that incontinence is an expected part of normal ageing...
April 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
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