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Biological Sciences

Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Ryszard R Kacała, Krzysztof Wronecki, Arkadiusz Kacała, Zygmunt Domagała, Michał Porwolik
Professor Czesław Niżankowski was an academic teacher and researcher at several universities; head of the Department of Anatomy at Wroclaw Medical University (1966-1982); and head of the Department of Biological Sciences at the Wrocław School of Physical Education (since 1972 University School of Physical Education in Wrocław), as well as the chancellor there. He contributed greatly to the development of morphological sciences, supervising many doctoral and post-doctoral works. He dedicated considerable time to the preparation of anatomical specimens of lungs, hearts and organs of the gastrointestinal tract...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Gustav Nyström, Mario Arcari, Raffaele Mezzenga
Chirality is ubiquitous in nature and plays crucial roles in biology, medicine, physics and materials science. Understanding and controlling chirality is therefore an important research challenge with broad implications. Unlike other chiral colloids, such as nanocellulose or filamentous viruses, amyloid fibrils form nematic phases but appear to miss their twisted form, the cholesteric or chiral nematic phases, despite a well-defined chirality at the single fibril level. Here we report the discovery of cholesteric phases in amyloids, using β-lactoglobulin fibrils shortened by shear stresses...
March 19, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Ibrahim O Alanazi, Sami A AlYahya, Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Manijeh Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh
Exponentially growing scientific knowledge in scientific publications has resulted in the emergence of a new interdisciplinary science of literature mining. In text mining, the machine reads the published literature and transfers the discovered knowledge to mathematical-like formulas. In an integrative approach in this study, we used text mining in combination with network discovery, pathway analysis, and enrichment analysis of genomic regions for better understanding of biomarkers in lung cancer. Particular attention was paid to non-coding biomarkers...
March 16, 2018: Gene
Karen D Bradham, Gary L Diamond, Michele Burgess, Albert Juhasz, Julie M Klotzbach, Mark Maddaloni, Clay Nelson, Kirk Scheckel, Sophia M Serda, Marc Stifelman, David J Thomas
Arsenic (As) is the most frequently occurring contaminant on the priority list of hazardous substances, which lists substances of greatest public health concern to people living at or near U.S. National Priorities List site. Accurate assessment of human health risks from exposure to As-contaminated soils depends on estimating its bioavailability, defined as the fraction of ingested As absorbed across the gastrointestinal barrier and available for systemic distribution and metabolism. Arsenic bioavailability varies among soils and is influenced by site-specific soil physical and chemical characteristics and internal biological factors...
2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Cameron L Bentley, Alan M Bond, Jie Zhang
Nonhaloaluminate ionic liquids (ILs) have received considerable attention as alternatives to molecular solvents in diverse applications spanning the fields of physical, chemical, and biological science. One important and often overlooked aspect of the implementation of these designer solvents is how the properties of the IL formulation affect (electro)chemical reactivity. This aspect is emphasized herein, where recent (voltammetric) studies on the energetics of proton (H+ ) transfer and electrode reaction mechanisms of the H+ H2 process in IL media are highlighted and discussed...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
W David Stahlman, Kenneth J Leising
There is little scientific debate regarding the validity of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, which effectively describes how relevant ancestral histories produce both an organism's genetic characteristics and innate behavioral repertoires. The combination of variation and selection in the production of novel forms can be extended beyond Darwinian theory to encompass facts of ontogeny. The present article sheds light on an underappreciated and critical insight, namely, that the consequences of behavior have a selective effect analogous to that observed in biological evolution...
March 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Zhanpeng Luo, Dawei Li, Xiaobo Luo, Litao Li, Suxi Gu, Long Yu, Yuanzheng Ma
The present study aimed to determine the mechanisms of action of curcumin in osteosarcoma. Human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells was purchased from the Cell Bank of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. RNA sequencing analysis was performed for 2 curcumin-treated samples and 2 control samples using Illumina deep sequencing technology. The differentially expressed genes were identified using Cufflink software. Enrichment and protein-protein interaction network analyses were performed separately using cluster Profiler package and Cytoscape software to identify key genes...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
John F Brothers, Matthew Ung, Renan Escalante-Chong, Jermaine Ross, Jenny Zhang, Yoonjeong Cha, Andrew Lysaght, Jason Funt, Rebecca Kusko
The tremendous expansion of data analytics and public and private big datasets presents an important opportunity for pre-clinical drug discovery and development. In the field of life sciences, the growth of genetic, genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data is partly driven by a rapid decline in experimental costs as biotechnology improves throughput, scalability, and speed. Yet far too many researchers tend to underestimate the challenges and consequences involving data integrity and quality standards. Given the effect of data integrity on scientific interpretation, these issues have significant implications during preclinical drug development...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Masaki Matsumoto, Keiichi I Nakayama
Proteomics is a powerful tool for obtaining information on a large number of proteins with regard to their expression levels, interactions with other molecules, and posttranslational modifications. Whereas nontargeted, discovery proteomics uncovers differences in the proteomic landscape under different conditions, targeted proteomics has been developed to overcome the limitations of this approach with regard to quantitation. In addition to technical advances in instruments and informatics tools, the advent of the synthetic proteome composed of synthetic peptides or recombinant proteins has advanced the adoption of targeted proteomics across a wide range of research fields...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Janardhan Reddy Koduru, Suresh Kumar Kailasa, Jigna R Bhamore, Ki-Hyun Kim, Tanushree Dutta, Kowsalya Vellingiri
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have recently emerged as promising materials in the biomedical sciences because of their antimicrobial activities towards a wide variety of microorganisms. Nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems with antimicrobial activity are critical as they may lead to novel treatments for cutaneous pathogens. In this review, we explore the recent progress on phytochemical-mediated synthesis of Ag NPs for antimicrobial treatment and associated infectious diseases. We discuss the biological activity of Ag NPs including mechanisms, antimicrobial activity, and antifungal/antiviral effects towards various microorganisms...
