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mitochondria and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330687/evaluation-of-the-mitochondria-related-redox-and-bioenergetics-effects-of-gastrodin-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#1
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Mitochondrion is the main site of ATP production in animal cells and also orchestrates signaling pathways associated with cell survival and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to bioenergetics and redox impairment in human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Protective agents able to attenuate mitochondrial impairment are of pharmacological interest. Gastrodin (GAS; 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucoside) is a phenolic glucoside obtained from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in several cell types...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300489/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-reveals-recovery-of-impaired-mitochondrial-function-in-ischemic-myocardium-by-shenmai-formula
#2
Yi Wang, Yu Zhao, Wei Jiang, Xiaoping Zhao, Guanwei Fan, Han Zhang, Peiqiang Shen, Jiangmin He, Xiaohui Fan
Shenmai formula (SM) is a traditional medicinal remedy for treating cardiovascular diseases in China since 800 years ago, however its mechanism of action remains unclear. To explore the mechanism underlying cardioprotective effects of SM, iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was applied to analyze protein of myocardium in rats with myocardial ischemic injury. Upon treatment with SM and its two major components Red ginseng (RG) and Radix Ophiopogonis (OP), 101 differentially expressed proteins were filtered from a total of 711 detected and annotated proteins...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245958/apelin-protects-against-myocardial-ischemic-injury-by-inhibiting-dynamin-related-protein-1
#3
Wei Xu, Hongwei Yu, Ruixue Ma, Lina Ma, Qiushuang Liu, Huitong Shan, Chengyu Wu, Rong Zhang, Yuhong Zhou, Hongli Shan
It is known that dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission plays an important role in ischemic injury of myocardial infarction (MI). Apelin, an endogenous ligand for Apelin receptor, acts as a key modulator of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we examined the effects of Apelin on MI injury and underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were treated with Apelin for 4 weeks and then subjected coronary artery ligation (LAD) to induce MI and the protective effects of Apelin on MI injury were evaluated at 6 h post LAD...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240051/influence-of-autophagy-on-the-genesis-and-development-of-atherosclerosis-and-its-risk-factors
#4
M A Sazonova, V V Sinev, V P Karagodin, A I Ryzhkova, E V Galitsyna, V A Barinova, R I Zelinyĭ, N A Nikitina, A N Orekhov
Autophagy is a highly conservative process of degeneration during which intracellular components including soluble macromolecules (e. g., nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) and dysfunctional organelles (e. g., mitochondria, peroxisomes, and the endoplasmatic reticulum) are degraded by a lysosome. Autophagy serves as a dynamic system of recycling proving cells with energy and building components. Because of it in cells of an organism new proteins and membranes can form contributing to survival of the individual under starvation conditions...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237304/the-role-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-disease-a-brief-review
#5
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Tatiana P Shkurat, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Proper mitochondrial function is necessary in tissues and organs that are of high energy demand, including the heart. Mitochondria are very sensitive to nutrient and oxygen supply and undergo metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. In CVD, such an adaptation is impaired, which, in turn, leads to a progressive decline of the mitochondrial function associated with abnormalities in the respiratory chain and ATP synthesis, increased oxidative stress, and loss of the structural integrity of mitochondria...
December 18, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236952/impaired-cardiac-contractile-function-in-agat-knockout-mice-devoid-of-creatine-is-rescued-by-homoarginine-but-not-creatine
#6
Kiterie M E Faller, Dorothee Atzler, Debra J McAndrew, Sevasti Zervou, Hannah J Whittington, Jillian N Simon, Dunja Aksentijevic, Michiel Ten Hove, Chi-Un Choe, Dirk Isbrandt, Barbara Casadei, Jurgen E Schneider, Stefan Neubauer, Craig A Lygate
Aims: Creatine buffers cellular ATP via the creatine kinase reaction. Creatine levels are reduced in heart failure, but their contribution to pathophysiology is unclear. Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) in the kidney catalyses both the first step in creatine biosynthesis as well as homoarginine synthesis. AGAT-/- mice fed a creatine-free diet have a whole body creatine-deficiency. We hypothesised that AGAT-/- mice would develop cardiac dysfunction and rescue by dietary creatine would imply causality...
