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Coagulase-negative staphylococci

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546690/update-on-the-epidemiology-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-ocular-infections
#1
Darlene Miller
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the epidemiology and current antibiotic-resistant threats in ophthalmology. METHODS: Trends in frequency and antibiotic-nonsusceptible profiles during an 11 year-period (2005-2015) were evaluated and compared with the 5-year Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring in Ocular Microorganism (ARMOR) study. RESULTS: Trends in the current review confirmed the continued high rates of fluoroquinolone nonsusceptbility circulating among ocular methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant S...
January 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545528/comparison-of-biomarker-based-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-and-conventional-methods-in-the-identification-of-clinically-relevant-bacteria-and-yeast
#2
Ali Kassim, Valentin Pflüger, Zul Premji, Claudia Daubenberger, Gunturu Revathi
BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF MS is an analytical method that has recently become integral in the identification of microorganisms in clinical laboratories. It relies on databases that majorly employ pattern recognition or fingerprinting. Biomarker based databases have also been developed and there is optimism that these may be superior to pattern recognition based databases. This study compared the performance of ribosomal biomarker based MALDI-TOF MS and conventional methods in the identification of selected bacteria and yeast...
May 25, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545485/bacteriological-etiology-and-treatment-of-mastitis-in-finnish-dairy-herds
#3
Johanna Vakkamäki, Suvi Taponen, Anna-Maija Heikkilä, Satu Pyörälä
BACKGROUND: The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012...
May 25, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542393/head-to-head-comparison-of-microflex-lt-and-vitek-ms-systems-for-routine-identification-of-microorganisms-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-in-chile
#4
Lorena Porte, Patricia García, Stephanie Braun, María Teresa Ulloa, Mónica Lafourcade, Alisson Montaña, Carolina Miranda, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Thomas Weitzel
BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a new and revolutionary identification method for microorganisms and has recently been introduced into clinical microbiology in many industrialized countries in Europe and North America. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to compare the performance and practicality of two commercial MALDI-TOF MS platforms in a head-to head manner at a routine laboratory in Chile...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529867/efficacy-of-antibiotic-suppressive-therapy-in-patients-with-a-prosthetic-joint-infection
#5
Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Jasperina M Nijman, Greetje A Kampinga, Sander van Assen, Paul C Jutte
Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be treated with antibiotic suppressive therapy (AST) to suppress the infection. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST. Methods: We retrospectively collected data (period 2009-2015) from patients with a PJI (of hip, knee or shoulder) who were treated with AST at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528989/infections-during-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-epidemiology-risk-factors-pathogenesis-and-prevention
#6
REVIEW
Stefano Biffi, Stefano Di Bella, Vittorio Scaravilli, Anna Maria Peri, Giacomo Grasselli, Laura Alagna, Antonio Pesenti, Andrea Gori
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support technique used in patients with respiratory and/or cardiac failure. The ECMO circuit consists of vascular cannulae, a pump and an artificial lung. Infections are among the most common complications associated with ECMO and have a significant impact on the mortality rate. Here we present a narrative literature review regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis and prevention of infectious complications during ECMO support. The prevalence of hospital-acquired infections during ECMO is 10-12% and their occurrence is likely to be more frequent compared with other critically ill patients...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#7
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491246/significance-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-from-blood-cultures-persisting-problems-and-partial-progress-in-resource-constrained-settings
#8
Shailpreet K Sidhu, Sita Malhotra, Pushpa Devi, Arpandeep K Tuli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is frequently isolated from blood cultures but their significance is difficult to interpret. CoNS bacteria which are often previously dismissed as culture contaminants are attracting greater importance as true pathogens in the past decades. Clinical evaluation of these isolates suggests that although there is a relative increase of CoNS associated bloodstream infections in recent years, the microorganisms still remain the most common contaminants in blood cultures...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486995/antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-from-imported-beef-meat
#9
Kamelia Osman, Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez, Lorena Ruiz, Jihan Badr, Fatma ElHofy, Khalid S Al-Maary, Ihab M I Moussa, Ashgan M Hessain, Ahmed Orabi, Alaa Saad, Mohamed Elhadidy
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to characterize the diversity and magnitude of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus species recovered from imported beef meat sold in the Egyptian market and the potential mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes including harboring of resistance genes (mecA, cfr, gyrA, gyrB, and grlA) and biofilm formation. RESULTS: The resistance gene mecA was detected in 50% of methicillin-resistant non-Staphylococcus aureus isolates (4/8)...
