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Coagulase-negative staphylococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667378/alarming-results-of-nosocomial-infections-in-a-multicenter-program-of-surveillance-in-polish-intensive-care-units
#1
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Małgorzata Bulanda, Jadwiga Wojkowska-Mach, Polish Society of Hospital Infections Team
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) among patients in intensive care units (ICU) are the most common form of nosocomial infections and they are serious complications of the treatment process. The etiological factors of these infections and the proper antibiotic therapy can influence the effects of patient treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology, microbiology and antibiotic therapy of nosocomial BSI in Polish ICU patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The retrospective study covered patients hospitalized in seven ICUs for adults with a general profile, located in southern Poland...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664197/impact-of-systemic-antimicrobial-therapy-on-mucosal-staphylococci-in-a-population-of-dogs-in-northwest-england
#2
Vanessa M Schmidt, Gina Pinchbeck, Tim Nuttall, Steve Shaw, K Marie McIntyre, Neil McEwan, Susan Dawson, Nicola J Williams
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are increasingly isolated from veterinary patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among canine mucosal staphylococci following routine antimicrobial treatment with cefalexin (CFX), clavulanate-amoxicillin (AC), cefovecin (CVN), clindamycin (CD) or a fluoroquinolone (FQ). ANIMALS: Mucosal swab samples (n = 463) were collected from 127 dogs pre-treatment, immediately, and at one- and three-months post-treatment...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663126/antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-coagulase-positive-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-from-pit-latrine-fecal-sludge-in-a-peri-urban-south-african-community
#3
Lorika S Beukes, Stefan Schmidt
The aim of this study was to assess pit latrine samples from a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) for the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus spp. Standard procedures were used to isolate Staphylococcus spp. from pit latrine fecal sludge samples, with confirmation at genus level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sixty-eight randomly selected pit latrine Staphylococcus spp. isolates were further characterized by using established disk diffusion procedures. An average Staphylococcus spp...
April 16, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660396/analysis-of-clinical-management-of-infected-breast-implants-and-of-factors-associated-to-successful-breast-pocket-salvage-in-infections-occurring-after-breast-reconstruction
#4
Simonetta Franchelli, Marianna Pesce, Ilaria Baldelli, Anna Marchese, Pierluigi Santi, Andrea De Maria
OBJECTIVES: Considerable efforts have been devoted so far to improve salvage procedures of infected breast implants in absence of defined guidelines or validated clinical protocols. Within a cohort of prospectively recruited patients who underwent breast reconstruction, we performed a retrospective review of proven implant infections in order to describe factors contributing to management success. METHODS: We collected data in 1293 consecutive patients who underwent two stage (expander+ prosthesis) breast reconstruction with at least 12 months of follow-up...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657429/isolation-and-identification-of-bacteria-causing-mastitis-in-small-ruminants-and-their-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-honey-essential-oils-and-plant-extracts
#5
Abeer Mostafa Abdalhamed, Gamil Sayed Gamil Zeedan, Hala Abdoula Ahmed Abou Zeina
Aim: The present work aims to isolate and identify bacteria that cause mastitis in small ruminants and evaluates the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts. Materials and Methods: A total of 289 milk samples were collected from udder secretions of sheep (n=189) and goat (n=100) from El-Fayoum, Beni-Suef, and Giza governorates. Screening subclinical mastitis (SCM) was done using California Mastitis Test (CMT); identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram's staining, hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, and biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index...
March 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656034/breastmilk-donations-bacteriological-assessment-analysis-of-causes-of-non-compliance-and-suggestions-for-improvement
#6
C Mullié, O Obin, G Outurquin, S Grognet, A Léké, C Adjidé
A total of 1099 breastmilk donations received by the milk bank at the Amiens University Hospital from January to June 2016 were assessed for bacteriological contamination according to French regulations. This consisted in enumerating the total aerobic flora before and after heat treatment as well as the specific enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Results above the mandatory limits for at least one of these parameters were found in 25.9% of the donations, resulting in the destruction of approximately one-quarter of the volume of the donations (∼195L)...
