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mitochondria and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730272/mitochondria-as-a-target-of-cardioprotection-in-models-of-preconditioning
#1
REVIEW
Magdaléna Jašová, Ivana Kancirová, Iveta Waczulíková, Miroslav Ferko
Over the recent years the view on mitochondria in the heart as a cellular powerhouse providing ATP supply needed to sustain contractile function, basal metabolic processes, and ionic homeostasis has changed radically. At present it is known that dysfunctions of these organelles are essential in the development of a large number of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, mitochondria are considered to be a very promising target of endogenous strategies that are essential in the protection of the myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709769/exploring-the-mitochondrial-microrna-import-pathway-through-polynucleotide-phosphorylase-pnpase
#2
Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Mark V Pinti, Cody E Nichols, Andrya J Durr, Shruthi Sreekumar, Kristen M Hughes, Seth M Stine, Ivan Martinez, John M Hollander
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. During the diabetic condition, cardiovascular dysfunction can be partially attributed to molecular changes in the tissue, including alterations in microRNA (miRNA) interactions. MiRNAs have been reported in the mitochondrion and their presence may influence cellular bioenergetics, creating decrements in functional capacity. In this study, we examined the roles of Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a protein associated with cytosolic and mitochondrial miRNAs, and Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase), a protein found in the inner membrane space of the mitochondrion, to determine their role in mitochondrial miRNA import...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705612/cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics-mir-mediated-regulation-during-cardiac-injury
#3
Anusha Sivakumar, Ramasamy Subbiah, Rekha Balakrishnan, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Mitochondrial integrity is indispensable for cardiac health. With the advent of modern imaging technologies, mitochondrial motility and dynamics within the cell are extensively studied. Terminally differentiated and well-structured cardiomyocytes depict little mitochondrial division and fusion, questioning the contribution of mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mitofusin 1/2 and Optic Atrophy 1 protein) and fission factors (Dynamin-like protein 1 and mitochondrial fission 1 protein) in cardiomyocyte homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703790/a-fluorescence-based-imaging-method-to-measure-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-mitophagy-using-mt-keima
#4
Nuo Sun, Daniela Malide, Jie Liu, Ilsa I Rovira, Christian A Combs, Toren Finkel
Mitophagy is a cellular process that selectively removes damaged, old or dysfunctional mitochondria. Defective mitophagy is thought to contribute to normal aging and to various neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Previous methods used to detect mitophagy in vivo were cumbersome, insensitive and difficult to quantify. We created a transgenic mouse model that expresses the pH-dependent fluorescent protein mt-Keima in order to more readily assess mitophagy. Keima is a pH-sensitive, dual-excitation ratiometric fluorescent protein that also exhibits resistance to lysosomal proteases...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698526/altered-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-mechanosensation-in-the-failing-heart-focus-on-intracellular-calcium-signaling
#5
REVIEW
Aderville Cabassi, Michele Miragoli
The heart consists of millions of cells, namely cardiomyocytes, which are highly organized in terms of structure and function, at both macroscale and microscale levels. Such meticulous organization is imperative for assuring the physiological pump-function of the heart. One of the key players for the electrical and mechanical synchronization and contraction is the calcium ion via the well-known calcium-induced calcium release process. In cardiovascular diseases, the structural organization is lost, resulting in morphological, electrical, and metabolic remodeling owing the imbalance of the calcium handling and promoting heart failure and arrhythmias...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684614/ubiquinol-effects-on-antiphospholipid-syndrome-prothrombotic-profile-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Carlos Pérez-Sánchez, María Ángeles Aguirre, Patricia Ruiz-Limón, María Carmen Abalos-Aguilera, Yolanda Jiménez-Gómez, Iván Arias-de la Rosa, Antonio Rodriguez-Ariza, Lucía Fernández-Del Río, José Antonio Gonzalez-Reyes, Pedro Segui, Eduardo Collantes-Estévez, Nuria Barbarroja, Francisco Velasco, Savino Sciascia, Irene Cecchi, María José Cuadrado, José Manuel Villalba, Chary López-Pedrera
OBJECTIVE: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) leukocytes exhibit an oxidative perturbation, directly linked to alterations in mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism. This disturbance is related to the patients' prothrombotic status and can be prevented by in vitro treatment with coenzyme Q10. Our aim was to investigate short-term effects of in vivo ubiquinol (reduced coenzyme Q10[Qred]) supplementation on markers related to inflammation and thrombosis in APS through a prospective, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial...
July 6, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682452/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-potential-anticancer-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Matilde E Lleonart, Robert Grodzicki, Dmitri M Graifer, Alex Lyakhovich
Mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) has been identified as an important factor in various diseases ranging from neurological disorders, to diseases of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndromes. MDF was also found in cancer as well as in cancer predisposition syndromes with defective DNA damage response (DDR) machinery. Moreover, a recent highlight arises from the detection of MDF in eukaryotic cells upon treatment with antibiotics. In this review, we focus on recent studies of MDF in pathological conditions with a particular emphasis on the effects of various classes of antibiotics on mitochondria...
