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mitochondria and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918113/regulation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-by-the-non-canonical-roles-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-proteins-in-the-heart
#1
REVIEW
Wang Wang, Celia Fernandez-Sanz, Shey-Shing Sheu
Recent advancement in mitochondrial research has significantly extended our knowledge on the role and regulation of mitochondria in health and disease. One important breakthrough is the delineation of how mitochondrial morphological changes, termed mitochondrial dynamics, are coupled to the bioenergetics and signaling functions of mitochondria. In general, it is believed that fusion leads to an increased mitochondrial respiration efficiency and resistance to stress-induced dysfunction while fission does the contrary...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915329/mitophagy-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-myocardial-stress
#2
Jihoon Nah, Shigeki Miyamoto, Junichi Sadoshima
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that can undergo fusion, fission, biogenesis, and autophagic elimination to maintain mitochondrial quality control. Since the heart is in constant need of high amounts of energy, mitochondria, as a central energy supply source, play a crucial role in maintaining optimal cardiac performance. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of heart diseases. In non-dividing, post-mitotic cells such as cardiomyocytes, elimination of dysfunctional organelles is essential to maintaining cellular function because non-dividing cells cannot dilute dysfunctional organelles through cell division...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910489/nucleoside-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-attenuate-angiogenesis-and-lymphangiogenesis-by-impairing-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-signalling-in-endothelial-cells
#3
Lin Song, Sha Ding, Zhen Ge, Xiaolong Zhu, Cong Qiu, Yuewen Wang, Enyin Lai, Weijun Yang, Yi Sun, Samson A Chow, Luyang Yu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become a major clinical challenge for HIV-positive patients. However, the role of ART in blood vessel growth is largely unknown. Here, we examined an integral component of ART, nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and investigated their effects on key microvascular functions, including angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis capability of endothelial cells (ECs) was evaluated using migration, proliferation and tube formation assays in vitro, and mouse ear and Matrigel plug assays in vivo...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888894/exercise-intervention-attenuates-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-aortic-endothelial-oxidative-injury-by-regulating-sirt1-through-mitigating-nadph-oxidase-lox-1-signaling
#4
Shih-Hung Chan, Ching-Hsia Hung, Jhih-Yuan Shih, Pei-Ming Chu, Yung-Hsin Cheng, Huei-Chen Lin, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Kun-Ling Tsai
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a critical cardiovascular disease and a cause of high morbidity and mortality in this world. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been suggested as a risk factor for CAD. In addition, SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) has been reported to play a protective role in a variety of diseases, especially in the cardiovascular system. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on apoptosis and inflammation in HHcy animals. We also tested whether exercise protected against Hhcy-induced dysfunction of endothelium through modulation of SIRT1...
August 24, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878952/pathophysiology-of-exercise-intolerance-in-chronic-diseases-the-role-of-diminished-cardiac-performance-in-mitochondrial-and-heart-failure-patients
#5
Jodi McCoy, Matthew Bates, Christopher Eggett, Mario Siervo, Sophie Cassidy, Jane Newman, Sarah A Moore, Grainne Gorman, Michael I Trenell, Lazar Velicki, Petar M Seferovic, John G F Cleland, Guy A MacGowan, Doug M Turnbull, Djordje G Jakovljevic
OBJECTIVE: Exercise intolerance is a clinical hallmark of chronic conditions. The present study determined pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise intolerance in cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic disorders. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional observational study 152 patients (heart failure reduced ejection fraction, n=32; stroke, n=34; mitochondrial disease, n=28; type two diabetes, n=28; and healthy controls, n=30) performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing with metabolic and haemodynamic measurements...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878225/the-pdk1-inhibitor-dichloroacetate-controls-cholesterol-homeostasis-through-the-erk5-mef2-pathway
#6
Abrar Ul Haq Khan, Nerea Allende-Vega, Delphine Gitenay, Sabine Gerbal-Chaloin, Claire Gondeau, Dang-Nghiem Vo, Sana Belkahla, Stefania Orecchioni, Giovanna Talarico, Francesco Bertolini, Milica Bozic, Jose M Valdivielso, Fabienne Bejjani, Isabelle Jariel, Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Lluis Fajas, Charles-Henri Lecellier, Javier Hernandez, Martine Daujat, Martin Villalba
Controlling cholesterol levels is a major challenge in human health, since hypercholesterolemia can lead to serious cardiovascular disease. Drugs that target carbohydrate metabolism can also modify lipid metabolism and hence cholesterol plasma levels. In this sense, dichloroacetate (DCA), a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inhibitor, augments usage of the glycolysis-produced pyruvate in the mitochondria increasing oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In several animal models, DCA decreases plasma cholesterol and triglycerides...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820277/natural-phospholipids-occurrence-biosynthesis-separation-identification-and-beneficial-health-aspects
#7
Abdelmoneim H Ali, Xiaoqiang Zou, Sherif M Abed, Sameh A Korma, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
During the last years, phospholipids (PLs) have attracted great attention because of their crucial roles in providing nutritional values, technological and medical applications. There are considerable proofs that PLs have unique nutritional benefits on human health, such as reducing cholesterol absorption, improving liver functions, and decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PLs are the main structural lipid components of cell and organelle membranes in all living organisms, and therefore, they occur in all organisms and the derived food products...
