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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229407/assessment-of-energy-metabolic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#1
Ghazaleh Hajmousa, Martin C Harmsen
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) are promising candidates for therapeutic applications in cardiovascular regenerative medicine. By definition, the phenotype ADSCs, e.g., the ubiquitous secretion of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix components is not met in vivo, which renders ADSC a culture "artefact." The medium constituents therefore impact the efficacy of ADSC. Little attention has been paid to the energy source in medium, i.e., glucose, which feeds the cell's power plants: mitochondria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229170/molecular-insight-of-arsenic-induced-carcinogenesis-and-its-prevention
#2
REVIEW
Paramita Mandal
Population of India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are badly exposed to arsenic through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water, they are dependent on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas with lack of proper nutrition. Arsenic is considered to be an environmental contaminant and widely distributed in the environment due to its natural existence and anthropogenic applications. Contamination of arsenic in both human and animal could occur through air, soil, and other sources...
February 22, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194639/ultrafine-particulate-matter-increases-cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore
#3
Nathan A Holland, Chad R Fraiser, Ruben C Sloan, Robert B Devlin, David A Brown, Christopher J Wingard
Ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms that drive PM-associated cardiovascular disease and dysfunction remain unclear. We examined the impact of oropharyngeal aspiration of 100 μg UFP from the Chapel Hill, NC, air shed in Sprague-Dawley rats on cardiac function, arrhythmogenesis, and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using a Langendorff working heart model. We found that exposure to UFP was capable of significantly exacerbating cardiac I/R injury without changing overall cardiac function or major changes in arrhythmogenesis...
February 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142119/ginkgolide-a-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases-on-high-fat-diet-mice
#4
Hyeon-Soo Jeong, Kang-Hoon Kim, In-Seung Lee, Ji Young Park, Yumi Kim, Ki-Suk Kim, Hyeung-Jin Jang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide and has continuously increased. NAFLD refers to a spectrum of diseases ranging from fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and even to hepatocyte carcinoma. Excessive fatty acid enters the cell and the mitochondria undergo stress and unremoved ROS can trigger a form of cell apoptosis known as 'lipoapoptosis'. NASH arises from damaged liver hepatocytes due to lipotoxicity. NASH not only involves lipid accumulation and apoptosis but also inflammation...
January 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131843/inhibition-of-drp1-attenuates-mitochondrial-damage-and-myocardial-injury-in-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#5
Lin Lin, Ming Zhang, Rui Yan, Hu Shan, Jiayu Diao, Jin Wei
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is closely related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, innate immunity, and energy metabolism, which are all linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. A close nexus between mitochondrial dynamics and cardiovascular disease with mitochondrial dysfunction has been deeply researched, but there is still no relevant report in viral myocarditis. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-linked mitochondrial fission in VMC. Mice were inoculated with the Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and treated with mdivi1 (a Drp1 inhibitor)...
March 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107086/interaction-between-lipid-droplets-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-in-human-atherosclerotic-plaques
#6
Ida Perrotta
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that are found in nearly all cell types, where they serve fundamental roles in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. Traditionally considered as simple lipid storage deposits, these dynamic and remarkable organelles have recently been implicated in a number of other cellular functions, ranging from protein storage and degradation to virus replication. Intracellular accumulation of LDs is also a hallmark feature of diverse human diseases including diabetes type II, obesity, hepatosteatosis, cancer, and atherosclerosis...
January 20, 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104455/a-novel-role-for-endothelial-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-mitochondrial-redox-balance
#7
Jade Bailey, Andrew Shaw, Roman Fischer, Brent J Ryan, Benedikt M Kessler, James McCullagh, Richard Wade-Martins, Keith M Channon, Mark J Crabtree
The redox co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by endothelial NOS (eNOS) and is an important redox-dependent signalling molecule in the endothelium. Loss of endothelial BH4 is observed in cardiovascular disease (CVD) states and results in decreased NO and increased superoxide (O2(-)) generation via eNOS uncoupling. Genetic mouse models of augmented endothelial BH4 synthesis have shown proof of concept that endothelial BH4 can alter CVD pathogenesis...