July 6, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681086/effect-of-low-level-laser-treated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-myocardial-infarction
#8
Zaynab H El Gammal, Amr M Zaher, Nagwa El-Badri
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although cardiac transplantation is considered the most effective therapy for end-stage cardiac diseases, it is limited by the availability of matching donors and the complications of the immune suppressive regimen used to prevent graft rejection. Application of stem cell therapy in experimental animal models was shown to reverse cardiac remodeling, attenuate cardiac fibrosis, improve heart functions, and stimulate angiogenesis. The efficacy of stem cell therapy can be amplified by low-level laser radiation...
July 6, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676635/syncytiotrophoblast-derived-extracellular-vesicles-transfer-functional-placental-mirnas-to-primary-human-endothelial-cells
#9
Tina Cronqvist, Dionne Tannetta, Matthias Mörgelin, Mattias Belting, Ian Sargent, Mary Familari, Stefan R Hansson
During the pregnancy associated syndrome preeclampsia (PE), there is increased release of placental syncytiotrophoblast extracellular vesicles (STBEVs) and free foetal haemoglobin (HbF) into the maternal circulation. In the present study we investigated the uptake of normal and PE STBEVs by primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and the effects of free HbF on this uptake. Our results show internalization of STBEVs into primary HCAEC, and transfer of placenta specific miRNAs from STBEVs into the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of these recipient cells...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656516/targeting-mitochondrial-calcium-handling-and-reactive-oxygen-species-in-heart-failure
#10
REVIEW
Alexander Dietl, Christoph Maack
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In highly prevalent cardiac diseases, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Since the first description of oxidative stress in heart failure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been considered as attractive drug targets. Though clinical trials evaluating antioxidant vitamins as ROS-scavenging agents yielded neutral results in patients at cardiovascular risk, the knowledge of ROS as pathophysiological factors has considerably advanced in the past few years and led to novel treatment approaches...
June 27, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654243/mitochondria-targeted-triphenylphosphonium-based-compounds-syntheses-mechanisms-of-action-and-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-applications
#11
Jacek Zielonka, Joy Joseph, Adam Sikora, Micael Hardy, Olivier Ouari, Jeannette Vasquez-Vivar, Gang Cheng, Marcos Lopez, Balaraman Kalyanaraman
Mitochondria are recognized as one of the most important targets for new drug design in cancer, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Currently, the most effective way to deliver drugs specifically to mitochondria is by covalent linking a lipophilic cation such as an alkyltriphenylphosphonium moiety to a pharmacophore of interest. Other delocalized lipophilic cations, such as rhodamine, natural and synthetic mitochondria-targeting peptides, and nanoparticle vehicles, have also been used for mitochondrial delivery of small molecules...
June 27, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649367/nitric-oxide-signalling-and-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-heart-under-stress
#12
REVIEW
Yin Hua Zhang
Nitric oxide (NO) is an imperative regulator of the cardiovascular system and is a critical mechanism in preventing the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased heart. The scenario of bioavailable NO in the myocardium is complex: 1) NO is derived from both endogenous NO synthases (endothelial, neuronal, and/or inducible NOSs [eNOS, nNOS, and/or iNOS]) and exogenous sources (entero-salivary NO pathway) and the amount of NO from exogenous sources varies significantly; 2) NOSs are located at discrete compartments of cardiac myocytes and are regulated by distinctive mechanisms under stress; 3) NO regulates diverse target proteins through different modes of post-transcriptional modification (soluble guanylate cyclase [sGC]/cyclic guanosine monophosphate [cGMP]/protein kinase G [PKG]-dependent phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, and transnitrosylation); 4) the downstream effectors of NO are multidimensional and vary from ion channels in the plasma membrane to signalling proteins and enzymes in the mitochondria, cytosol, nucleus, and myofilament; 5) NOS produces several radicals in addition to NO (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638045/treatment-of-sarcopenia-and-glucose-intolerance-through-mitochondrial-activation-by-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#13
Chikako Fujii, Kazutoshi Miyashita, Masanori Mitsuishi, Masaaki Sato, Kentaro Fujii, Hiroyuki Inoue, Aika Hagiwara, Sho Endo, Asuka Uto, Masaki Ryuzaki, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Masanori Tamaki, Ayako Muraki, Toshihide Kawai, Hiroshi Itoh
Recently, sarcopenia has attracted attention as therapeutic target because it constitutes a risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We focused 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) which act as electron carriers in the mitochondrial electron transport system. The mice that received ALA for 8 weeks gained muscle strength and endurance, and exhibited increased muscle mass and mitochondrial amount. Administration of ALA to sarcopenia mice aged 100 weeks and chronic kidney disease (CKD) model mice also increased muscle mass and improved physical performance...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626426/potential-of-central-eastern-and-western-africa-medicinal-plants-for-cancer-therapy-spotlight-on-resistant-cells-and-molecular-targets
#14
REVIEW
Armelle T Mbaveng, Victor Kuete, Thomas Efferth
Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598232/exercise-reestablishes-autophagic-flux-and-mitochondrial-quality-control-in-heart-failure
#15
Juliane C Campos, Bruno B Queliconi, Luiz H M Bozi, Luiz R G Bechara, Paulo M M Dourado, Allen M Andres, Paulo R Jannig, Kátia M S Gomes, Vanessa O Zambelli, Cibele Rocha-Resende, Silvia Guatimosim, Patricia C Brum, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Roberta A Gottlieb, Alicia J Kowaltowski, Julio C B Ferreira
We previously reported that facilitating the clearance of damaged mitochondria through macroautophagy/autophagy protects against acute myocardial infarction. Here we characterized the impact of exercise, a safe strategy against cardiovascular disease, on cardiac autophagy and its contribution to mitochondrial quality control, bioenergetics and oxidative damage in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure animal model. We found that failing hearts displayed reduced autophagic flux depicted by accumulation of autophagy-related markers and loss of responsiveness to chloroquine treatment at 4 and 12 weeks after myocardial infarction...