August 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819865/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Daniel P Cardinali, Daniel E Vigo
A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, obesity, and elevated blood pressure are collectively known as metabolic syndrome (MS). Since mitochondrial activity is modulated by the availability of energy in cells, the disruption of key regulators of metabolism in MS not only affects the activity of mitochondria but also their dynamics and turnover. Therefore, a link of MS with mitochondrial dysfunction has been suspected since long. As a chronobiotic/cytoprotective agent, melatonin has a special place in prevention and treatment of MS...
August 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818596/cardiometabolic-phenotypes-and-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-two-cohorts-of-uk-women
#9
Anna L Guyatt, Kimberley Burrows, Philip A I Guthrie, Sue Ring, Wendy McArdle, Ian N M Day, Raimondo Ascione, Debbie A Lawlor, Tom R Gaunt, Santiago Rodriguez
The mitochondrial genome is present at variable copy number between individuals. Mitochondria are vulnerable to oxidative stress, and their dysfunction may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, glycaemic traits, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and blood pressure) was assessed in two independent cohorts of European origin women, one in whom outcomes were measured at mean (SD) age 30 (4.3) years (N=2278) and the second at 69...
August 15, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816208/pm2-5-exposure-elicits-oxidative-stress-responses-and-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-activation-in-hacat-keratinocytes
#10
Rong Hu, Xiao-Yuan Xie, Si-Ka Xu, Ya-Ning Wang, Ming Jiang, Li-Rong Wen, Wei Lai, Lei Guan
BACKGROUND: PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) is a dominant and ubiquitous air pollutant that has become a global concern as PM2.5 exposure has been linked to many adverse health effects including cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Emerging evidence supports a correlation between increased air PM2.5 levels and skin disorders although reports on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are limited. Oxidative stress is the most common mechanism of PM2.5-induced adverse health effects...
August 14, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809938/perinatal-testosterone-exposure-potentiates-vascular-dysfunction-by-er%C3%AE-suppression-in-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#11
Weiguo Xie, Mingming Ren, Ling Li, Yin Zhu, Zhigang Chu, Zhigang Zhu, Qiongfang Ruan, Wenting Lou, Haimou Zhang, Zhen Han, Xiaodong Huang, Wei Xiang, Tao Wang, Paul Yao
Recent clinical cohort study shows that testosterone therapy increases cardiovascular diseases in men with low testosterone levels, excessive circulating androgen levels may play a detrimental role in the vascular system, while the potential mechanism and effect of testosterone exposure on the vascular function in offspring is still unknown. Our preliminary results showed that perinatal testosterone exposure in mice induces estrogen receptor β (ERβ) suppression in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in offspring but not mothers, while estradiol (E2) had no effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802667/different-approaches-to-modeling-analysis-of-mitochondrial-swelling
#12
REVIEW
Sabzali Javadov, Xavier Chapa-Dubocq, Vladimir Makarov
Mitochondria are critical players involved in both cell life and death through multiple pathways. Structural integrity, metabolism and function of mitochondria are regulated by matrix volume due to physiological changes of ion homeostasis in cellular cytoplasm and mitochondria. Ca(2+) and K(+) presumably play a critical role in physiological and pathological swelling of mitochondria when increased uptake (influx)/decreased release (efflux) of these ions enhances osmotic pressure accompanied by high water accumulation in the matrix...
