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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#1
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906401/efficient-organic-photovoltaic-cells-on-a-single-layer-graphene-transparent-conductive-electrode-using-moox-as-an-interfacial-layer
#2
J H Du, H Jin, Z K Zhang, D D Zhang, S Jia, L P Ma, W C Ren, H M Cheng, P L Burn
The large surface roughness, low work function and high cost of transparent electrodes using multilayer graphene films can limit their application in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we develop single layer graphene (SLG) films as transparent anodes for OPV cells that contain light-absorbing layers comprised of the evaporable molecular organic semiconductor materials, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60), as well as a molybdenum oxide (MoOx) interfacial layer. In addition to an increase in the optical transmittance, the SLG anodes had a significant decrease in surface roughness compared to two and four layer graphene (TLG and FLG) anodes fabricated by multiple transfer and stacking of SLGs...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906236/drawing-optical-fibers-from-three-dimensional-printers
#3
John Canning, Md Arafat Hossain, Chunyang Han, Loic Chartier, Kevin Cook, Tristan Athanaze
The temperature distribution within extrusion nozzles of three low-cost desktop 3D printers is characterized using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to assess their compatibility as micro-furnaces for optical fiber and taper production. These profiles show remarkably consistent distributions suitable for direct drawing of optical fiber. As proof of principle, coreless optical fibers (φ=30  μm) made from fluorinated acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) are drawn...
December 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894723/plastic-debris-and-microplastics-along-the-beaches-of-the-strait-of-hormuz-persian-gulf
#4
Abolfazl Naji, Zinat Esmaili, Farhan R Khan
Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1)...
November 25, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876837/the-mediterranean-plastic-soup-synthetic-polymers-in-mediterranean-surface-waters
#5
Giuseppe Suaria, Carlo G Avio, Annabella Mineo, Gwendolyn L Lattin, Marcello G Magaldi, Genuario Belmonte, Charles J Moore, Francesco Regoli, Stefano Aliani
The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865502/retail-lighting-and-packaging-influence-consumer-acceptance-of-fluid-milk
#6
H L Potts, K N Amin, S E Duncan
Little is known about the effect of retail light-emitting diode (LED) exposure on consumer acceptance of milk. The study objective was to determine effects of fluorescent and LED lighting under retail storage conditions on consumer acceptance of milk. Consumer acceptance of milk stored under retail conditions was determined through sensory evaluation (2 studies; n = 150+ each) and analytical measures (dissolved oxygen, secondary oxidation products, riboflavin retention). Study 1 evaluated milk stored in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packages for 4 h under LED light (960 lx)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863264/synergistic-effect-of-polyaniline-coverage-and-surface-microstructure-on-the-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-formation
#7
L A Gallarato, L E Mulko, M S Dardanelli, C A Barbero, D F Acevedo, E I Yslas
Biofilm Formation is a survival strategy for microorganisms to adapt to their environment. Microbial cells in biofilm become tolerant and resistant to antibiotics and immune responses, increasing the difficulties for the clinical treatment of microbial infections. The surface chemistry and the micro/nano-topography of solid interfaces play a major role in mediating microorganism activity and adhesion. The effect of the surface chemical composition and topography on the adhesion and viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied...
