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research on mechanisms

Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Lentil (Lens culinaris, Medik.) is an important legume crop, which often experience drought stress especially at the flowering and grain filling phenological stages. The availability of efficient and robust screening tools based on relevant non-destructive quantifiable traits would facilitate research on crop improvement for drought tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drought tolerance of 37 lentil genotypes using infrared thermal imaging (IRTI), drought tolerance parameters and multivariate data analysis...
March 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Qianyi Zhang, Evan G R Davies, James R Bolton, Yang Liu
Monochloramine (NH2 Cl) is widely used for secondary disinfection by water utilities. However, Edmonton field stormwater sampling results have shown that NH2 Cl, because of its long-lasting property, can cause stormwater contamination through outdoor potable water uses during the summer season. To protect water sources, it is important to understand NH2 Cl dissipation mechanisms in stormwater. Natural organic matter (NOM) is the dominant species that contributes to NH2 Cl decay in stormwater. In this research, it is proposed that NOM reacted with both NH2 Cl and free chlorine through rapid and long-term reactions during NH2 Cl dissipation...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pouyan Ebrahimi, Javier Vilcáez
This research aimed to elucidate the effect of brine salinity and guar gum on the sorption and transport of Ba in dolomite rocks collected from the Arbuckle formation in Oklahoma, USA. Guar gum represents the most important organic additive used in viscosified fracturing fluids, and Ba constitutes the most common and abundant heavy metal found in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) wastewater. Batch experiments conducted using powdered dolomite rocks (500-600 μm particle size) revealed that at brine salinities of UOG wastewater, chloro-complexation reactions between Ba and Cl ions and pH changes that results from dolomite dissolution are the controlling factors of Ba sorption on dolomite...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Frank Niemeyer, Lutz Claes, Anita Ignatius, Nicholaus Meyers, Ulrich Simon
Distraction osteogenesis is an effective method for generating large amounts of bone in situ for treating pathologies such as large bone defects or skeletal malformations, for instance leg-length discrepancies. While an optimized distraction procedure might have the potential to reduce the rate of complications significantly, our knowledge of the underlying mechanobiological processes is still insufficient for systematic optimization of treatment parameters such as distraction rate or fixation stiffness. We present a novel numerical model of lateral distraction osteogenesis, based on a mechanically well-controlled in vivo experiment...
2018: PloS One
David Modic, Ross Anderson, Jussi Palomäki
Psychological and other persuasive mechanisms across diverse contexts are well researched, with many studies of the effectiveness of specific persuasive techniques on distinct types of human behaviour. In the present paper, our specific interest lies in the development of a generalized modular psychometric tool to measure individuals' susceptibility to persuasion. The scale is constructed using items from previously developed and validated particulate scales established in the domains of social psychology and behavioural economics...
2018: PloS One
Huu-Duc Nguyen-Tran, Van-Tho Hoang, Van-Ta Do, Doo-Man Chun, Young-Jin Yum
The development of lightweight automotive parts is an important issue for improving the efficiency of vehicles. Polymer composites have been widely applied to reduce weight and improve mechanical properties by mixing polymers with carbon fibers, glass fibers, and carbon nanotubes. Polypropylene (PP) has been added to carbon fiber-reinforced nylon-6 (CF/PA6) composite to achieve further weight reduction and water resistance. However, the mechanical properties were reduced by the addition of PP. In this research, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to compensate for the reduced mechanical properties experienced when adding PP...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Cheryl Holly, Sallie Porter, Mercedes Echevarria, Margaret Dreker, Sevara Ruzehaji
The findings can facilitate earlier recognition and prevention of pediatric delirium. ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the evidence regarding the risk factors for and characteristics of acute pediatric delirium in hospitalized children. METHODS: The systematic review method within an epidemiological framework of person, place, and time was used. Fifty-two studies were selected for initial retrieval. Of these, after assessment for methodological quality, 21 studies involving 2,616 subjects were included in the review...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Emily J Gach, Ka I Ip, Arnold J Sameroff, Sheryl L Olson
Multiple environmental risk factors in early childhood predict a broad range of adverse developmental outcomes. However, most prior longitudinal research has not illuminated explanatory mechanisms. Our main goals were to examine predictive associations between cumulative ecological risk factors in early childhood and children's later externalizing problems and to determine whether these associations were explained by variations in parenting quality. Participants were 241 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems and their parents and teachers...