January 17, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088493/apoptosis-induced-by-the-methanol-extract-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-pten-mediated-inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-pathway
#8
Yin-Tao Ye, Wei Zhong, Pei Sun, Dong Wang, Chen Wang, Li-Min Hu, Jun-Qiang Qian
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) plant, has been used to treat cardiovascular diseases since thousands of years. Many studies have reported that the active component tanshinones displayed a variety of biological activities: antithrombous, antiplatelet aggregation, antioxidant and antitumor promoting. But the mechanism of how the active components working still need to be clarified. The anti-tumor effect of compounds of tanshinone (CTN), the methanol extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge roots, was investigated...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078995/sphingolipids-in-genetic-and-acquired-forms-of-chronic-kidney-diseases
#9
Norishi Ueda
Sphingolipids (SLs) regulate apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. SLs, including ceramide, glycosphingolipids (glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, and gangliosides) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of genetic (lysosomal storage disease, congenital nephrotic syndrome and polycystic kidney disease) and non-genetic forms of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). SLs metabolism defects promote complications (cardiovascular events, etc.) via oxidant stress in CKDs...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078981/resilience-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-physical-activity
#10
Anna Pedrinolla, Federico Schena, Massimo Venturelli
BACKGROUND: Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at cerebral level, recent studies highlighted that AD might be the result of many altered physiological processes occurring at whole-organism level. The ability to adapt to stressors by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience". Individuals incline to withstand such pathophysiological challenges, can be considered more resilient than those that do not...
11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051329/regulation-of-the-cardioprotective-adiponectin-and-its-receptor-adipor1-by-salt
#11
Nicholas Arnold, Abuzar Mahmood, Maya Ramdas, Paul P Ehlinger, Lakshmi Pulakat
Both circulating adiponectin (APN) and cardiac APN exert cardioprotective effects and improve insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function. Low circulating APN serves as a biomarker for cardiovascular risk. Ablation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) causes myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction. Although high salt intake is a contributor to cardiovascular disease, how it modulates the expression of APN or AdipoR1 in cardiomyocytes is not known. We report that APN mRNA expression was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner in mouse cardiomyocyte cell line HL-1 exposed to salt concentrations ranging from 0...
November 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049038/trimethylamine-n-oxide-impairs-pyruvate-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-cardiac-mitochondria
#12
Marina Makrecka-Kuka, Kristine Volska, Unigunde Antone, Reinis Vilskersts, Solveiga Grinberga, Dace Bandere, Edgars Liepinsh, Maija Dambrova
Increased plasma concentration of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a proatherogenic metabolite, has been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes; however, it remains unclear whether TMAO is a biomarker or whether it induces direct detrimental cardiovascular effects. Because altered cardiac energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction play crucial roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases, we hypothesized that increased TMAO concentration may alter mitochondrial energy metabolism. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of TMAO on cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism...
February 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039524/effects-of-cyclic-nucleotide-phosphodiesterases-pdes-on-mitochondrial-skeletal-muscle-functions
#13
REVIEW
Liliane Tetsi, Anne-Laure Charles, Stéphanie Paradis, Anne Lejay, Samy Talha, Bernard Geny, Claire Lugnier
Mitochondria play a critical role in skeletal muscle metabolism and function, notably at the level of tissue respiration, which conduct muscle strength as well as muscle survival. Pathological conditions induce mitochondria dysfunctions notably characterized by free oxygen radical production disturbing intracellular signaling. In that way, the second messengers, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, control intracellular signaling at the physiological and transcription levels by governing phosphorylation cascades. Both nucleotides are specifically and selectively hydrolyzed in their respective 5'-nucleotide by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which constitute a multi-genic family differently tissue distributed and subcellularly compartmentalized...