November 9, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858051/graphene-nitrogen-functionalized-graphene-quantum-dot-hybrid-broadband-photodetectors-with-a-buffer-layer-of-boron-nitride-nanosheets
#8
Hiroyuki Tetsuka, Akihiro Nagoya, Shin-Ichi Tamura
A high performance hybrid broadband photodetector with graphene/nitrogen-functionalized graphene quantum dots (NGQDs@GFET) is developed using boron nitride nanosheets (BN-NSs) as a buffer layer to facilitate the separation and transport of photoexcited carriers from the NGQD absorber. The NGQDs@GFET photodetector with the buffer layer of BN-NSs exhibits enhanced photoresponsivity and detectivity in the deep ultraviolet region of ca. 2.3 × 10(6) A W(-1) and ca. 5.5 × 10(13) Jones without the application of a backgate voltage...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855903/a-novel-approach-for-the-fabrication-of-a-flexible-glucose-biosensor-the-combination-of-vertically-aligned-cnts-and-a-conjugated-polymer
#9
Tugba Ceren Gokoglan, Saniye Soylemez, Melis Kesik, Itir Bakis Dogru, Onur Turel, Recep Yuksel, Husnu Emrah Unalan, Levent Toppare
A novel flexible glucose biosensor using vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) and a conjugated polymer (CP) was fabricated. A scaffold based on VACNT grown on aluminum foil (VACNT-Al foil) with poly (9,9-di-(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-end capped with 2,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole (PFLO) was used as the immobilization matrix for the glucose biosensor. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on a modified indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) electrode surface. The biosensor response at a potential of -0...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855124/solution-processed-ag-nanowire-zno-nanoparticle-composite-transparent-electrode-for-flexible-organic-solar-cells
#10
Bin Wei, Saihu Pan, Taohong Wang, Zhenghao Tian, Guo Chen, Tao Xu
This paper demonstrates a hybrid transparent electrode composed of a solution-processed silver-nanowire (AgNW) film coated by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) acting as a modified buffer layer. The effect of the ZnO-NPs' coating ratio on the performances of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) has been systematically investigated. The optimized ITO-free OSCs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.85%, while flexible OSCs using the AgNW/ZnO-NP composite transparent electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate showed a PCE of 2...
December 16, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847581/foreign-body-reaction-after-implantation-of-a-device-for-intervertebral-assisted-motion
#11
Jun-Yeong Seo, Kee-Yong Ha, Young-Hoon Kim, Joo-Hyun Ahn
The device for intervertebral assisted motion (DIAM) is a dynamic implant that consists of a silicone bumper enveloped by a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber sack. Silicone and PET were used because of their biological inertness, but repetitive motion of the spine can cause wear on the implant nonetheless. The purpose of this study is to report a case of foreign body reaction (FBR) against a DIAM. A 72-year-old female patient presented with lower back pain and both legs radiating pain. She had undergone DIAM implantation at L4-5 for spinal stenosis 5 years previously...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836345/a-high-performance-protocol-for-extraction-of-microplastics-in-fish
#12
Ali Karami, Abolfazl Golieskardi, Cheng Keong Choo, Nicholas Romano, Yu Bin Ho, Babak Salamatinia
So far, several classes of digesting solutions have been employed to extract microplastics (MPs) from biological matrices. However, the performance of digesting solutions across different temperatures has never been systematically investigated. In the first phase of the present study, we measured the efficiency of different oxidative agents (NaClO or H2O2), bases (NaOH or KOH), and acids [HCl or HNO3; concentrated and diluted (5%)] in digesting fish tissues at room temperature (RT, 25°C), 40, 50, or 60°C...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832279/artificial-polymeric-scaffolds-as-extracellular-matrix-substitutes-for-autologous-conjunctival-goblet-cell-expansion
#13
Min He, Thomas Storr-Paulsen, Annie L Wang, Chiara E Ghezzi, Siran Wang, Matthew Fullana, Dimitrios Karamichos, Tor P Utheim, Rakibul Islam, May Griffith, M Mirazul Islam, Robin R Hodges, Gary E Wnek, David L Kaplan, Darlene A Dartt
Purpose: We fabricated and investigated polymeric scaffolds that can substitute for the conjunctival extracellular matrix to provide a substrate for autologous expansion of human conjunctival goblet cells in culture. Methods: We fabricated two hydrogels and two silk films: (1) recombinant human collagen (RHC) hydrogel, (2) recombinant human collagen 2-methacryloylxyethyl phosphorylcholine (RHC-MPC) hydrogel, (3) arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) modified silk, and (4) poly-D-lysine (PDL) coated silk, and four electrospun scaffolds: (1) collagen, (2) poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), (3) poly(caprolactone) (PCL), and (4) poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814536/uptake-and-effects-of-microplastic-textile-fibers-on-freshwater-crustacean-daphnia-magna
#14
Anita Jemec, Petra Horvat, Urban Kunej, Marjan Bele, Andrej Kržan
Microplastic fibers (MP) from textile weathering and washing are increasingly being recognized as environmental pollutants. The majority of studies on the bioavailability and effects of microplastic focused on small polystyrene spherical plastic particles, while less data are available for fibers and for other materials besides polystyrene. We investigated the ingestion and effects of ground polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile microfibers (length range: 62-1400 μm, width 31-528 μm, thickness 1-21.5 μm) on the freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia magna after a 48 h exposure and subsequent 24 h of recovery in MP free medium and algae...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809270/flexible-graphene-electrodes-for-prolonged-dynamic-ecg-monitoring
#15
Cunguang Lou, Ruikai Li, Zhaopeng Li, Tie Liang, Zihui Wei, Mingtao Run, Xiaobing Yan, Xiuling Liu
This paper describes the development of a graphene-based dry flexible electrocardiography (ECG) electrode and a portable wireless ECG measurement system. First, graphene films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates and graphene paper were used to construct the ECG electrode. Then, a graphene textile was synthesized for the fabrication of a wearable ECG monitoring system. The structure and the electrical properties of the graphene electrodes were evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and alternating current impedance spectroscopy...