May 10, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483950/in-vitro-activity-of-linezolid-against-clinically-important-gram-positive-cocci-in-the-united-states-a-5-year-summary-of-in-vitro-activity-and-resistance-mechanisms-from-the-leader-surveillance-program-2011-2015
#10
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Patricia A Hogan, Robert K Flamm
This study describes linezolid susceptibility testing results for 6,741 gram-positive pathogens from 60 U.S. sites collected during 2015 for the LEADER Program. In addition, the study summarizes linezolid in vitro activity, resistance mechanisms, and molecular typing obtained for 2011 to 2015. During 2015, linezolid showed potent activity when tested against Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting >99.9% of 3,031 isolates at ≤2 mg/liter. Similarly, linezolid showed coverage against 99.2% of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 99...
May 8, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480399/the-biological-activities-of-hypericum-perforatum-l
#11
Gulten Okmen, Neslihan Balpınar
BACKGROUND: Mastitis reduces milk yield and alters milk composition. Antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of the disease. However, this widespread use of antibiotics causes both antibiotic residues in milks and antibiotic resistance developed in bacteria. Today's researches are focused on discovering and using new antibiotics against bacteria. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to discover the antibacterial effects of Hypericum perforatum L. extracts against mastitis pathogens, and its other biological activities...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479017/reduced-nosocomial-infection-rate-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-during-a-4-year-surveillance-period
#12
Yong-Chuan Chen, Chen-Fu Lin, Yun-Jiau Fuh Rehn, Juei-Chao Chen, Po-Yen Chen, Chao-Huei Chen, Teh-Ming Wang, Fang-Liang Huang
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the study was to investigate the change of nosocomial infection rate in a NICU during a 4-year surveillance period. METHODS: We investigated the changes in nosocomial infection rates, infection sites, and microorganism species in a NICU before and after the unit was moved to a new location, extending from November 2008 to October 2012...
May 3, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471562/erythromycin-prophylaxis-for-neonatal-conjunctivitis-ointment-versus-drops
#13
Irena Ulanovsky, Morya Shnaider, Yuval Geffen, Tatiana Smolkin, Tatyana Mashiah, Imad R Makhoul
BACKGROUND: Due to a shortage of individualized erythromycin ointment (IEO), we switched to shared erythromycin drops (SED). Following this change, nurses claimed observing more cases of eye discharge. OBJECTIVES: To test whether switching from IEO to SED affected the rate of neonatal conjunctivitis (NC). METHODS: The study group included 14,916 neonates > 35 weeks of gestation, further divided into two birth periods of 12 months each: 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013 (IEO) and 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015 (SED)...
July 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470723/pharmacokinetics-milk-penetration-and-pk-pd-analysis-by-monte-carlo-simulation-of-marbofloxacin-after-intravenous-and-intramuscular-administration-to-lactating-goats
#14
A M Lorenzutti, N J Litterio, M A Himelfarb, M D P Zarazaga, M I San Andrés, J J De Lucas
The main objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the serum pharmacokinetic behaviour and milk penetration of marbofloxacin (MFX; 5 mg/kg), after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration in lactating goats and simulate a multidose regimen on steady-state conditions, (ii) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from caprine mastitis in Córdoba, Argentina and (iii) to make a PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation from steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of MFX by IV and IM routes to evaluate the efficacy and risk of the emergence of resistance...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470079/validity-of-somatic-cell-count-as-indicator-of-pathogen-specific-intramammary-infections
#15
Inge-Marié Petzer, Joanne Karzis, Edward F Donkin, Edward C Webb, Eric M C Etter
The objective of this study was to determine whether somatic cell count (SCC) was an effective test, with a sensitivity exceeding 85%, to determine species-specific bacterial infections. In addition, the relation between the SCC and various udder pathogen groups was investigated. SCC thresholds of greater than 200 000 cells/mL were used in quarter and greater than 150 000 cells/mL in composite milk samples. A retrospective study was conducted on a data set for 89 635 quarter and 345 467 composite cow milk samples...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469117/neonatal-sepsis-in-a-nigerian-private-tertiary-hospital-bacterial-isolates-risk-factors-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns
#16
Emmanuel Olushola Shobowale, Adaobi U Solarin, Charles John Elikwu, Kenneth Ikenna Onyedibe, Ibironke J Akinola, Abiodun A Faniran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group in spite of several attempts at mitigating its effects. This article determines the prevalence of neonatal sepsis and the pathogens responsible for sepsis as well as risk factors and outcome at the Babcock University Teaching Hospital. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of laboratory records of consecutive babies delivered within and outside our hospital suspected of having sepsis over a 1-year period...
