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Biological Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944817/recent-advances-in-the-synthesis-of-functional-materials-by-engineered-and-recombinant-living-cells
#1
Malte Winnacker
At the interface of materials science and synthetic biology, several concepts were recently developed for the production of functional materials by living cells. Selected recent strategies for this are highlighted here with a focus on bioactive, electronic and fluorescent materials.
September 25, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944664/hemiindigo-highly-bistable-photoswitching-at-the-biooptical-window
#2
Christian Petermayer, Stefan Thumser, Florian Kink, Peter Mayer, Henry Dube
Hemiindigo is a long known chromophore that absorbs in the blue part of the spectrum but has almost completely been ignored as potential photoswitch. Herein we show how the absorption of hemiindigo is shifted to the red part of the visible spectrum and how nearly perfect photoswitching can be achieved using blue or green and red light. Five derivatives were investigated giving very high isomeric yields in both switching directions, i.e. >90% E isomer after irradiation with 470 to 530 nm light and 99% Z isomer with 590 up to 680 nm light...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944281/adenovirus-mediated-gene-delivery-potential-applications-for-gene-and-cell-based-therapies-in-the-new-era-of-personalized-medicine
#3
Cody S Lee, Elliot S Bishop, Ruyi Zhang, Xinyi Yu, Evan M Farina, Shujuan Yan, Chen Zhao, Zongyue Zheng, Yi Shu, Xingye Wu, Jiayan Lei, Yasha Li, Wenwen Zhang, Chao Yang, Ke Wu, Ying Wu, Sherwin Ho, Aravind Athiviraham, Michael J Lee, Jennifer Moriatis Wolf, Russell R Reid, Tong-Chuan He
With rapid advances in understanding molecular pathogenesis of human diseases in the era of genome sciences and systems biology, it is anticipated that increasing numbers of therapeutic genes or targets will become available for targeted therapies. Despite numerous setbacks, efficacious gene and/or cell-based therapies still hold the great promise to revolutionize the clinical management of human diseases. It is wildly recognized that poor gene delivery is the limiting factor for most in vivo gene therapies...
June 2017: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944158/environmental-chemicals-and-preterm-birth-biological-mechanisms-and-the-state-of-the-science
#4
Kelly K Ferguson, Helen B Chin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preterm birth is a significant worldwide health problem of uncertain origins. The extant body of literature examining environmental contaminant exposures in relation to preterm birth is extensive but results remain ambiguous for most organic pollutants, metals and metalloids, and air pollutants. In the present review we examine recent epidemiologic studies investigating these associations, and identify recent advances and the state of the science. Additionally, we highlight biological mechanisms of action in the pathway between chemical exposures and preterm birth, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption, that deserve more attention in this context...
March 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942369/slanted-support-window-based-stereo-matching-for-surface-reconstruction-of-microscopic-samples
#5
Ahmadreza Baghaie, Chi Zhang, Ali Bakhshinejad, Heather A Owen, Hongyang Chao, Roshan M D'Souza, Zeyun Yu
This work is to address the limitations of 2D Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs in providing 3D topographical information necessary for various types of analysis in biological and biomedical sciences as well as mechanical and material engineering by investigating modern stereo vision methodologies for 3D surface reconstruction of microscopic samples. To achieve this, micrograph pairs of the microscopic samples are acquired by utilizing an SEM equipped with motor controlled specimen stage capable of precise translational, rotational movements and tilting of the specimen stage...
September 8, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942199/metabolomic-findings-in-sepsis-as-a-damage-of-host-microbial-metabolism-integration
#6
REVIEW
Natalia V Beloborodova, Andrei Yu Olenin, Alisa K Pautova
Metabolomics globally evaluates the totality of the endogenous metabolites in patient's body, at the same time reflecting gene function, enzyme activity and degree of organ dysfunction in sepsis. The authors performed the analysis of the main chemical classes of low molecular weight compounds (amino acids, polyols, fatty acids, hydroxy acids, amines, nucleotides and their derivatives) that quantitatively distinguish patients with sepsis from healthy ones. The following keywords were used to find papers published in the Scopus and Web of Science databases from 2008 to 2015: (marker OR biomarker) AND (sepsis OR critical ill OR pneumonia OR hypoxia)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941805/foundations-of-anticipatory-logic-in-biology-and-physics
#7
REVIEW
Jesse S Bettinger, Timothy E Eastman
Recent advances in modern physics and biology reveal several scenarios in which top-down effects (Ellis, 2016) and anticipatory systems (Rosen, 1980) indicate processes at work enabling active modeling and inference such that anticipated effects project onto potential causes. We extrapolate a broad landscape of anticipatory systems in the natural sciences extending to computational neuroscience of perception in the capacity of Bayesian inferential models of predictive processing. This line of reasoning also comes with philosophical foundations, which we develop in terms of counterfactual reasoning and possibility space, Whitehead's process thought, and correlations with Eastern wisdom traditions...
September 20, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941347/-applications-of-synthetic-biology-in-materials-science
#8
Tianxin Zhao, Chao Zhong
Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design...
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941331/-preface-for-special-issue-on-synthetic-biology-2017
#9
Xian-En Zhang
Synthetic biology has developed quickly over the past decade. To review the research progress in synthetic biology, we published this special issue that consists of three columns, namely scientific significance, technological advances, and applications in medical science, pharmaceutics, agriculture, material, environment and energy.
