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research on mechanisms

Nazmul Abedin Khan, Sung Hwa Jhung
Efficient removal and separation of chemicals from the environment has become a vital issue from a biological and environmental point of view. Currently, adsorptive removal/separation is one of the most promising approaches for cleaning purposes. Selective adsorption/removal of various sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds, olefins, and π-electron-rich gases via π-complex formation between an adsorbent and adsorbate molecules is very competitive. Porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are very promising in the adsorption/separation of various liquids and gases owing to their distinct characteristics...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Maroussia Favre, Amrei Wittwer, Hans Rudolf Heinimann, Vyacheslav I Yukalov, Didier Sornette
Quantum decision theory (QDT) is a recently developed theory of decision making based on the mathematics of Hilbert spaces, a framework known in physics for its application to quantum mechanics. This framework formalizes the concept of uncertainty and other effects that are particularly manifest in cognitive processes, which makes it well suited for the study of decision making. QDT describes a decision maker's choice as a stochastic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of an objective utility factor and a subjective attraction factor...
2016: PloS One
Zi-Chao Song, Han Miao, Song Zhang, Ye Wang, Sheng-Ping Zhang, Xing-Fang Gu
Mechanized harvesting of cucumbers offers significant advantages compared to manual labor as both shortages and costs of labor increase. However the efficient use of machines depends on breeding plants with longer peduncles, but the genetic and molecular basis of fruit peduncle development in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, F2 populations were developed from a cross between two inbred lines, 1101 with a long peduncle and 1694 with a short peduncle. These were grown at two field sites, Hainan, with a tropical marine climate, in December 2014, and Beijing, with a warm temperate climate, in May 2015...
2016: PloS One
Joanna F Dipnall, Julie A Pasco, Michael Berk, Lana J Williams, Seetal Dodd, Felice N Jacka, Denny Meyer
BACKGROUND: Depression is commonly comorbid with many other somatic diseases and symptoms. Identification of individuals in clusters with comorbid symptoms may reveal new pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment targets. The aim of this research was to combine machine-learning (ML) algorithms with traditional regression techniques by utilising self-reported medical symptoms to identify and describe clusters of individuals with increased rates of depression from a large cross-sectional community based population epidemiological study...
2016: PloS One
Tianxin Li, Minjie Zhang, Zhongming Lu, Uwizeyimana Herman, Dzivaidzo Mumbengegwi, John Crittenden
Air and soil pollution from mining activities has been considered as a critical issue to the health of living organisms. However, few efforts have been made in distinguishing the main pathway of organism genetic damage by heavy metals related to mining activities. Therefore, we investigated the genetic damage of Leymus chinensis leaf cells, the air particulate matter (PM) contents, and concentrations of the main heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg) in soil and foliar dust samples collected from seven experiment points at the core mining area and one control point 20 kilometers away from the core mining area in Inner Mongolia in 2013...
2016: PloS One
Christian A Webb, Randy P Auerbach, Erin Bondy, Colin H Stanton, Dan Foti, Diego A Pizzagalli
Depression rates surge in adolescence, particularly among females. Recent findings suggest that depressed adolescents are characterized by hypersensitivity to negative outcomes and blunted responsiveness to rewards. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology and time course of these abnormalities remains limited. Due to their high temporal resolution, event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal probe to investigate these processes. In the present study, healthy (n = 25) and depressed (n = 26) female adolescents (13-18 years) completed a gambling task during 128-channel ERP recording...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Nitya Sai Reddy Satyavolu, Li Huey Tan, Yi Lu
Recent reports have shown that different DNA sequences can mediate the control of shapes and surface properties of nanoparticles. However, all previous studies have involved only monometallic particles, most of which were gold nanoparticles. Controlling the shape of bimetallic nanoparticles is more challenging, and there is little research into the use of DNA-based ligands for their morphological control. We report the DNA-templated synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles starting from palladium nanocube seeds...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shun Xu, Longhai Li, Jin Tong, Mo Li
To improve the torsional resistance capability of multilayered composite pipes, a bionic design was presented based on the rostrum of Cyrtotrachelus Bugueti Guer. Morphology and mechanical properties of the weevil's rostrum were studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to observe the macro-/microstructure and inner structure. Nanoindentation was carried out to measure the elastic modulus and the hardness of the biological materials. Based on the structure of rostrum, a mathematical model of multilayered biomimetic pipe was established with the statistical methods...
December 9, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Véronique Waisblat, Bryan Langholz, Franck J Bernard, Monique Arnould, Aurélien Benassi, François Ginsbourger, Nicolas Guillou, Karine Hamelin, Philippe Houssel, Pierre Hugot, Sylvie Martel-Jacob, Moustapha Moufouki, Hervé Musellec, Said Nid Mansour, Daniel Ogagna, Xavier Paqueron, Sihem Zerguine, Patrice Cavagna, Sébastien Bloc, Mark P Jensen, Gilles Dhonneur
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a hypnotically-based intervention for pain and fear in women undergoing labor who are about to receive an epidural catheter. A group of 155 women received interventions that included either (a) patient rocking, gentle touching, and hypnotic communication or (b) patient rocking, gentle touching, and standard communication. The authors found that the hypnotic communication intervention was more effective than the standard communication intervention for reducing both pain intensity and fear...
