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Fat burn

Nicole Niehoff, Alexandra J White, Lauren E McCullough, Susan E Steck, Jan Beyea, Irina Mordukhovich, Jing Shen, Alfred I Neugut, Kathleen Conway, Regina M Santella, Marilie D Gammon
BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been linked to breast cancer in many, but not all, previous studies. PAHs are lipophilic and stored in fat tissue, which we hypothesized may result in constant low-dose exposure to these carcinogens. No previous studies have evaluated whether obesity modifies associations between multiple measures of PAHs and breast cancer incidence. METHODS: This population-based study included 1,006 postmenopausal women with first primary in situ or invasive breast cancer and 990 age-frequency matched controls...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
M E H Jaspers, K M Brouwer, A J M van Trier, M L Groot, E Middelkoop, P P M van Zuijlen
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, patients normally survive severe traumas such as burn injuries and necrotizing fasciitis. Large skin defects can be closed but the scars remain. Scars may become adherent to underlying structures when the subcutical fat layer is damaged. Autologous fat grafting (AFG) provides the possibility to reconstruct a functional sliding layer underneath the scar. AFG is becoming increasingly popular for scar treatment although large studies using validated evaluation tools are lacking...
September 14, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Anders H Carlsson, Lloyd F Rose, John L Fletcher, Jesse C Wu, Kai P Leung, Rodney K Chan
Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors...
September 3, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Ppm van Zuijlen, Klm Gardien, Meh Jaspers, E J Bos, D C Baas, Ajm van Trier, E Middelkoop
Nowadays, most patients with severe burns will survive their injury. This evolution is accompanied by the challenge to cover a large percentage of total body surface area burned. Consequently, more and more patients have to deal with the sequelae of burn scars and require (multiple) reconstructions. This review provides a gross overview of developments in the field of tissue engineering for permanent burn wound coverage and reconstructive burn surgery, focusing on usage and clinical effectiveness. Not only skin substitutes will be discussed but also the replacement of subcutaneous fat tissue and cartilage...
2015: Burns and trauma
Weiwei Fan, Ronald Evans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Science
Michael L McCaskill, Henry T Hottor, Muna Sapkota, Todd A Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Slightly more than 5 % of the United States population heavily consumes ethanol, i.e., more than 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women a week. Chronic ethanol consumption can result in increased liver disease, reduced recovery from burn injury, and more frequent and severe respiratory infections. Chronic ethanol over-consumption also leads to vitamin D dysmetabolism and depletion. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble pro-hormone that regulates musculoskeletal health, cellular proliferation/differentiation, and innate and adaptive immune response...
2015: BMC Nutrition
Luca Maione, Andrea Vittorio Emanuele Lisa, Valeriano Vinci, Francesco Klinger, Fabio Caviggioli, Marco Ettore Attilio Klinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Derek J Snyder, Linda M Bartoshuk
Oral sensations (i.e., taste, oral somatosensation, retronasal olfaction) are integrated into a composite sense of flavor, which guides dietary choices with long-term health impact. The nerves carrying this input are vulnerable to peripheral damage from multiple sources (e.g., otitis media, tonsillectomy, head injury), and this regional damage can boost sensations elsewhere in the mouth because of central interactions among nerve targets. Mutual inhibition governs this compensatory process, but individual differences lead to variation in whole-mouth outcomes: some individuals are unaffected, others experience severe loss, and some encounter sensory increases that may (if experienced early in life) elevate sweet-fat palatability and body mass...
June 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Charles Scott Hultman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Shruti Purohit, Devashree Jahagirdar, Azad Kumar, Nilesh Kumar Sharma
Breast cancer among women is one of the most common carcinoma worldwide. In comparison to developed country, the breast cancer cases reported in India are boosted rapidly that in near future, statistically will surpass USA. At the same time, alarming statistics indicate that ratio of mortality cases over the total incidences is significantly high in comparison to developed world (Global Heath Estimates, WHO 2015). In recent times, several oncogenic signaling pathways have shown convergent effects on various types of cancer cell metabolism including breast cancer leading to tumor development...
July 27, 2016: MicroRNA
María Calderon-Dominguez, David Sebastián, Raquel Fucho, Minéia Weber, Joan F Mir, Ester García-Casarrubios, María Jesús Obregón, Antonio Zorzano, Ángela M Valverde, Dolors Serra, Laura Herrero
The discovery of active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans and the fact that it is reduced in obese and diabetic patients have put a spotlight on this tissue as a key player in obesity-induced metabolic disorders. BAT regulates energy expenditure through thermogenesis; therefore, harnessing its thermogenic fat-burning power is an attractive therapeutic approach. We aimed to enhance BAT thermogenesis by increasing its fatty acid oxidation (FAO) rate. Thus, we expressed carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1AM (CPT1AM), a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A (the rate-limiting enzyme in FAO), in a rat brown adipocyte (rBA) cell line through adenoviral infection...