August 10, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794104/prenatal-hypoxia-and-placental-oxidative-stress-linkages-to-developmental-origins-of-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Mais M Aljunaidy, Jude S Morton, Christy-Lynn Cooke, Sandra T Davidge
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a pregnancy complication where the fetus does not reach its genetic growth potential) is a leading cause of fetal morbidity and mortality with a significant impact on population health. IUGR is associated with gestational hypoxia; which can lead to placental oxidative stress and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. Mitochondria are a major source of placental oxidative stress and may provide a therapeutic target to mitigate the detrimental effects of placental oxidative stress on pregnancy outcomes...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757597/statins-muscle-disease-and-mitochondria
#14
REVIEW
Radha Ramachandran, Anthony S Wierzbicki
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for >17 million deaths globally every year, and this figure is predicted to rise to >23 million by 2030. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between cholesterol and CVD and there is now consensus that dyslipidaemia is a causal factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Statins have become the cornerstone of the management of dyslipidaemia. Statins have proved to have a very good safety profile. The risk of adverse events is small compared to the benefits...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739840/mitochondrial-sirtuins-in-cardiometabolic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Xiaoqiang Tang, Xiao-Feng Chen, Hou-Zao Chen, De-Pei Liu
Mitochondria are heterogeneous and essentially contribute to cellular functions and tissue homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction compromises overall cell functioning, tissue damage, and diseases. The advances in mitochondrion biology increase our understanding of mitochondrial dynamics, bioenergetics, and redox homeostasis, and subsequently, their functions in tissue homeostasis and diseases, including cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The functions of mitochondria mainly rely on the enzymes in their matrix...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730272/mitochondria-as-a-target-of-cardioprotection-in-models-of-preconditioning
#16
REVIEW
Magdaléna Jašová, Ivana Kancirová, Iveta Waczulíková, Miroslav Ferko
Over the recent years the view on mitochondria in the heart as a cellular powerhouse providing ATP supply needed to sustain contractile function, basal metabolic processes, and ionic homeostasis has changed radically. At present it is known that dysfunctions of these organelles are essential in the development of a large number of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, mitochondria are considered to be a very promising target of endogenous strategies that are essential in the protection of the myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709769/exploring-the-mitochondrial-microrna-import-pathway-through-polynucleotide-phosphorylase-pnpase
#17
Danielle L Shepherd, Quincy A Hathaway, Mark V Pinti, Cody E Nichols, Andrya J Durr, Shruthi Sreekumar, Kristen M Hughes, Seth M Stine, Ivan Martinez, John M Hollander
Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. During the diabetic condition, cardiovascular dysfunction can be partially attributed to molecular changes in the tissue, including alterations in microRNA (miRNA) interactions. MiRNAs have been reported in the mitochondrion and their presence may influence cellular bioenergetics, creating decrements in functional capacity. In this study, we examined the roles of Argonaute 2 (Ago2), a protein associated with cytosolic and mitochondrial miRNAs, and Polynucleotide Phosphorylase (PNPase), a protein found in the inner membrane space of the mitochondrion, to determine their role in mitochondrial miRNA import...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705612/cardiac-mitochondrial-dynamics-mir-mediated-regulation-during-cardiac-injury
#18
Anusha Sivakumar, Ramasamy Subbiah, Rekha Balakrishnan, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Mitochondrial integrity is indispensable for cardiac health. With the advent of modern imaging technologies, mitochondrial motility and dynamics within the cell are extensively studied. Terminally differentiated and well-structured cardiomyocytes depict little mitochondrial division and fusion, questioning the contribution of mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mitofusin 1/2 and Optic Atrophy 1 protein) and fission factors (Dynamin-like protein 1 and mitochondrial fission 1 protein) in cardiomyocyte homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703790/a-fluorescence-based-imaging-method-to-measure-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-mitophagy-using-mt-keima
#19
Nuo Sun, Daniela Malide, Jie Liu, Ilsa I Rovira, Christian A Combs, Toren Finkel
Mitophagy is a cellular process that selectively removes damaged, old or dysfunctional mitochondria. Defective mitophagy is thought to contribute to normal aging and to various neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Previous methods used to detect mitophagy in vivo were cumbersome, insensitive and difficult to quantify. We created a transgenic mouse model that expresses the pH-dependent fluorescent protein mt-Keima in order to more readily assess mitophagy. Keima is a pH-sensitive, dual-excitation ratiometric fluorescent protein that also exhibits resistance to lysosomal proteases...
August 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698526/altered-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-mechanosensation-in-the-failing-heart-focus-on-intracellular-calcium-signaling
#20
REVIEW
Aderville Cabassi, Michele Miragoli
The heart consists of millions of cells, namely cardiomyocytes, which are highly organized in terms of structure and function, at both macroscale and microscale levels. Such meticulous organization is imperative for assuring the physiological pump-function of the heart. One of the key players for the electrical and mechanical synchronization and contraction is the calcium ion via the well-known calcium-induced calcium release process. In cardiovascular diseases, the structural organization is lost, resulting in morphological, electrical, and metabolic remodeling owing the imbalance of the calcium handling and promoting heart failure and arrhythmias...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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