March 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940073/atomic-force-microscopy-an-introduction
#10
Melissa C Piontek, Wouter H Roos
Imaging of nano-sized particles and sample features is crucial in a variety of research fields. For instance in biological sciences, where it is paramount to investigate structures at the single particle level. Often two-dimensional images are not sufficient and further information such as topography and mechanical properties are required. Furthermore, to increase the biological relevance, it is desired to perform the imaging in close to physiological environments. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) meets these demands in an all-in-one instrument...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940065/a-brief-introduction-to-single-molecule-fluorescence-methods
#11
Siet M J L van den Wildenberg, Bram Prevo, Erwin J G Peterman
One of the more popular single-molecule approaches in biological science is single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, which will be the subject of the following section of this volume. Fluorescence methods provide the sensitivity required to study biology on the single-molecule level, but they also allow access to useful measurable parameters on time and length scales relevant for the biomolecular world. Before several detailed experimental approaches will be addressed, we will first give a general overview of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938769/recent-advances-in-avian-egg-science-a-review
#12
Philippe B Wilson
Eggs and egg products form an integral part of the food chain. As such, research into egg structure, function, and production has made an important contribution to the field of poultry science. The past decade has seen significant advances in avian egg science research, with work supplementing our understanding of the nature of the avian egg, and its biological, chemical, and physical properties. Eggshell color, strength, and chemical composition, poultry nutrition, and genetics have all been intensively studied recently, with significant progress being made in a number of these areas...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#13
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938739/sequence-variants-of-khdrbs1-as-high-penetrance-susceptibility-risks-for-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-by-mis-regulating-mrna-alternative-splicing
#14
Binbin Wang, Lin Li, Ying Zhu, Wei Zhang, Xi Wang, Beili Chen, Tengyan Li, Hong Pan, Jing Wang, Kehkooi Kee, Yunxia Cao
STUDY QUESTION: Does a novel heterozygous KHDRBS1 variant, identified using whole-exome sequencing (WES) in two patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) in a pedigree, cause defects in mRNA alternative splicing? SUMMARY ANSWER: The heterozygous variant of KHDRBS1 was confirmed to cause defects in alternative splicing of many genes involved in DNA replication and repair. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies in mice revealed that Khdrbs1 deficient females are subfertile, which manifests as delayed sexual maturity and significantly reduced numbers of secondary and pre-antral follicles...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938718/looking-back-forward-looking
#15
Scott C Edmunds, Nicole A Nogoy, Hans Zauner, Peter Li, Christopher I Hunter, Xiao Si Zhe, Laurie Goodman
GigaScience is now 5 years old, having been launched at the 2012 Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology conference. Anyone who has attended what is the largest computational biology conference since then has had the opportunity to join us for each birthday celebration-and receive 1 of our fun T-shirts as a party prize. Since launching, we have pushed our agenda of openness, transparency, reproducibility, and reusability. Here, we look back at our first 5 years and what we have done to forward our open science goals in scientific publishing...
September 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938132/development-and-validation-of-carbofuran-and-3-hydroxycarbofuran-analysis-by-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detector-hplc-dad-for-forensic-veterinary-medicine
#16
Vagner Gonçalves, Nicolle Queiroz Hazarbassanov, Adriana de Siqueira, Jorge Camilo Florio, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Paulo Cesar Maiorka, Andre Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937953/the-biological-basis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-following-blast-injury-a-literature-review
#17
Matt Aldag, Regina C Armstrong, Faris Bandak, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Timothy Bentley, Sean Biggerstaff, Katrina Caravelli, Joan Cmarik, Alicia Crowder, Thomas J DeGraba, Travis A Dittmer, Richard G Ellenbogen, Colin Greene, Raj K Gupta, Ramona Hicks, Stuart Hoffman, Robert C Latta, Michael J Leggieri, Donald Marion, Robert Mazzoli, Michael McCrea, John O'Donnell, Mark Packer, James B Petro, Todd E Rasmussen, Wendy Sammons-Jackson, Richard Shoge, Victoria Tepe, Ladd A Tremaine, James Zheng
The United States Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-the-Science meeting to explore links between blast-related head injury and the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Before the meeting, the planning committee examined articles published between 2005 and October 2015 and prepared this literature review, which summarized broadly CTE research and addressed questions about the pathophysiological basis of CTE and its relationship to blast- and nonblast-related head injury...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937886/effectiveness-of-biology-based-methods-for-inhibiting-orthodontic-tooth-movement-a-systematic-review
#18
M Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, R M Yañez-Vico, E Solano-Reina, J C Palma-Fernandez, A Iglesias-Linares
INTRODUCTION: Several experimental studies in the literature have tested different biology-based methods for inhibiting or decreasing orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in humans. This systematic review investigated the effects of these interventions on the rate of tooth movement. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic [MedLine; SCOPUS; Cochrane Library; OpenGrey;Web of Science] and manual searches were conducted up to January 26th, 2016 in order to identify publications of clinical trials that compared the decreasing or inhibiting effects of different biology-based methods over OTM in humans...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936651/in-vivo-ploidy-determination-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-male-and-female-gametophytes
#19
Burcu Nur Keçeli, Nico De Storme, Danny Geelen
Organ- or tissue-specific ploidy level determination is often used for answering biological, molecular, genetic, or evolutionary questions in plant sciences. However, current techniques for ploidy determination either cannot provide information on single cell level, require destructive sample preparation, or are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a new approach developed in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is not only less labor intensive but also allows in vivo ploidy determination on single cell level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936624/dermal-epidermal-separation-methods-research-implications
#20
REVIEW
Ying Zou, Howard I Maibach
Dermal-epidermal separation is an important basic investigation technique for pharmacology, toxicology and biology. To choose the optimal method for a given research need, we reviewed studies on epidermal separation. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were utilized. Different separation systems have been compared, including chemical, enzyme, heat and mechanical separation; each has advantages and disadvantages. Heat is simple but causes thermal damage. Chemical reagents are effective but disturb cellular electrolyte equilibrium...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
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