April 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464821/clindamycin-rifampin-combination-therapy-for-staphylococcal-periprosthetic-joint-infections-a-retrospective-observational-study
#17
Borg Leijtens, Joris B W Elbers, Patrick D Sturm, Bart Jan Kullberg, Berend W Schreurs
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal species account for more than 50% of periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) and antimicrobial therapy with rifampin-based combination regimens has been shown effective. The present study evaluates the safety and efficacy of clindamycin in combination with rifampin for the management of staphylococcal PJI. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, patients were included who received clindamycin-rifampin combination therapy to treat a periprosthetic hip or knee infection by Staphylococcus aureus or coagulase-negative staphylococci...
May 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461319/bacteriophage-lysin-cf-301-a-potent-anti-staphylococcal-biofilm-agent
#18
Raymond Schuch, Babar K Khan, Assaf Raz, Jimmy A Rotolo, Michael Wittekind
Biofilms pose a unique therapeutic challenge because of the antibiotic tolerance of constituent bacteria. Treatments for biofilm-based infections represent a major unmet medical need, requiring novel agents to eradicate mature biofilms. Our objective was to evaluate bacteriophage lysin CF-301 as a new agent to target Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used minimum biofilm eradicating concentration (MBEC) assays on ninety-five S. aureus strains to obtain a MBEC90 value of ≤0.25 μg/ml for CF-301. Mature biofilms of coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus agalactiae were also sensitive to disruption, with MBEC90 values ranging from 0...
May 1, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461258/thiolated-aunp-probes-and-multiplex-pcr-for-molecular-detection-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis
#19
Mahsa Osmani Bojd, Hossein Kamaladini, Fatemeh Haddadi, Akbar Vaseghi
The emergence of nanotechnology in biology helps to apply the gold nanoparticle probes for fast and accurate identification of pathogens compared to the time-consuming and non-precise phenotypic methods. In this study, two molecular methods have been established for the accurate identification of staphylococcus epidermidis from other coagulase-negative staphylococci. Multiplex PCR was performed using designed primers for Gmk2 and pta housekeeping genes, and SESB specific gene of S. epidermidis. Colorimetric detection by gold nanoparticle probes was carried out using two 20-base thiolated probes designed based on the sequence of pta housekeeping gene of S...
April 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457548/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-staphylococcus-spp-isolated-from-cheese-processing-plants
#20
Marjory Xavier Rodrigues, Nathália Cristina Cirone Silva, Júlia Hellmeister Trevilin, Melina Mary Bravo Cruzado, Tsai Siu Mui, Fábio Rodrigo Sanches Duarte, Carmen J Contreras Castillo, Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca, Ernani Porto
The aim of this research paper was to characterize coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci from raw milk, Minas cheese, and production lines of Minas cheese processing. One hundred isolates from 3 different cheese producers were characterized using molecular approaches, such as PCR, molecular typing, and DNA sequencing. Staphylococcus aureus (88% of the isolates) was the most abundant followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus warneri. Among the 22 enterotoxin genes tested, the most frequent was seh (62% of the isolates), followed by selx and ser...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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