April 11, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649599/time-dependent-differences-in-management-and-microbiology-of-orthopaedic-internal-fixation-associated-infections-an-observational-prospective-study-with-229-patients
#7
Richard Kuehl, Sarah Tschudin Sutter, Mario Morgenstern, Marc Dangel, Adrian Egli, Andrej Nowakowski, Norbert Suhm, Christian Theilacker, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES: Little information is published on orthopaedic internal fixation-associated infections. We aimed to analyse time-dependent microbiology, treatment, and outcome. METHODS: Over a ten-year period, all consecutive patients with internal fixation-associated infections at the University Hospital Basel were prospectively followed by acquiring clinical, microbiological and outcome data. Infections were classified as early (0-2 weeks after implantation), delayed (3-10 weeks) and late (>10 weeks)...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643295/prevalence-and-etiology-of-mastitis-in-dairy-cattle-in-el-oro-province-ecuador
#8
Said Amer, Fernando Lenin Aguilar Gálvez, Yasuhiro Fukuda, Chika Tada, Ivan Ludeña Jimenez, Wunster Favian Maza Valle, Yutaka Nakai
This study described the occurrence of clinical and subclinical forms of mastitis in 250 cattle from 5 dairy farms around the cities of Santa Rosa and Machala, El Oro Province, Ecuador. Clinical mastitis (CM) was determined based on obvious changes in milk (mild), signs of inflammation in the udder (moderate), and/or generalized clinical symptoms (severe). Subclinical mastitis (SCM) was assessed using the California mastitis test. CM and SCM were detected in 30 (12.0%) and 150 (60%) of the 250 tested cattle, respectively...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628387/gentamicin-may-have-no-effect-on-mortality-of-staphylococcal-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis
#9
Antonio Ramos-Martínez, Alejandro Muñoz Serrano, Arístides de Alarcón González, Patricia Muñoz, Ana Fernández-Cruz, Maricela Valerio, María Carmen Fariñas, Manuel Gutiérrez-Cuadra, José Ma Miró, Josefa Ruiz-Morales, Dolores Sousa-Regueiro, José Miguel Montejo, Juan Gálvez-Acebal, Carmen HidalgoTenorio, Fernando Domínguez
PURPOSE: To analyze the influence of adding gentamicin to a regimen consisting of β-lactam or vancomycin plus rifampicin on survival in patients suffering from Staphylococcal prosthetic valve endocarditis (SPVE). METHODS: From January 2008 to September 2016, 334 patients with definite SPVE were attended in the participating hospitals. Ninety-four patients (28.1%) received treatment based on β-lactam or vancomycin plus rifampicin and were included in the study...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621616/contaminants-in-blood-cultures-importance-implications-interpretation-and-prevention
#10
REVIEW
Sylvie Dargère, Hélène Cormier, Renaud Verdon
BACKGROUND: Despite the development of new microbiological technologies, blood cultures remain the first line tool for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Their diagnostic value may be affected when a microorganism of questionable evidence is isolated, for example, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., viridans group streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Micrococcus spp. Finally, making a correct diagnosis of pathogenicity (vs contamination) is very challenging...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605332/use-of-a-culture-independent-on-farm-algorithm-to-guide-the-use-of-selective-dry-cow-antibiotic-therapy
#11
A K Vasquez, D V Nydam, C Foditsch, M Wieland, R Lynch, S Eicker, P D Virkler
An algorithm using only computer-based records to guide selective dry-cow therapy was evaluated at a New York State dairy farm via a randomized field trial. DairyComp 305 (Valley Ag Software, Tulare, CA) and Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day data were used to identify cows as low risk (cows that might not benefit from dry-cow antibiotics) or high risk (cows that will likely benefit). Low-risk cows were those that had all of the following: somatic cell count (SCC) ≤200,000 cells/mL at last test, an average SCC ≤200,000 cells/mL over the last 3 tests, no signs of clinical mastitis at dry-off, and no more than 1 clinical mastitis event in the current lactation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584685/characterization-of-human-type-c-enterotoxin-produced-by-clinical-s-epidermidis-isolates
#12
Chimène Nanoukon, Dissou Affolabi, Daniel Keller, Rodrigue Tollo, Philippe Riegel, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Gilles Prévost
Staphylococcal Enterotoxins (SEs) are superantigens (SAg) originally produced by S. aureus , but their presence in coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) has long been suspected. This study aims to better characterize a novel C-like enterotoxin expressed by clinical S. epidermidis strains, called SECepi . We isolated and characterized SECepi for its molecular and functional properties. The toxin was structurally modeled according to its significant similarity with S. aureus SEC3. Most of SEC amino acid residues important for the formation of the trimolecular Major Histocompatibility Complex II MHCII-SEC-T Cell Receptor TCR complex are conserved in SECepi ...
