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Martin Sharkey, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Daniel S Drage, Stuart Harrad, Harald Berresheim
The purpose of this study was to establish the efficacy of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrumentation as a screening tool for a variety of end of life plastics which may contain excess amounts of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), in compliance with European Union (EU) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) legislative limits (low POP concentration limits - LPCLs). 555 samples of waste plastics were collected from eight waste and recycling sites in Ireland, including waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), textiles, polyurethane foams (PUFs), and expanded polystyrene foams...
May 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
A N Jørgensen, P Aagaard, U Frandsen, E Boyle, L P Diederichsen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of 12 weeks of low-load blood-flow restricted resistance (BFR) training on self-reported and objective physical function, and maximal muscle strength in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). METHOD: Twenty-two patients with sIBM were randomized into a training group (BFR group) or a non-exercising control group, according to CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. The BFR group performed 12 weeks of BFR training twice per week...
May 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
Júlio C G Silva, Rodrigo R Aniceto, Leandro S Oliota-Ribeiro, Gabriel R Neto, Leonardo S Leandro, Maria S Cirilo-Sousa
This study compared the acute effects of resistance exercise with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on basketball players' mood states. A total of 11 male basketball players (mean age = 19.9, SD = 2.8 years; mean height = 180.8, SD = 7.8 cm; mean weight = 71.1, SD = 9.1 kg; mean body mass index = 22.1, SD = 1.9 kg/m2 ) were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions: (a) low-load resistance exercise with BFR (LLRE + BFR) and high-load resistance exercise (HLRE) without BFR...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Luke Hughes, Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Ben Rosenblatt, Conor Gissane, Bruce Paton, Stephen D Patterson
Background: Total arterial occlusive pressure (AOP) is used to prescribe pressures for surgery, blood flow restriction exercise (BFRE) and ischemic preconditioning (IPC). AOP is often measured in a supine position; however, the influence of body position on AOP measurement is unknown and may influence level of occlusion in different positions during BFR and IPC. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of body position on AOP. Methods: Fifty healthy individuals (age = 29 ± 6 y) underwent AOP measurements on the dominant lower-limb in supine, seated and standing positions in a randomised order...
2018: PeerJ
Jelena Čulin
When the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships, 2009 enters into effect, ships to be sent for recycling will be required to carry an Inventory of Hazardous Materials (IHM) on board, which identifies the hazardous materials contained in the ship's structure or equipment. In its current form, IHM covers two classes of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), namely polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Emerging evidence from recent literature suggests that members of all classes of BFRs are present in all environmental compartments and that exposure to them is associated with a wide range of harmful effects in humans and animals, effects that include endocrine disruption...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Junqi Li, Zheng Dong, Ying Wang, Junsong Bao, Yijun Yan, Anming Liu, Jun Jin
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) can accumulate in humans and are associated with adverse health effects. The study was conducted to determine the differences in Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardant (Alt-BFR) concentrations between men and women. We analyzed hair samples from 14 male and 20 female university students, paired dust samples from their dormitories (10 for males and 8 for females), and six dust samples from university teaching buildings. The total PBDE concentrations in hair from females were significantly (three times) higher (p = 0...
April 16, 2018: Chemosphere
H J Thomas, B R Scott, J J Peiffer
OBJECTIVES: Blood flow restriction (BFR) during interval cycling may stimulate aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. However, acute physiological responses to BFR interval cycling have not been extensively investigated. DESIGN: Eighteen males completed low-intensity (LI), low-intensity with BFR (LIBFR ) and high-intensity (HI) interval cycling sessions in randomised and counterbalanced order. These included a standardised warm-up and three two-min intervals interspersed with two-min recovery...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Ulku Karabulut, Murat Karabulut, Eric G James
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of isometric exercises performed during whole-body vibration (WBV) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on arterial elasticity and hemodynamic variables. METHODS: Eight male subjects performed static upper body (UB) and lower body (LB) exercises on a vibration platform with and without BFR. During BFR sessions, BFR cuffs were placed on the arms or legs and inflated to a target pressure. Exercises consisted of eight 45-s sets for UB, and ten 1-min sets for LB...