March 9, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Ahmed Ma'mun, Mohamed K Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed Abd El-Kawy
In recent years, the whole field of ion-selective electrodes(ISEs) in pharmaceutical sciences has expanded far beyond its original roots. The diverse range of opportunities offered by ISEs was broadly used in a number of pharmaceutical applications, with topics presented ranging from bioanalysis of drugs and metabolites, to protein binding studies, green analytical chemistry, impurity profiling, and drug dissolution in biorelevant media. Inspired from these advances and with the aim of extending the functional capabilities of ISEs, the primary focus of the present paper is the utilization of ISE as a tool in personalized medicine...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Amirsaeed Hosseini, Fatemeh Mirzaee, Ali Davoodi, Hossein Bakhshi Jouybari, Mohammad Azadbakh
Arnebia, a sub cosmopolitan and important genus of the Boraginaceae family, comprises 25 species distributed among the world. Based on the studies of Persian medicine texts, there are some promising bioactivities for this genus that is unknown in modern medicine and some of them are still the basis of new remedies. This article presents Arnebia according to the most important ancient information by the most famous Persian medicine books like Makhzan Al Advieh, Tohfat Al-Momenin, Al-Qanun, Al-Seidaneh and Ekhtiarate Badiei...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
Lena Rakers, Frank Glorius
In the last years, ionic liquids gained a lot of interest in materials sciences. Especially their interactions with biomolecules like lipids or proteins became more and more fascinating. One substance class of ionic liquids are imidazolium salts, which are usually known as the precursors of the more prominent N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs). Due to their high stability and easy synthesis, imidazolium salts became more attractive for applications in biological systems. In 2015, imidazolium salts bearing long alkyl chains in their backbone were established as lipid analogs...
March 16, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Elzbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska, Idalia Kasprzyk, Malgorzata Nowak, Aneta Sulborska, Joanna Kaczmarek, Agata Szymanska, Weronika Haratym, Miroslaw Gilski, Malgorzata Jedryczka
The spores of Cladosporium Link. are often present in the air in high quantities and produce many allergenic proteins, which may lead to asthma. An aerobiological spore monitoring program can inform patients about the current spore concentration in air and help their physicians determine the spore dose that is harmful for a given individual. This makes it possible to develop optimized responses and propose personalized therapy for a particular sensitive patient. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of the human health hazard posed by the fungal genus Cladosporium...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
A Sozza, F Piazza, M Cencini, F De Lillo, G Boffetta
We present an efficient point-particle approach to simulate reaction-diffusion processes of spherical absorbing particles in the diffusion-limited regime, as simple models of cellular uptake. The exact solution for a single absorber is used to calibrate the method, linking the numerical parameters to the physical particle radius and uptake rate. We study the configurations of multiple absorbers of increasing complexity to examine the performance of the method by comparing our simulations with available exact analytical or numerical results...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Aidan Maartens
Susan Strome is Distinguished Professor of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology at the University of California, Santa Cruz, USA. Recently appointed an editor at Development, her lab studies the regulation of germ cell development in C. elegans , with a particular focus on the epigenetic transmission of chromatin states. We caught up with Susan to discuss her early career switch from prokaryotes to worms, her experiences of small and big science, and why teaching is so important to her.
March 15, 2018: Development
Lilian Cristina Pereira, Murilo Pazin, Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Airton da Cunha Martins, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Márcio Cesar Pereira, João Paulo Mesquita, Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues, Fernando Barbosa, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Lu Han, Shunai Che
Triply periodic minimal surface structures and related geometries are widely identified in many natural systems, such as biological membranes and biophotonic structures in butterfly-wing scales. Inspired by their marvelous and highly symmetrical structures and optimized physical properties, these structures have sparked immense interest for creating novel materials by extracting the design from nature. Significant progress has been made to understand these biological structures and fabricate artificial materials by top-down and bottom-up approaches for numerous applications in chemistry and materials science...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Henkjan Honing
In recent years, music and musicality have been the focus of an increasing amount of research effort. This has led to a growing role and visibility of the contribution of (bio)musicology to the field of neuroscience and cognitive sciences at large. While it has been widely acknowledged that there are commonalities between speech, language, and musicality, several researchers explain this by considering musicality as an epiphenomenon of language. However, an alternative hypothesis is that musicality is an innate and widely shared capacity for music that can be seen as a natural, spontaneously developing set of traits based on and constrained by our cognitive abilities and their underlying biology...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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