December 11, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221112/traditional-chinese-medicine-ka-sai-ping-suppresses-the-growths-of-gastric-cancers-via-induction-of-autophagy
#7
Mo-Li Zhu, Jun-Xiu Lu, Guo-Pin Pan, Song Ping, Fan-Rong Zhao, Heng-Tian Qi, Hai-Ya Yu, Xu Jian, Guang-Rui Wan, Peng Li
Traditional Chinese medication is increasingly used to treat a wide range of human chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases and cancers. This study was designed to explore whether ka-sai-ping (KSP), a novel traditional Chinese medicine developed by us, prevents gastric cancer growths and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The xenograft model of mouse gastric cancer was established by injecting MFCs into nude mouse subcutaneously. Cell autophagy was assessed by MDC staining. Lysosome and mitochondria were detected by Lyso-Tracker Red and Mito-Traker Green staining...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218098/overexpression-of-microrna-145-protects-against-rat-myocardial-infarction-through-targeting-pdcd4
#8
Hao Xu, Heng Cao, Guoqing Zhu, Shaowen Liu, Hongli Li
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cardiovascular disease with high mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine the biological role of miR-145 in MI rats and hypoxia-injured cardiomyocytes and to elucidate the potential mechanism. MI rats were induced by left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to determine the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Compared with sham group, miR-145 levels in MI group were significantly decreased. We observed that lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-145 significantly improves cardiac function, reduces infarcted tissue size and prevents post-infarction induced apoptosis in rats after MI...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217137/atorvastatin-affects-negatively-respiratory-function-of-isolated-endothelial-mitochondria
#9
Izabela Broniarek, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
The purpose of this research was to elucidate the direct effects of two popular blood cholesterol-lowering drugs used to treat cardiovascular diseases, atorvastatin and pravastatin, on respiratory function, membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species formation in mitochondria isolated from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cell line). Hydrophilic pravastatin did not significantly affect endothelial mitochondria function. In contrast, hydrophobic calcium-containing atorvastatin induced a loss of outer mitochondrial membrane integrity, an increase in hydrogen peroxide formation, and reductions in maximal (phosphorylating or uncoupled) respiratory rate, membrane potential and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency...
January 1, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206204/antioxidants-protect-against-arsenic-induced-mitochondrial-cardio-toxicity
#10
REVIEW
Clare Pace, Ruben Dagda, Jeff Angermann
Arsenic is a potent cardiovascular toxicant associated with numerous biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in exposed human populations. Arsenic is also a carcinogen, yet arsenic trioxide is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of acute promyelotic leukemia (APL). The therapeutic use of arsenic is limited due to its severe cardiovascular side effects. Many of the toxic effects of arsenic are mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and related to arsenic's effect on oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of antioxidants against arsenic induced cardiovascular dysfunction...
December 5, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204172/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-and-l-carnitine-against-statin-induced-pancreatic-mitochondrial-toxicity-in-rats
#11
Melina Sadighara, Jalal Pourahamad Joktaji, Valiollah Hajhashemi, Mohsen Minaiyan
Statins are widely used in patients with hyperlipidemia and whom with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, statins also exert some adverse effects on the liver and pancreas and enhance the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of the present research was to investigate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) and L-carnitine (LC) on statins induced toxicity on pancreatic mitochondria in vivo. Seven groups of male Wistar rats received atorvastatin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), atorvastatin + Co-Q10 (10 mg/kg, i...
December 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203210/indoxyl-sulfate-upregulates-the-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-gene-via-an-atf3-c-jun-complex-mediated-signaling-pathway-in-the-model-of-uremic-cardiomyopathy
#12
Yu-Juei Hsu, Shih-Che Hsu, Yung-Lung Chang, Shih-Ming Huang, Chun-Che Shih, Chien-Sung Tsai, Chih-Yuan Lin
BACKGROUND: The risk of cardiovascular disease is notably increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) plays an important role in the development of uremic cardiomyopathy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the uremic toxin-induced upregulation of CB1R remains elusive. METHODS: The expression of the ATF3/c-Jun complex and CB1R in both in vivo and in vitro models of CKD were measured. We also determined the impact of the ATF3/c-Jun complex on CB1R expression by transfecting H9c2 cells with dominant negative mutants of ATF3 or c-Jun...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178387/gallic-acid-and-gallates-in-human-health-and-disease-do-mitochondria-hold-the-key-to-success
#13
REVIEW
Rekha Yamini Kosuru, Amrita Roy, Sujoy K Das, Soumen Bera
Gallic acid and gallate esters are widely used as dietary supplements or additives with clinical significances. Over the last few decades, a large number of publications have been reported stating the antioxidative, anti-apoptotic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and anticancer properties of gallic acid and gallates, and mostly demonstrated their antioxidative or prooxidative properties influencing the ROS signaling networks. However, very little focus has been paid on clinical trials, and this restricted their use as a prescribed preventative supplement...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175209/the-protective-role-of-low-concentration-alcohol-in-high-fructose-induced-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-mice
#14
Xiaoqi Wu, Bo Pan, Ying Wang, Lingjuan Liu, Xupei Huang, Jie Tian
Cardiovascular disease remains a worldwide public health issue. As fructose consumption is dramatically increasing, it has been demonstrated that a fructose-rich intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, emerging evidences suggest that low concentration alcohol intake may exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether low-concentration alcohol consumption would prevent the adverse effects on cardiovascular events induced by high fructose in mice...
