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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096547/body-composition-and-its-association-with-physical-performance-quality-of-life-and-clinical-indictors-in-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-a-pilot-study
#1
Daniel Hackett, Daniel Roberts-Clarke, Nidhi Jain, Yorgi Mavros, Guy C Wilson, Mark Halaki, Joshua Burns, Garth Nicholson, Maria Fiatarone Singh, Che Fornusek
AIM: To investigate whether the amount and distribution of lean body mass and fat mass is associated with disease severity in adults with Charcot-Marie Tooth. METHODS: Ten participants (age 46 ± 13 y, height 1.7 ± 0.1 m, and body mass 77 ± 17 kg) with Charcot-Marie Tooth disease were involved in this study. Participants were evaluated for quality of life, falls efficacy, balance, mobility, muscle strength, and power. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry...
November 2, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083059/do-visceral-or-subcutaneous-fat-influence-peripheral-cortical-bone-strength-during-adolescence-a-longitudinal-study
#2
Natalie A Glass, James C Torner, Elena M Letuchy, Trudy L Burns, Kathleen F Janz, Julie M Eichenberger Gilmore, Janet A Schlechte, Steven M Levy
This study evaluated the longitudinal relationships among visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and peripheral bone strength during adolescence. Fat and lean mass, VAT and SAT area and android/gynoid (A/G) ratio were estimated with DXA. Our main outcome was strength-strain index (SSI), an indicator of peripheral bone strength estimated by pQCT at the radius and tibia. Sex-specific analyses evaluated the longitudinal bone-fat relationship from ages 11-19 years with linear mixed models using biological age as the time variable and adjusted for limb length and lean mass in 182 girls and 167 boys...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060327/new-conducted-electrical-weapons-finite-element-modeling-of-safety-margins
#3
Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael A Brave
Introduction-We have previously published on the ventricular fibrillation (VF) risk with TASER(®) X26 conducted electrical weapon (CEW). Our risk model accounted for realistic body mass index distributions, modeled the effects of partial or oblique dart penetration, and used epidemiological CEW statistics. As new CEWs have become available to law enforcement, their cardiac safety profile was not quantified. Therefore, we applied our VF probability model to evaluate their cardiac risk. Methods and Results-An eXperimental Rotating-Field (XRF) waveform CEW and the X2 CEW are new 2-shot electrical weapon models designed to target a precise amount of delivered charge per pulse, 64 μC and 62 μC, respectively...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032969/the-effect-of-adipose-derived-stromal-vascular-fraction-on-stasis-zone-in-an-experimental-burn-model
#4
Atilla Adnan Eyuboglu, Cagri A Uysal, Gonca Ozgun, Erhan Coskun, Nilgun Markal Ertas, Mehmet Haberal
BACKGROUND: Stasis zone is the surrounding area of the coagulation zone which is an important part determining the extent of the necrosis in burn patients. In our study we aim to salvage the stasis zone by injecting adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (ADSVF). METHODS: Thermal injury was applied on dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20) by the "comb burn" model as described previously. When the burn injury was established on Sprague-Dawley rats (30min); rat dorsum was separated into 2 equal parts consisting of 4 burn zones (3 stasis zone) on each pair...
October 9, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025217/use-of-lipotransfer-in-scleroderma
#5
Michelle F Griffin, Aurora Almadori, Peter E Butler
Lipotransfer for soft tissue filling is a well-established plastic and aesthetic surgical technique. Elective fat grafting is considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure. Coleman and others have reported that fat grafting may have tissue regenerative properties and not only serve as a soft tissue filler. There have been reports from our group and others that it may improve fibrosis secondary to many different pathological aetiologies including scleroderma, burn injury, lichen sclerosis, graft vs host disease, and radiation...
July 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988965/do-estrogens-enhance-activation-of-brown-and-beiging-of-adipose-tissues
#6
Aaron P Frank, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Obesity and its associated co-morbidities are worldwide public health concerns. Obesity is characterized by excessive adipose tissue accumulation; however, it is important to recognize that human and rodent adipose tissues are made up of several distinct adipose tissue sub-types. White adipose tissue (WAT) is considered the prototypical fat cell, due to its capacity and capability to store large amounts of lipid. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) oxidizes substrates to generate heat. BAT contains more mitochondria than WAT and express uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which mediates BAT thermogenesis...