November 1, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805909/engineering-chemically-exfoliated-dispersions-of-two-dimensional-graphite-and-molybdenum-disulphide-for-ink-jet-printing
#16
Monica Michel, Jay A Desai, Chandan Biswas, Anupama B Kaul
Stable ink dispersions of two-dimensional-layered-materials (2DLMs) MoS2 and graphite are successfully obtained in organic solvents exhibiting a wide range of polarities and surface energies. The role of sonication time, ink viscosity and surface tension is explored in the context of dispersion stability using these solvents, which include N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethylformamide (DMF), Cyclohexanone (C), as well as less-toxic and more environmentally friendly Isopropanol (IPA) and Terpineol (T)...
November 2, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802040/synthesis-of-layered-double-hydroxide-single-layer-nanosheets-in-formamide
#17
Jingfang Yu, Jingjing Liu, Abraham Clearfield, Johnathan E Sims, Michael T Speiegle, Steven L Suib, Luyi Sun
Layered double hydroxide (LDH) single-layer nanosheets were synthesized through a single-step process in the presence of formamide. This one-step process is simple, fast, and efficient and thus is potentially viable for large-scale production. Two key factors for the growth of LDH single-layer nanosheets, formamide concentration and LDH layer charge, were investigated thoroughly. A higher formamide concentration and a higher LDH layer charge are favorable for the growth of LDH single-layer nanosheets. The LDH single-layer nanosheets obtained at the premium formamide concentration and LDH layer charge were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force micrscopy (AFM)...
November 1, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800149/the-effects-of-sugars-on-the-biofilm-formation-of-escherichia-coli-185p-on-stainless-steel-and-polyethylene-terephthalate-surfaces-in-a-laboratory-model
#18
Mahdi Khangholi, Ailar Jamalli
BACKGROUND: Bacteria utilize various methods in order to live in protection from adverse environmental conditions. One such method involves biofilm formation; however, this formation is dependent on many factors. The type and concentration of substances such as sugars that are present in an environment can be effective facilitators of biofilm formation. METHODS: First, the physico-chemical properties of the bacteria and the target surface were studied via the MATS and contact angle measurement methods...
September 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778008/high-performance-triboelectric-nanogenerators-with-aligned-carbon-nanotubes
#19
Huan Wang, Mayue Shi, Kai Zhu, Zongming Su, Xiaoliang Cheng, Yu Song, Xuexian Chen, Zhiqiang Liao, Min Zhang, Haixia Zhang
As the essential element of a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG), friction layers play key roles that determine the device performance, which can be enhanced by material selection and surface modification. In this work, we have embedded aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface as the effective dielectric layer to donate electrons. This layer not only increases the electron generation for the output, but also shows notable stretchability. The length and the properties of the aligned CNTs can be controlled precisely...
October 25, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774511/-uphill-cation-transport-a-bioinspired-photo-driven-ion-pump
#20
Zhen Zhang, Xiang-Yu Kong, Ganhua Xie, Pei Li, Kai Xiao, Liping Wen, Lei Jiang
Biological ion pumps with active ionic transport properties lay the foundation for many life processes. However, few analogs have been produced because extra energy is needed to couple to this "uphill" process. We demonstrate a bioinspired artificial photo-driven ion pump based on a single polyethylene terephthalate conical nanochannel. The pumping process behaving as an inversion of zero-volt current can be realized by applying ultraviolet irradiation from the large opening. The light energy can accelerate the dissociation of the benzoic acid derivative dimers existing on the inner surface of nanochannel, which consequently produces more mobile carboxyl groups...
October 2016: Science Advances
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