April 4, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Mohammad-Ali Bahreini Pour, Siyavash Joukar, Fariborz Hovanloo, Hamid Najafipour, Vida Naderi, Alireza Raji, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani
AIMS: Existing evidence emphasize the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sarcopenia which is revealed as loss of skeletal muscle mass and neuromuscular junction remodeling. We assessed the effect of low-intensity aerobic training along with blood flow restriction on muscle hypertrophy index, muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), a pivotal protein of the neuromuscular junction and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in aged male rats. MAIN METHODS: Animals groups were control (CTL), sham (Sh), leg blood flow restriction (BFR), exercise (Ex), sham + exercise (Sh + Ex), and BFR plus exercise (BFR + Ex) groups...
March 28, 2018: Life Sciences
Wan Chen, Yuqing Deng, Hong Jiang, Jianhua Wang, Jing Zhong, Saiqun Li, Lulu Peng, Bowen Wang, Ruhui Yang, Henan Zhang, Meng Li, Jin Yuan
This study was conducted to evaluate conjunctival blood flow velocities and microvascular network density in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Twenty-five patients with DED and 25 healthy controls were recruited. The microvasculature and microcirculation of the temporal bulbar conjunctiva of the right eyes were assessed using a functional slit-lamp biomicroscope. Vascular variables included blood flow velocity (BFV), blood flow rate (BFR), microvascular network density and vessel diameter. A fractal analysis was performed using the box counting method to measure the fractal dimension (Dbox) representing the vessel density...
March 27, 2018: Microvascular Research
Miguel S Conceição, Arthur F Gáspari, Ana P B Ramkrapes, Edson M M Junior, Romulo Bertuzzi, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Mara Patrícia T Chacon-Mikahil
PURPOSE: We investigated the energy system contributions and total energy expenditure during low intensity endurance exercise associated with blood flow restriction (LIE-BFR) and without blood flow restriction (LIE). METHODS: Twelve males participated in a contra-balanced, cross-over design in which subjects completed a bout of low-intensity endurance exercise (30min cycling at 40% of [Formula: see text]) with or without BFR, separated by at least 72 hours of recovery...
2018: PloS One
Anke Richter, Christian Sieke, Hermine Reich, Bernadette C Ossendorp, Nicolas Breysse, Jason Lutze, Karin Mahieu, Sam Margerison, Anton Rietveld, Xavier Sarda, Gaelle Vial, Trijntje van der Velde-Koerts
In the framework of setting Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for pesticides, both chronic and acute health risks to consumers arising from the long-term and short-term dietary exposure to pesticide residues have to be assessed. The current internationally harmonized approach for assessing the acute dietary exposure is based on deterministic methods for calculating the IESTI (International Estimate of Short-Term Intake). Recently, it became apparent that the IESTI approach needs a revision in the light of new scientific and political aspects...
June 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Richard A Ferguson
Blood flow restriction (BFR) has been utilised in physiology for centuries; from William Harvey's (1578-1657) initial use of a tourniquet to describe in detail the systemic circulation of blood, to the use in the last 40 years in the investigation of cardiovascular reflex responses, angiogenesis, skeletal muscle metabolism and fatigue. Recent investigation has largely focussed on the adaptive potential of BFR exercise training, with particular reference to skeletal muscle strength and hypertrophy and its use in the rehabilitation process...