January 2017: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Daniel A Melcher, Max R Paquette, Brian K Schilling, Richard J Bloomer
Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Songnan Zhang, Jianying Huang, Zhong Chen, Yuekun Lai
Nowadays, the pollution of water has become worse in many parts of the world, which causes a severe shortage of clean water and attracts widespread attention worldwide. Bioinspired from nature, i.e. spider silk, cactus, Namib desert beetle, Nepenthes alata, special wettability surfaces have attracted great interest from fundamental research to water-harvesting applications. Here, recently published literature about creatures possessing water-harvesting ability are reviewed, with a focus on the corresponding water-harvesting mechanisms of creatures in dry or arid regions, consisting of the theory of wetting and transporting...
December 9, 2016: Small
Yueqin Yang, Weiwei Kong, Zhi Xia, Lin Xiao, Song Wang
PDK1 is a member of the atypical glandular cell kinases family that regulates the activities of most atypical glandular cell kinases during different development stages and treatment of cancers. PDK1 is also a critical glucose metabolism enzyme regulating glucolysis or glucose oxidase in cells, and more research is needed to further understand the underlying mechanism. The research of PDK1 presented by recent studies focuses much on cancer treatment and has helped researchers gain much insight in this regard...
December 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Jessica R Crosby, Katrina J DeCook, Phat L Tran, Edward Betterton, Richard G Smith, Douglas F Larson, Zain I Khalpey, Daniel Burkhoff, Marvin J Slepian
With the growth and diversity of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) systems entering clinical use, a need exists for a robust mock circulation system capable of reliably emulating and reproducing physiologic as well as pathophysiologic states for use in MCS training and inter-device comparison. We report on the development of such a platform utilizing the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart and a modified Donovan Mock Circulation System, capable of being driven at normal and reduced output. With this platform, clinically relevant heart failure hemodynamics could be reliably reproduced as evidenced by elevated left atrial pressure (+112%), reduced aortic flow (-12...
December 9, 2016: Artificial Organs
Chenhui Zhang, Xin Zhao, Jinmei Lei, Yue Ma, Fengpei Du
In this research the wetting behavior of agro-surfactant solutions (Triton X-100, SDS, DTAB) on wheat leaf surfaces have been investigated based on the surface free energy, surface tension, and the contact angle. The results show that the contact angle of those surfactant solutions keeps constant with low adsorption at interfaces below 1 × 10(-5) mol L(-1). With the increase in concentration, the contact angles of Triton X-100 decrease sharply because the adsorption of molecules at solid-liquid interfaces (ΓSL') is several times greater than that at liquid-air interfaces (ΓLV)...
December 9, 2016: Soft Matter
Jenny Liu, Sierra Kanetake, Yun-Hsuan Wu, Christina Tam, Luisa W Cheng, Kirkwood M Land, Mendel Friedman
The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of the commercial tetrasaccharide tomato glycoalkaloid tomatine and the aglycone tomatidine on three mucosal pathogenic protozoa that are reported to infect humans, cattle, and cats, respectively: Trichomonas vaginalis strain G3, Tritrichomonas foetus strain D1, and Tritrichomonas foetus strain C1. A preliminary screen showed that tomatine at 100 μM concentration completely inhibited the growth of all three trichomonads. In contrast, the inhibition of all three pathogens by tomatidine was much lower, suggesting the involvement of the lycotetraose carbohydrate side chain in the mechanism of inhibition...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Cuicui Ge, Ge Fang, Xiaomei Shen, Yu Chong, Wayne G Wamer, Xingfa Gao, Zhifang Chai, Chunying Chen, Jun-Jie Yin
To develop nanomaterials as artificial enzymes, it is necessary to better understand how their physicochemical properties affect their enzyme-like activities. Although prior research has demonstrated that nanomaterials exhibit tunable enzyme-like activities depending on their size, structure, and composition, few studies have examined the effect of surface facets, which determine surface energy or surface reactivity. Here, we use electron spin-resonance spectroscopy to report that lower surface energy {111}-faceted Pd octahedrons have greater intrinsic antioxidant enzyme-like activity than higher surface energy {100}-faceted Pd nanocubes...
November 22, 2016: ACS Nano
Yugandhar Bitla, Ching Chen, Hsien-Chang Lee, Thi Hien Do, Chun-Hao Ma, Le Van Qui, Chun-Wei Huang, Wen-Wei Wu, Li Chang, Po-Wen Chiu, Ying-Hao Chu
The emerging technological demands for flexible and transparent electronic devices have compelled researchers to look beyond the current silicon-based electronics. However, fabrication of devices on conventional flexible substrates with superior performance are constrained by the trade-off between processing temperature and device performance. Here, we propose an alternative strategy to circumvent this issue via the heteroepitaxial growth of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) on the flexible mica substrate with performance comparable to that of their rigid counterparts...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David G Ashbrook, Reinmar Hager
Most animal species are social in one form or another, yet many studies in rodent model systems use either individually housed animals or ignore potential confounds caused by group housing. While such social interaction effects on developmental and behavioral traits are well established, the genetic basis of social interactions has not been researched in as much detail. Specifically, the effects of genetic variation in social partners on the phenotype of a focal individual have mostly been studied at the phenotypic level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
December 8, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Le Zou, Qilin Peng, Ping Wang, Boting Zhou
Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (TAT) is encoded by HIV-1. It is a peptide rich in basic amino acids and belongs to the protein transduction domain family. It has been found that HIV-1 TAT and its core peptide segment TAT47-57 play an important role in promoting the cellular uptake of coupled bioactive macromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and drug molecules. HIV-1 TAT can also significantly increase the soluble expression of extrinsic proteins...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Membrane Biology
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