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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819264/microplastics-in-spanish-table-salt
#1
Maria E Iñiguez, Juan A Conesa, Andres Fullana
Marine debris is widely recognized as a global environmental problem. One of its main components, microplastics, has been found in several sea salt samples from different countries, indicating that sea products are irremediably contaminated by microplastics. Previous studies show very confusing results, reporting amounts of microparticles (MPs) in salt ranging from zero to 680 MPs/kg, with no mention of the possible causes of such differences. Several errors in the experimental procedures used were found and are reported in the present work...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818816/oil-sorbents-from-plastic-wastes-and-polymers-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Junaid Saleem, Muhammad Adil Riaz, McKay Gordon
A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815626/preliminary-quantification-of-the-permeability-solubility-and-diffusion-coefficients-of-major-aroma-compounds-present-in-herbs-through-various-plastic-packaging-materials
#3
Pattarin Leelaphiwat, Rafael A Auras, Gary Burgess, Janice B Harte, Vanee Chonhenchob
BACKGROUND: Aroma permeation through packaging material is an important factor when designing a package for food products. The masses of aroma compounds permeating through films over time were measured at 25 °C using a quasi-isostatic system. A model was proposed for estimating the permeability coefficients (P) of key aroma compounds present in fresh herbs (i.e., eucalyptol, estragole, linalool and citral) through major plastic films used by the food industry (i.e., low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), nylon (Nylon), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), metalized-polyethylene terephthalate (MPET) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA))...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800471/microplastic-ingestion-by-mullus-surmuletus-linnaeus-1758-fish-and-its-potential-for-causing-oxidative-stress
#4
C Alomar, A Sureda, X Capó, B Guijarro, S Tejada, S Deudero
A total of 417 striped red mullet, Mullus surmuletus, were analyzed to study microplastic ingestion and livers of fish were assessed to study effects of microplastics. Nearly one third (27.30%) of the individuals were quantified to ingest microplastics although there was no evidence of oxidative stress or cellular damage in the liver of fish which had ingested microplastics. A small increase in the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) of M. surmuletus was detected which could be suggesting an induction of the detoxification systems but these findings should be tested in laboratory conditions under a controlled diet and known concentration of microplastics...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796516/cesium-induced-ionic-conduction-through-a-single-nanofluidic-pore-modified-with-calixcrown-moieties
#5
Mubarak Ali, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Patricio Ramirez, Saima Nasir, Javier Cervera, Salvador Mafe, Christof M Niemeyer, Wolfgang Ensinger
We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a nanofluidic device for the selective recognition of cesium ion by exploiting host-guest interactions inside confined geometry. For this purpose, a host molecule, i.e., the amine-terminated p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-crown (t-BuC[4]C-NH2), is successfully synthesized and functionalized on the surface of a single conical nanopore fabricated in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane through carbodiimide coupling chemistry. On exposure to cesium cation, the t-BuC[4]C-Cs+ complex is formed through host-guest interaction, leading to the generation of positive fixed charges on the pore surface...
August 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791967/highly-stable-and-flexible-graphene-cf-sub-3-sub-so-sub-2-sub-sub-2-sub-nh-graphene-transparent-conductive-electrodes-for-organic-solar-cells
#6
Sang Woo Seo, Ha Seung Lee, Dong Hee Shin, Ju Hwan Kim, Chan Wook Jang, Jong Min Kim, Sung Kim, Suk-Ho Choi
We first employ highly-stable and -flexible (CF<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>NH-doped graphene (TFSA/GR) and GR-encapsulated TFSA/GR (GR/TFSA/GR) transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) prepared on polyethylene terephthalate substrates for flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). Compared to conventional indium tin oxide (ITO) TCEs, the TFSA-doped-GR TCEs show higher optical transmittance and larger sheet resistance. The TFSA/GR and GR/TFSA/GR TCEs show work functions of 4...