June 9, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591721/ginkgolide-k-attenuates-neuronal-injury-after-ischemic-stroke-by-inhibiting-mitochondrial-fission-and-gsk-3%C3%AE-dependent-increases-in-mitochondrial-membrane-permeability
#16
Xu Zhou, Hui-Ying Wang, Bin Wu, Cai-Yi Cheng, Wei Xiao, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Yu-Yu Yang, Ping Li, Hua Yang
Ginkgolide K (GK) belongs to the ginkgolide family of natural compounds found in Ginkgo biloba leaves, which have been used for centuries to treat cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the protective effects of GK against neuronal apoptosis by assessing its ability to sustain mitochondrial integrity and function. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that Drp1 binding to GSK-3β was increased after an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) insult in cultured neuroblastoma cells. This induced Drp1 and GSK-3β translocation to mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction, which was attenuated by GK...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586759/traditional-chinese-medicine-ka-sai-ping-suppresses-the-growths-of-gastric-cancers-via-induction-of-autophagy
#17
Mo-Li Zhu, Jun-Xiu Lu, Guo-Pin Pan, Song Ping, Fan-Rong Zhao, Heng-Tian Qi, Hai-Ya Yu, Xu Jian, Guang-Rui Wan, Peng Li
Traditional Chinese medication is increasingly used to treat a wide range of human chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases and cancers. This study was designed to explore whether ka-sai-ping (KSP), a novel traditional Chinese medicine developed by us, prevents gastric cancer growths and to investigate the underlying mechanism. The xenograft model of mouse gastric cancer was established by injecting MFCs into nude mouse subcutaneously. Cell autophagy was assessed by MDC staining. Lysosome and mitochondria were detected by Lyso-Tracker Red and Mito-Traker Green staining...
May 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554327/vdac-targeted-drugs-affecting-cytoprotection-and-mitochondrial-physiology-in-cerebrovascular-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#18
Andonis Karachitos, Joaquin Jordan, Hanna Kmita
Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases are caused by impairment of the brain and/or heart circulation. Insufficient blood flow results in a decrease in oxygen delivery (ischemia) which affects mitochondria functioning and consequently lead to insufficient ATP production. Moreover, ischemia combined with the following reperfusion may result in further mitochondria dysfunction coexisting with lower ATP synthesis and higher ROS generation This, in turn, have direct implications in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases...
May 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552719/regulation-of-longevity-by-fgf21-interaction-between-energy-metabolism-and-stress-responses
#19
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Kai Kaarniranta, Anu Kauppinen
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone-like member of FGF family which controls metabolic multiorgan crosstalk enhancing energy expenditure through glucose and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF21 acts as a stress hormone induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress and dysfunctions of mitochondria and autophagy in several tissues. FGF21 also controls stress responses and metabolism by modulating the functions of somatotropic axis and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) pathway. FGF21 is a potent longevity factor coordinating interactions between energy metabolism and stress responses...
August 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551810/mitochondria-targeted-antioxidants-for-the-treatment-of-cardiovascular-disorders
#20
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Jin Han
The heart continuously supplies blood to the entire body throughout the lifetime, requiring a huge amount of the bioenergy molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). As the major subcellular organs that produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation and the citrate-synthesis cycle, mitochondria inevitably produce chemically reactive species as byproducts. Those species are known to be major effectors of mitochondrial dysfunction, many of which are involved in various cardiovascular diseases, causing apoptotic/necrotic loss of cardiac myocytes and/or defects in the energy balance within the myocardium...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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