March 27, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580895/the-effect-of-mobile-laminar-airflow-units-on-airborne-bacterial-contamination-during-neurosurgical-procedures
#13
Ann-Christin von Vogelsang, Petter Förander, Martin Arvidsson, Peter Löwenhielm
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) after neurosurgery are potentially life threatening and entails great costs. SSI can occur from airborne bacteria in the operating room (OR), and ultraclean air is desired during infection-prone clean procedures. Door openings and the number of persons present in the OR affects the air quality. Mobile laminar airflow (MLAF) units, with horizontal laminar airflow, have previously shown to effectively reduce airborne bacterial contamination. AIM: To assess the effect of MLAF units on airborne bacterial contamination during neurosurgical procedures...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572457/chitosan-and-cloxacillin-combination-improve-antibiotic-efficacy-against-different-lifestyle-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-isolates-from-chronic-bovine-mastitis
#14
María L Breser, Verónica Felipe, Luciana P Bohl, María S Orellano, Paula Isaac, Agustín Conesa, Virginia E Rivero, Silvia G Correa, Ismael D Bianco, Carina Porporatto
Bovine mastitis affects the health of dairy cows and the profitability of herds worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens in bovine intramammary infection. Based on the wide range of antimicrobial, mucoadhesive and immunostimulant properties demonstrated by chitosan, we have evaluated therapy efficiency of chitosan incorporation to cloxacillin antibiotic as well as its effect against different bacterial lifestyles of seven CNS isolates from chronic intramammary infections...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568514/prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-bacteria-isolated-from-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-neurosurgical-patients-at-peking-union-medical-college-hospital
#15
Jian-Bo Chang, Hao Wu, He Wang, Bai-Tao Ma, Ren-Zhi Wang, Jun-Ji Wei
Background: Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) represent a serious complication, and the timely use of antibiotics guided by the identification of the causative pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivities is essential for treatment. However, there are little data regarding the prevalence of PCNSI pathogens in China. The aim of this study is to investigate the features of pathogens in patients with PCNSIs, which could help clinicians to choose the appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567128/oritavancin-in-vitro-activity-against-gram-positive-organisms-from-european-and-united-states-medical-centers-results-from-the-sentry-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-for-2010-2014
#16
M A Pfaller, H S Sader, R K Flamm, M Castanheira, Rodrigo E Mendes
The in vitro activity of oritavancin was assessed against 44,715 gram-positive pathogens causing infections in European and United States (US) hospitals (2010-2014). There were no substantive differences (>±2-fold dilution) in oritavancin MIC50 or MIC90 values for different species/organism groups over time or by region. Oritavancin (99.9% susceptible) showed modal MIC, MIC50 , and MIC90 results of 0.03, 0.03, and 0.06-0.12 mg/L when tested against Staphylococcus aureus, regardless of methicillin susceptibility, year, or region...
February 3, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564235/microbiological-chemical-physical-and-sensory-characteristics-of-fabriano-salami-from-pigs-fed-oregano-vulgaris-extract
#17
Dino Miraglia, David Ranucci, Massimo Trabalza-Marinucci, Gabriele Acuti, Claudio Forte, Michela Codini, Rossana Roila, Raffaella Branciari
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Oregano vulgaris extract supplementation of heavy pig diet on the microbiological, chemical-physical and sensory characteristics of Fabriano salami. Fabriano salamis were produced processing meat derived from pigs belonging to two dietary groups of 16 pigs each: CTRL group fed a commercial pelleted feed, and OR group fed the CTRL diet integrated with 0.2% of oregano extract. Ten salamis per group were collected at 0, 7, 20 and 45 days of ripening and analysed for total viable count, enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae , Enterococcus spp, coagulase negative and positive staphylococci, Lactobacillus spp...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561972/impact-of-microbiological-changes-on-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis-in-three-different-periods-over-17-years
#18
Paulo Roberto Lerias de Almeida, Gabriel Stefani Leão, Charlles David Gonçalves Gonçalves, Rafael Veiga Picon, Cristiane Valle Tovo
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a serious complication in cirrhotic patients, and changes in the microbiological characteristics reported in the last years are impacting the choice of antibiotic used for treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the changes in the epidemiology and bacterial resistance of the germs causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis over three different periods over 17 years. METHODS: All cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and positive culture of ascites fluid were retrospectively studied in a reference Hospital in Southern Brazil...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561518/late-onset-sepsis-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-in-the-south-american-neocosur-network
#19
Maria Jose Escalante, Jose Maria Ceriani-Cernadas, Ivonne D'Apremont, Aldo Bancalari, Veronica Webb, Larisa Genes, Luis Villarroel, Elizabeth Munoz, Jose L Tapia
OBJECTIVE: The main aim is to determine the incidence and associated factors of late onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (500-1500 g), from the NEOCOSUR Network during years 2001-2013. Secondary objectives are to describe the microbiology of the first and second episode of LOS and to study the association between catheter dwell time and LOS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Demographic information and outcome data are prospectively and routinely collected across the Network using predefined diagnostic criteria and online data entry...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555488/assessment-of-theatre-shoe-contamination-in-an-orthopaedic-theatre
#20
K Clesham, P Ryan, C Murphy
Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a devastating complication of arthroplasty. Numerous protocols reduce potential risk for PJI peri-operatively, but none exist for the management of theatre shoes. Our aim was to assess for bacteria known to cause prosthetic infection on theatre shoes. Forty theatre shoes were analysed; there were coagulase-negative staphylococci on 65% (N = 25), meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus on 40% (N = 16), and meticillin-resistant S. aureus on 25% (N = 10). Amount of blood spatter correlated poorly with microbial contamination...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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