February 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Bingbo Zhang, Wei Yan, Yanjing Zhu, Weitao Yang, Wenjun Le, Bingdi Chen, Rongrong Zhu, Liming Cheng
Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Alexandra DeJong, L Colby Mangum, Jacob Resch, Susan A Saliba
CONTEXT: Medial knee displacement (MKD) is a common risk factor for lower extremity injury and is related to altered gluteal muscle activity. Ultrasound imaging (USI) is a reliable means to explore mechanical muscle activity, however no information exists regarding USI of the gluteals during gait in a MKD population. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in USI gluteal muscle activity during gait in individuals with and without MKD. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Stephan R Bohl, Lars Bullinger, Frank G Rücker
The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are older and exhibit a poor prognosis even after intensive therapy. Inducing differentiation and apoptosis of leukemic blasts by DNA-hypomethylating agents, like e.g. azacytidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC), represent well-tolerated alternative treatment approaches. Both agents show convincing response as single agents in AML. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms and predictive biomarkers for these agents. Areas covered: This review will (i) provide an overview of the current knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying the action of these drugs, (ii) report promising predictive biomarkers, (iii) elude on new combined treatment options, and (iv) discuss novel approaches to improve outcomes...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Fenhong Song, Dapeng Ju, Fangwei Gu, Yan Liu, Yuan Ji, Yulin Ren, Xiaocong He, Baoyong Sha, Ben Q Li, Qingzhen Yang
Electric field induced micro/nano patterns in thin polymer film, sometimes referred as electrohydrodynamic patterning, is a promising technique to fabricate micro/nano structures. Extensive attentions have been attracted due to its advantages in micro contact (easy demolding) and low cost. Although considerable work has been done on this technique, including both experimental and theoretical ones, there still appears a requirement for understanding the mechanism of electrohydrodynamic patterning. Thus we systematically studied the effect of different parameters on electrohydrodynamic patterning with a numerical phase field model...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kacey Y Eichelberger, Julianna G Alson, Kemi M Doll
Racial variations in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes are well described, but causal mechanisms linking race and PTB are not. In clinical research, race is typically treated as representing fixed biological traits. In reality, race is a social construct that approximates lived experiences of historical and ongoing systematic discrimination and, in the case of PTB, particular stressors of black womanhood and reproduction. These experiences are embodied as adverse multigenerational health outcomes. Race thus presents a dilemma for researchers...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Margarita Villar, Lourdes Mateos-Hernandez, Jose de la Fuente
BACKGROUND: Why an autoimmune disease that is the main cause of the acute neuromuscular paralysis worldwide has not yet a well-characterized cause or an effective treatment? The existence of different clinical variants for the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) coupled with the fact that a high number of pathogens can cause an infection that sometimes, but not always, precedes the development of the syndrome, confers a high degree of uncertainty for both prognosis and treatment. In the post-genomic era, the development of omics technologies for the high-throughput analysis of biological molecules is allowing the characterization of biological systems in a degree of depth unimaginable before...
March 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
S Witkowski, C Serviente
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. There is a dramatic rise in risk factors for cardiovascular disease during the menopausal transition that is independent of aging. Endothelial dysfunction is an early hallmark of developing cardiovascular disease and has been shown to increase across the stages of menopause. Exercise is considered one of the most effective lifestyle therapies to maintain and improve endothelial function. However, accumulating evidence suggests that exercise does not have the same benefit on endothelial function in menopausal women as it does in other populations, and factors associated with menopause likely influence the endothelial responsiveness to exercise...
March 15, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Bahar Bilgen, Chathuraka T Jayasuriya, Brett D Owens
The meniscus is the most commonly injured structure in the human knee. Meniscus deficiency has been shown to lead to advanced osteoarthritis (OA) due to abnormal mechanical forces, and replacement strategies for this structure have lagged behind other tissue engineering endeavors. The challenges include the complex 3D structure with individualized size parameters, the significant compressive, tensile and shear loads encountered, and the poor blood supply. In this progress report, a review of the current clinical treatments for different types of meniscal injury is provided...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Soojin Park, Esra Kürüm
Randomized experiments are often complicated because of treatment noncompliance. This challenge prevents researchers from identifying the mediated portion of the intention-to-treated (ITT) effect, which is the effect of the assigned treatment that is attributed to a mediator. One solution suggests identifying the mediated ITT effect on the basis of the average causal mediation effect among compliers when there is a single mediator. However, considering the complex nature of the mediating mechanisms, it is natural to assume that there are multiple variables that mediate through the causal path...
March 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Valérie Camos, Matthew Johnson, Vanessa Loaiza, Sophie Portrat, Alessandra Souza, Evie Vergauwe
Working memory is one of the most important topics of research in cognitive psychology. The cognitive revolution that introduced the computer metaphor to describe human cognitive functioning called for this system in charge of the temporary storage of incoming or retrieved information to permit its processing. In the past decades, one particular mechanism of maintenance, attentional refreshing, has attracted an increasing amount of interest in the field of working memory. However, this mechanism remains rather mysterious, and its functioning is conceived in very different ways across the literature...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Wei-En J Tseng, Siew-Na Lim, Lu-An Chen, Shuo-Bin Jou, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Han-Tao Li, Hsing-I Chiang, Tony Wu
Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
William C Smith
This review covers recent advances in our understanding of the cell biology and morphogenesis of the ascidian notochord. In its development, the ascidian notochord undergoes a rapid series of cellular and morphogenic events that transform a group of 40 loosely packed cells in the neurula embryo into a tubular column with central lumen in the larva. The ascidian notochord has been a subject of intensive research in recent years, and particular focus in this review will be on events associated with the development and function of polarized cell properties, and the mechanism of lumen formation...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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