October 6, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984292/immunotherapy-cd8-t-cells-burn-fat-get-fit
#7
Conor A Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971111/use-of-autologous-fat-grafting-for-the-correction-of-burn-scar-contracture-in-the-hand-a-case-report
#8
Shems Al-Hayder, Christina Gramkow, Stig-Frederik Trojahn Kølle
Severe burn injuries to the hand represent a topic of great concern due to long-term complications such as hypertrofic burn scar and contracture, which may result in loss of function. We present a case of burn scar contracture in the hand of a child undergoing Z-plasty and lipofilling.
2017: Case Reports in Plastic Surgery & Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938290/body-composition-changes-in-severely-burned-children-during-icu-hospitalization
#9
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Ioannis Malagaris, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Elizabeth Blears, Ron P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Children's burn hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915225/physical-activity-not-sedentary-time-predicts-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-measured-adiposity-age-5-to-19-years
#10
Kathleen F Janz, Piroska Boros, Elena M Letuchy, Soyang Kwon, Trudy L Burns, Steven M Levy
PURPOSE: To examine the associations among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (SED), and TV viewing (TV) with fat mass (FAT) and visceral adipose tissue mass (VAT) from childhood through adolescence (5-19 yr). METHODS: Participants in the Iowa Bone Development Study (n = 230 males and 233 females) were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 yr. Accelerometers measured moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA; min·d), light-intensity PA (LPA; min·d), and SED (h·d)...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891296/noninvasive-body-fat-burn-monitoring-from-exhaled-acetone-with-si-doped-wo3-sensing-nanoparticles
#11
A T Güntner, N A Sievi, S J Theodore, T Gulich, M Kohler, S E Pratsinis
Obesity is a global health threat on the rise, and its prevalence continues to grow. Yet suitable biomedical sensors to monitor body fat burn rates in situ, to guide physical activity or dietary interventions toward efficient weight loss, are missing. Here, we introduce a compact and inexpensive breath acetone sensor based on Si-doped WO3 nanoparticles that can accurately follow body fat burn rates in real time. We tested this sensor on 20 volunteers during exercise and rest and measured their individual breath acetone concentrations in good agreement with benchtop proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS)...
September 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888303/fat-grafting-for-burn-traumatic-and-surgical-scars
#12
REVIEW
Rafi Fredman, Adam J Katz, Charles Scott Hultman
Fat grafting provides a reliable modality with expanding usefulness in reconstructive plastic surgery. Owing to its mechanical and theorized regenerative properties, adipose tissue can improve scar qualities and scar related symptoms when grafted adjacent to or within a scar. In this article, the literature describing the effect of fat grafting on various types of scars, current scientific understanding of fat grafting for scars, and our current approach to the management of problematic burn scars are reviewed...
October 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883527/quantifying-the-efficacy-of-first-aid-treatments-for-burn-injuries-using-mathematical-modelling-and-in-vivo-porcine-experiments
#13
Matthew J Simpson, Sean McInerney, Elliot J Carr, Leila Cuttle
First aid treatment of burns reduces scarring and improves healing. We quantify the efficacy of first aid treatments using a mathematical model to describe data from a series of in vivo porcine experiments. We study burn injuries that are subject to various first aid treatments. The treatments vary in the temperature and duration. Calibrating the mathematical model to the experimental data provides estimates of the thermal diffusivity, the rate at which thermal energy is lost to the blood, and the heat transfer coefficient controlling the loss of thermal energy at the interface of the fat and muscle...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872388/reasons-motivational-factors-and-perceived-personal-barriers-to-engagement-in-physical-activity-during-pregnancy-vary-within-the-bmi-casses-the-prenatal-prevention-project-germany
#14
Carina Bauer, Christine Graf, Anna Maria Platschek, Heiko Klaus Strüder, Nina Ferrari
BACKGROUND: International data indicate that approximately only 20.0% of pregnant women reach physical activity recommendations (≥150 minutes/week). To find ways for increasing physical activity, the reasons for exercising, motivational factors and barriers need to be determined. The aim of this pilot study was to identify these factors in respect to Body-Mass-Index-classification in German pregnant women. METHODS: 61 women (32.7±4.8 years, 13.3±3.4 weeks of gestation) participated in this study...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865836/reconstruction-of-neck-and-face-scar-contractures-using-occipito-cervico-dorsal-supercharged-super-thin-flaps-a-retrospective-analysis-of-82-cases-in-vietnam
#15
Vu Quang Vinh, Tran Van Anh, Nguyen Gia Tiên, Hiko Hyakusoku, Rei Ogawa
BACKGROUND: The concept of the "super-thin flap" (also known as the subdermal vascular network flap) was introduced in Japan in 1994. Its distinctive characteristic is its extreme thinness: it is thinned to the point that the subdermal vascular network (subdermal plexus) can be seen through the minimal fat layer. Since 2006 in Vietnam, we have used circumflex scapular artery-supercharged occipito-cervico-dorsal (OCD) super-thin flaps to reconstruct cases of neck and face scar contracture...