December 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034298/effective-agents-targeting-the-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-to-protect-the-heart
#14
Eltyeb Abdelwahid, Aurimas Stulpinas, Audrone Kalvelyte
A wide variety of agents have been traditionally used in cardiovascular medicine worldwide and their precise mechanisms of action have been demonstrated to be largely related to the cardiomyocyte mitochondria and apoptosis. Abnormalities in the structure and function of the mitochondria and mutations in mitochondrial DNA can decrease energy production, alter the redox system, impair calcium homeostasis, and induce the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), causing cell death. All of these data provide evidence of mitochondrial signaling pathways as targets to downregulate cardiac cell apoptosis and thus to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases...
December 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025032/the-metabolic-syndrome-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Xin Zhang, Lilach O Lerman
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which may also foster development of chronic kidney disease. The mechanisms of MetS-induced kidney disease are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent discoveries regarding the impact of MetS on the kidney, particularly on the renal microvasculature and cellular mitochondria. Fundamental manifestations of MetS include IR and adipose tissue expansion, the latter promoting chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that exacerbate IR...
December 9, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008641/effects-of-mirnas-on-myocardial-apoptosis-by-modulating-mitochondria-related-proteins
#16
REVIEW
Yanfang Zhao, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Yanhan Dong, Lei Zhang, Kun Wang, Peifeng Li
Myocardial apoptosis play a vital role in pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis (mitochondrial apoptosis pathway) and abnormal mitochondrial fission and fusion have a detrimental effect on cells under a variety of intracellular stresses including hypoxia, oxidative stress, drug toxicity or DNA damage and contributes to the development of heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), diabetic cardiomyopathy and ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short noncoding RNAs, which target 3'-untranslated region of mRNA to switch off gene expression...
December 23, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995386/the-roles-of-mitochondrial-cation-channels-under-physiological-conditions-and-in-cancer
#17
Ildikò Szabò, Luigi Leanza
Bioenergetics has become central to our understanding of pathological mechanisms as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies and as a tool for gauging disease progression in neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. The view is emerging that inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) cation channels have a profound effect on mitochondrial function and, consequently, on the metabolic state and survival of the whole cell. Since disruption of the sustained integrity of mitochondria is strongly linked to human disease, pharmacological intervention offers a new perspective concerning neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer...
December 20, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995364/transition-in-the-mechanism-of-flow-mediated-dilation-with-aging-and-development-of-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Andreas M Beyer, Natalya Zinkevich, Bradley Miller, Yanping Liu, April L Wittenburg, Michael Mitchell, Ralph Galdieri, Andrey Sorokin, David D Gutterman
In microvessels of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is largely dependent upon the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor H2O2. The goal of this study is to examine the influence of age and presence or absence of disease on the mechanism of FMD. Human coronary or adipose arterioles (~150 µm diameter) were prepared for videomicroscopy. The effect of inhibiting COX [indomethacin (Indo) or NOS (L-NAME), eliminating H2O2 (polyethylene glycol-catalase (PEG-CAT)] or targeting a reduction in mitochondrial ROS with scavengers/inhibitors [Vitamin E (mtVitamin E); phenylboronic acid (mtPBA)] was determined in children aged 0-18 years; young adults 19-55 years; older adults >55 years without CAD, and similarly aged adults with CAD...
January 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982690/mitochondrial-adaptations-in-aged-skeletal-muscle-effect-of-exercise-training
#19
M M Ziaaldini, S Ra Hosseini, M Fathi
The aging process is associated with a decline in mitochondrial functions. Mitochondria dysfunction is involved in initiation and progression of many health problems including neuromuscular, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. It is well known that endurance exercise improves mitochondrial function, especially in the elderly. However, recent studies have demonstrated that resistance training lead also to substantial increases in mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in the skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations to exercise training in healthy elderly subjects, can help practitioners to design and prescribe more effective exercise trainings...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932069/quercetin-attenuates-vascular-calcification-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-fission
#20
Lei Cui, Zhong Li, Xueying Chang, Guangting Cong, Lirong Hao
Vascular calcification is a strong independent predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and has a high prevalence among patients with chronic kidney disease. The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on vascular calcification caused by oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. Calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) treated with inorganic phosphate (Pi) exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction, as demonstrated by decreased mitochondrial potential and ATP production...
December 5, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
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