November 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171783/hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-autophagy-and-apoptosis-with-downregulation-of-hairy-enhancer-of-split-1-5-in-cortical-neurons-in-mice
#15
Jing-Wen Zhang, Ru Yan, Yu-Sheng Tang, Yong-Zhen Guo, Yue Chang, Li Jing, Yi-Li Wang, Jian-Zhong Zhang
It has been reported that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about brain histomorphology, neuronal organelles, and hairy enhancer of split ( hes) expression under HHcy. In this study, non-HHcy and HHcy induced by high-methionine diet in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apo E-/-) mice were comparatively investigated. The histomorphology, ultrastructure, autophagosomes, apoptosis, and expression of proteins, HES1, HES5 and P62, were designed to assess the effects of HHcy on brain...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163365/functional-mitochondria-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Patries M Herst, Matthew R Rowe, Georgia M Carson, Michael V Berridge
The ability to rapidly adapt cellular bioenergetic capabilities to meet rapidly changing environmental conditions is mandatory for normal cellular function and for cancer progression. Any loss of this adaptive response has the potential to compromise cellular function and render the cell more susceptible to external stressors such as oxidative stress, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hypoxia. Mitochondria play a vital role in bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways and can rapidly adjust to meet the metabolic needs of the cell...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163230/physiological-levels-of-nitric-oxide-diminish-mitochondrial-superoxide-potential-role-of-mitochondrial-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-and-nitrosothiols
#17
Sergey I Dikalov, Vladimir I Mayorov, Alexander V Panov
Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide radicals and superoxide overproduction contributes to cardiovascular diseases and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction and diminished nitric oxide levels are early steps in the development of these pathological conditions. It is known that physiological production of nitric oxide reduces oxidative stress and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of "antioxidant" effect of nitric oxide is not clear. In this work we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of nitric oxide diminish mitochondrial superoxide production without inhibition of mitochondrial respiration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128606/salvianic-acid-a-sodium-protects-huvec-cells-against-tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-induced-oxidative-injury-via-mitochondria-dependent-pathway
#18
Dan Jia, Tian Li, Xiaofei Chen, Xuan Ding, Yifeng Chai, Alex F Chen, Zhenyu Zhu, Chuan Zhang
Salvianic acid A (Danshensu) is a major water-soluble component in Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), which has been widely used in clinic in China for treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of salvianic acid A sodium (SAAS) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) oxidative injury and the potential molecular mechanisms. In the antioxidant activity-assessing models, SAAS significantly prevented t-BHP induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis...
November 8, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117995/the-role-of-mitochondria-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-in-microvascular-dysfunction-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Danielle L Kirkman, Bryce J Muth, Meghan G Ramick, Raymond R Townsend, David G Edwards
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to CKD is a potential source of oxidative stress that may impair vascular function. This study sought to determine if mitochondria derived reactive oxygen species contribute to microvascular dysfunction in Stage 3-5 CKD. Cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating was assessed in 20 CKD patients (60±13 years; eGFR 46±13ml/kg/1.73m2) and eleven matched healthy participants (58±2 years; eGFR>90ml/kg/1...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106770/probing-the-cardiac-malate-aspartate-shuttle-non-invasively-using-hyperpolarized-1-2-13-c2-pyruvate
#20
Albert P Chen, Angus Z Lau, Yi-Ping Gu, Marie A Schroeder, Jennifer Barry, Charles H Cunningham
Previous studies have demonstrated that using hyperpolarized [2-(13) C]pyruvate as a contrast agent can reveal (13) C signals from metabolites associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, the metabolites detectable from TCA cycle-mediated oxidation of [2-(13) C]pyruvate are the result of several metabolic steps. In the instance of the [5-(13) C]glutamate signal, the amplitude can be modulated by changes to the rates of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux, TCA cycle flux and metabolite pool size...
November 6, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
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