March 25, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Yukiko Fujii, Yoshihisa Kato, Nanako Masuda, Kouji H Harada, Akio Koizumi, Koichi Haraguchi
This study investigated contamination trends and factors affecting the levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP), in breast milk in Japan. Breast milk samples (n = 64) were collected from mothers living in six prefectures in Japan. The mean concentrations were 2.2, 0.19, 0.29, 3.0, and 0.59 ng/g lipid weight for α-HBCD, β-HBCD, γ-HBCD, TBBP-A, and 2,4,6-TBP, respectively. Based on the previous studies, the levels of ΣHBCD in Japanese women's milk appear to be increasing, and the levels of TBBP-A are higher than those in other Asian countries...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Pedro Fatela, Joana F Reis, Goncalo V Mendonca, Tomás Freitas, Maria J Valamatos, Janne Avela, Pedro Mil-Homens
Fatela, P, Reis, JF, Mendonca, GV, Freitas, T, Valamatos, MJ, Avela, J, and Mil-Homens, P. Acute neuromuscular adaptations in response to low-intensity blood flow restricted exercise and high-intensity resistance exercise: are there any differences? J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 902-910, 2018-Numerous studies have reported similar neuromuscular adaptations between low-intensity (LI) blood-flow restricted exercise (BFRE) and high-intensity (HI) resistance training. Unfortunately, none of these experimental designs individualized blood flow restriction (BFR) levels to each participant...
April 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Afonso Borges, Carolina Teodósio, Pedro Matos, Pedro Mil-Homens, Pedro Pezarat-Correia, Christopher Fahs, Goncalo V Mendonca
Arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) is typically used to normalize blood flow restriction (BFR) during low intensity BFR exercise. Despite strong evidence for sexual dimorphism in muscle blood flow, sex-related differences in AOP estimation remain a controversial topic. We aimed at determining whether the relationship of upper-limb AOP with arm circumference and systolic blood pressure (BP) differs between men and women resting in the seated position. Sixty-two healthy young participants (31 men: 21.7 ± 2.3; 31 women: 22...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Toshiaki Nakajima, Seiichiro Koide, Tomohiro Yasuda, Takaaki Hasegawa, Tatsuya Yamasoba, Syotaro Obi, Shigeru Toyoda, Fumitaka Nakamura, Teruo Inoue, David C Poole, Yutaka Kano
Low force exercise training with blood flow restriction (BFR) elicits muscle hypertrophy. We investigated the effects of microvascular hypoxia (i.e., low microvascular O2 partial pressures, PmvO2 ) during contractions on hypertrophic signaling, growth response and key muscle adaptations for increasing exercise capacity. Wistar rats were fitted with a cuff placed around the upper thigh and inflated to restrict limb blood flow. Low force isometric contractions (30 Hz) were evoked via electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior (TA) nerve...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Joubert Banjop Kharlyngdoh, Ajay Pradhan, Per-Erik Olsson
Endocrine disrupting compounds can interfere with androgen receptor (AR) signaling and disrupt steroidogenesis leading to reproductive failure. The brominated flame-retardant (BFR) 1, 2-dibromo-4-(1, 2-dibromoethyl) cyclohexane (TBECH), is an agonist to human, chicken and zebrafish AR. Recently another group of alternative BFRs, allyl 2, 4, 6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), and 2, 3-dibromopropyl 2, 4, 6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) along with its metabolite 2-bromoallyl 2, 4, 6-tribromophenyl ether (BATE) were identified as potent human AR antagonists...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Summer B Cook, Brendan R Scott, Katherine L Hayes, Bethany G Murphy
Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise has been suggested to be as effective as moderate and high-load resistance training for increasing muscle size and strength. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or low-load BFR resistance training on neuromuscular function, strength, and hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Eighteen participants aged 18-22 years old were randomized to one of three training groups: moderate load (ML: 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]); BFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ~180 mmHg); and a control group (CON) that did not exercise...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Chaoying Chen, Zhanpeng Yuan
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is frequently studied in surveys; however, prehypertension, a new blood pressure status between normotension and hypertension, is rarely reported. METHODS: All data were derived from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and were analysed by logistic regression for correlation. RESULTS: The prehypertension prevalence was 27.4%, with a hypertension rate of 36.9%. The awareness, treatment, and uncontrolled rates among all hypertension participates were 19...
March 7, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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