August 9, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777077/a-flexible-thermoresponsive-cell-culture-substrate-for-direct-transfer-of-keratinocyte-cell-sheets
#7
Praveen Wulligundam, Bernadette Madathil, Sajin Raj Rg, Kumary Tv, Anil Kumar Pr
Most cell sheet engineering systems require a support or carrier to handle the harvested cell sheets. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate-based overhead projection transparency sheets (OHPS) were subjected to surface hydrolysis by alkali treatment to increase pliability and hydrophilicity and enable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate) copolymer (NGMA) coating to impart thermoresponsiveness. NGMA was applied on the modified OHPS by the technique of spin coating using an indigenously designed spin coater...
August 4, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773969/flexural-capability-of-patterned-transparent-conductive-substrate-by-performing-electrical-measurements-and-stress-simulations
#8
Chang-Chun Lee, Pei-Chen Huang, Ko-Shun Wang
The suitability of stacked thin films for next-generation display technology was analyzed based on their properties and geometrical designs to evaluate the mechanical reliability of transparent conducting thin films utilized in flexural displays. In general, the high bending stress induced by various operation conditions is a major concern regarding the mechanical reliability of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates; mechanical reliability is commonly used to estimate the flexibility of displays...
October 19, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773838/experimental-and-simulated-investigations-of-thin-polymer-substrates-with-an-indium-tin-oxide-coating-under-fatigue-bending-loadings
#9
Jiong-Shiun Hsu, Chang-Chun Lee, Bor-Jiunn Wen, Pei-Chen Huang, Chi-Kai Xie
Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO) film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films...
August 24, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772977/mechanical-properties-of-nonwoven-reinforced-thermoplastic-polyurethane-composites
#10
Muhammad Tausif, Achilles Pliakas, Tom O'Haire, Parikshit Goswami, Stephen J Russell
Reinforcement of flexible fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites with standard textile fibres is a potential low cost solution to less critical loading applications. The mechanical behaviour of FRPs based on mechanically bonded nonwoven preforms composed of either low or high modulus fibres in a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix were compared following compression moulding. Nonwoven preform fibre compositions were selected from lyocell, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamide (PA) as well as para-aramid fibres (polyphenylene terephthalamide; PPTA)...
June 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772609/mechanical-properties-of-zto-ito-and-a-si-h-multilayer-films-for-flexible-thin-film-solar-cells
#11
Claudia Hengst, Siegfried B Menzel, Gayatri K Rane, Vladimir Smirnov, Karen Wilken, Barbara Leszczynska, Dustin Fischer, Nicole Prager
The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young's modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed for single film coatings of various thickness on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In order to demonstrate the role of the microstructure of a single film on the mechanical behavior of the whole multilayer coating, two sets of InSnOx (indium tin oxide, ITO) conductive coatings were prepared...
March 1, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772586/development-of-the-%C3%AE-igzo-ag-%C3%AE-igzo-triple-layer-structure-films-for-the-application-of-transparent-electrode
#12
Kun-Neng Chen, Cheng-Fu Yang, Chia-Ching Wu, Yu-Hsin Chen
We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm...
February 24, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772540/metamorphosis-in-the-porosity-of-recycled-concretes-through-the-use-of-a-recycled-polyethylene-terephthalate-pet-additive-correlations-between-the-porous-network-and-concrete-properties
#13
José Miguel Mendivil-Escalante, José Manuel Gómez-Soberón, Jorge Luis Almaral-Sánchez, Francisca Guadalupe Cabrera-Covarrubias
In the field of construction, sustainable building materials are currently undergoing a process of technological development. This study aims to contribute to understanding the behavior of the fundamental properties of concretes prepared with recycled coarse aggregates that incorporate a polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based additive in their matrix (produced by synthesis and glycolysis of recycled PET bottles) in an attempt to reduce their high porosity. Techniques to measure the gas adsorption, water porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the effect of the additive on the physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of these concretes...
February 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764523/fabrication-of-large-area-flexible-nanoplasmonic-templates-with-flow-coating
#14
Qian Huang, Brent M Devetter, Timothy Roosendaal, Max LaBerge, Bruce E Bernacki, Kyle J Alvine
We describe the development of a custom-built two-axis flow coater for the deposition of polymeric nanosphere monolayers that could be used in the fabrication of large area nanoplasmonic films. The technique described here has the capability of depositing large areas (up to 7 in. × 10 in.) of self-assembled monolayers of polymeric nanospheres onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Here, three sets of films consisting of different diameters (ranging from 100 to 300 nm) of polymeric nanospheres were used to demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument...