August 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855688/maximizing-non-enzymatic-methods-for-harvesting-adipose-derived-stem-from-lipoaspirate-technical-considerations-and-clinical-implications-for-regenerative-surgery
#16
Barbara Bellei, Emilia Migliano, Marinella Tedesco, Silvia Caputo, Mauro Picardo
In the past decade, adipose tissue has become a highly interesting source of adult stem cells for plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The adipose source offers two options for the isolation of regenerative cells: the enzymatic digestion an expensive time-consuming procedure lacking a common standard operating protocol, or the non-enzymatic dissociation methods based on mechanical forces to break the processed adipose tissue. Here, we propose innovative inexpensive non-enzymatic protocols to collect and concentrate clinically useful regenerative cells from adipose tissue by centrifugation of the infranatant fraction of lipoaspirate as first step, usually discarded as a byproduct of the surgical procedure, and by fat shaking and wash as second enrichment step...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854721/chronic-combined-hyperandrogenemia-and-western-style-diet-in-young-female-rhesus-macaques-causes-greater-metabolic-impairments-compared-to-either-treatment-alone
#17
C A True, D L Takahashi, S E Burns, E C Mishler, K R Bond, M C Wilcox, A R Calhoun, L A Bader, T A Dean, N D Ryan, O D Slayden, J L Cameron, R L Stouffer
STUDY QUESTION: Does developmental exposure to the combination of hyperandrogenemia and western-style diet (WSD) worsen adult metabolic function compared to either treatment alone? SUMMARY ANSWER: Young female rhesus macaques treated for 3 years, beginning at menarche, with combined testosterone (T) and WSD have increased weight gain and insulin resistance compared to controls and animals treated with either T or WSD alone. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hyperandrogenemia is a well-established component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and can be observed in peripubertal girls, indicating a potential pubertal onset of the disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817438/alternatively-activated-macrophages-drive-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-burns
#18
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Christopher Auger, Mile Stanojcic, David Patsouris, Alexandra Parousis, Slava Epelman, Marc G Jeschke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. BACKGROUND: In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809824/creation-and-transplantation-of-an-adipose-derived-stem-cell-asc-sheet-in-a-diabetic-wound-healing-model
#19
Yuka Kato, Takanori Iwata, Kaoru Washio, Toshiyuki Yoshida, Hozue Kuroda, Shunichi Morikawa, Mariko Hamada, Kazuki Ikura, Nobuyuki Kaibuchi, Masayuki Yamato, Teruo Okano, Yasuko Uchigata
Artificial skin has achieved considerable therapeutic results in clinical practice. However, artificial skin treatments for wounds in diabetic patients with impeded blood flow or with large wounds might be prolonged. Cell-based therapies have appeared as a new technique for the treatment of diabetic ulcers, and cell-sheet engineering has improved the efficacy of cell transplantation. A number of reports have suggested that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), a type of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC), exhibit therapeutic potential due to their relative abundance in adipose tissue and their accessibility for collection when compared to MSCs from other tissues...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798193/the-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-in-metabolic-homoeostasis-current-evidence
#20
REVIEW
Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Juan Zheng, Wen Kong, Xiaofeng Ye, Luoning Gou, Anita Regmi, Lu-Lu Chen
It has been shown that adipose tissue and skeletal muscles in lean individuals respond to meal-induced hyperinsulinemia by increase in perfusion, the effect not observed in patients with metabolic syndrome. In conditions of hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridemia, this insufficient vascularization leads to the liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disruption of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and endothelial signalling responsible for the uptake of circulating fatty acids (FAs), whose accumulation in skeletal muscles and adipose tissue is widely associated with the impairment of insulin signalling...
August 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
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