July 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762426/considerable-humidity-response-of-a-well-aligned-soms-micro-wire-flexible-sensor-by-moisture-induced-releasing-of-trapped-electrons
#15
Kuei-Lin Chan, Min-Han Yang, Hsin-Tien Chiu, Chi-Young Lee
Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves micro-wires (SOMS MWs) that exhibit ultra-high response to moisture and a short response time can be produced easily in an environmentally friendly mass production process. They are excellent candidate materials for use in humidity sensors. SOMS MWs were synthesized using niobium pentoxide as a precursor in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. To fabricate humidity-sensing devices, electrophoresis was utilized to align the SOMS MWs on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate...
August 1, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762415/biocompatible-3d-printed-polymers-via-fused-deposition-modelling-direct-c2c12-cellular-phenotype-in-vitro
#16
Rowan P Rimington, Andrew J Capel, Steven D R Christie, Mark P Lewis
The capability to 3D print bespoke biologically receptive parts within short time periods has driven the growing prevalence of additive manufacture (AM) technology within biological settings, however limited research concerning cellular interaction with 3D printed polymers has been undertaken. In this work, we used skeletal muscle C2C12 cell line in order to ascertain critical evidence of cellular behaviour in response to multiple bio-receptive candidate polymers; polylactic acid (PLA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) 3D printed via fused deposition modelling (FDM)...
August 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759856/high-flux-ultrafiltration-membrane-based-on-electrospun-polyacrylonitrile-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-arsenate-removal-from-aqueous-solutions
#17
Pegah Bahmani, Afshin Maleki, Hiua Daraei, Mehrdad Khamforoush, Reza Rezaee, Fardin Gharibi, Alexey G Tkachev, Alexander E Burakov, Shilpi Agarwal, Vinod Kumar Gupta
Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a serious problem worldwide. In this study, to remove arsenate from contaminated water, a new thin-film composite (TFC) membrane was fabricated and tested. This membrane was composed of an electrospun nanofibrous scaffold, a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate as support, and a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) coating layer. To effectively reject arsenate ions, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) pretreatment was used. For evaluating the performance of TFC membrane, its flux and contaminant rejection were compared to a conventional ultrafiltration (UF) membrane...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758738/enhanced-wettability-and-thermal-stability-of-a-novel-polyethylene-terephthalate-based-poly-vinylidene-fluoride-nanofiber-hybrid-membrane-for-the-separator-of-lithium-ion-batteries
#18
Chunhong Zhu, Tomoki Nagaishi, Jian Shi, Hoik Lee, Pok Yin Wong, Jianhua Sui, Kenji Hyodo, Ick Soo Kim
In this study, a novel membrane for the separator in a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery was proposed via a mechanically pressed process with a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofiber subject and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) microfiber support. Important physical properties, such as surface morphology, wettability, and heat stability were considered for the PET-reinforced PVDF nanofiber (PRPN) hybrid separator. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the PRPN hybrid separator had a homogeneous pore size and high porosity...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756283/design-and-characterization-of-a-hyperelastic-tubular-soft-composite
#19
Robert Shaheen, Marc Doumit, Alexander Helal
Research in the field of human mobility assistive devices, aiming to reduce the metabolic cost of daily activities, is seeing the benefits of the exclusive use of passive actuators to store and release energy during the gait cycle. Current devices commonly employ either mechanical springs or Pneumatic Artificial Muscles as the primary method of passive actuation. The Pneumatic Artificial Muscle has proven to be a superior actuation choice for these devices, when compared to its alternatives. However, challenges regarding muscle pressure loss and limited elongation potential have been identified...
July 22, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750244/transparent-conductive-and-superhydrophobic-nanocomposite-coatings-on-polymer-substrate
#20
Wenhui Yao, Kwang-Jin Bae, Myung Yung Jung, Young-Rae Cho
Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings were fabricated on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate by a spray method. Different concentrations of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) entwined with SiO2 nanoparticles, which originated from the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate, were sprayed to form MWCNTs/SiO2 nanocomposite coatings. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and other analytical techniques...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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