2016: PloS One
Daniel Thomas, Ravindra Majeti
Obese leukemia patients exhibit reduced survival after chemotherapy, suggesting an important role of adipose tissue in disease progression. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Ye et al. (2016) reveal metabolic heterogeneity in leukemic stem cell (LSC) subpopulations and show that chemotherapy-resistant CD36+ LSCs co-opt gonadal adipose tissue to support their metabolism and survival.
July 7, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Didier F Pisani, Olivier Dumortier, Guillaume E Beranger, Virginie Casamento, Rayane A Ghandour, Maude Giroud, Nadine Gautier, Thierry Balaguer, Jean-Claude Chambard, Kirsi A Virtanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Tarja Niemi, Markku Taittonen, Emmanuel Van Obberghen, Charlotte Hinault, Ez-Zoubir Amri
Human brown adipocytes are able to burn fat and glucose and are now considered as a potential strategy to treat obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders. Besides their thermogenic function, brown adipocytes are able to secrete adipokines. One of these is visfatin, a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase involved in nicotinamide dinucleotide synthesis, which is known to participate in the synthesis of insulin by pancreatic β cells. In a therapeutic context, it is of interest to establish whether a potential correlation exists between brown adipocyte activation and/or brite adipocyte recruitment, and adipokine expression...
April 2016: Adipocyte
Rebecca L Burns, Sharukh J Bhavnagri
Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare inflammatory and fibrotic process that affects the small intestine mesentery. It may occur following abdominal surgery or in association with a variety of conditions, including malignancy, infection, and certain autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Herein, an unusual case of mesenteric panniculitis in a patient with primary Sjögren's syndrome will be presented. The patient presented with abdominal pain, weight loss, sicca symptoms, fatigue, and arthralgia. An abdominal CT revealed mesenteric fat stranding and prominent lymph nodes of the small intestine mesentery...
2016: Case Reports in Rheumatology
Ryan M Miller, Toby L Chambers, Stephen P Burns, Michael P Godard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Kathleen F Janz, Elena M Letuchy, Trudy L Burns, Soyang Kwon, Julie M Gilmore-Eichenberger, James C Torner, Steven M Levy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Marc G Jeschke, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Marjorie Burnett, Sarah Rehou, Mile Stanojcic
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin can achieve glucose control no worse than insulin (noninferiority) without the danger of hypoglycemia (superiority). In addition, to assess whether metformin has any additional effects on lipolysis and inflammation that will enhance burn recovery (superiority). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance after burn injury are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Insulin administration improves postburn infections, severity of sepsis, and morbidity, but also causes a 4-5-fold increase in hypoglycemia, which is associated with a 9-fold increase in mortality...
September 2016: Annals of Surgery
Dulcy Senaratna, Thusith Semini Samarakone, Asoka Gunawardena
Broilers show clear preference towards red color light (RL). However setting of an optimum light intensity is difficult since dim intensities that favor growth reduce welfare. Objective of this experiment was to test the most effective RL intensity regimen [Dim (5 lux; DI) vs. high (320 lux; HI) in combination applied at different growth stages that favors for both performance and welfare. Complete randomize design was adopted with 6 replicates. Treatments were; T1=early DI [8-21d] + latter HI [22- 35d]; T2= early DI [8- 28d] + latter HI [29- 35d], T3= early HI [8- 21d] + latter DI [22- 35d], T4= early HI [8-28d] + latter DI [29- 35d] and T5=Control (white light; WT) [8-35d] at medium intensity(20lux)...
May 22, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Michael G Daniel, Albert Y Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines the utility of stem cell biology in ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: The applicability of stem cell biology varies across a range of different subfields within ophthalmology and oculoplastic surgery. Resident stem cells have been identified in the lacrimal gland, corneal limbus, orbital fat, and muscles of the eye, and can potentially be applied for in-vitro cell and organ cultures with the intent of disease modeling and transplants...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Zongwei Huang, Chengyue Meng, Jing Chen, Yajie Chen, Yu Chen, Tao Zhou, Chao Yang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of fenofibrate for hepatic steatosis in rats after severe burn. METHODS: Twenty-seven male SD rats were divided into sham injury group, burn group, and burn+ fenofibrate group according to the random number table, with 9 rats in each group. Rats in sham injury group were sham injured on the back by immersing in 37 ℃ warm water for 15 s and then remained without other treatment. Rats in burn group and burn+ fenofibrate group were inflicted with 30% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereinafter referred to as burn) on the back by immersing in 98 ℃ hot water for 15 s, and then they were intraperitoneally injected with lactated Ringer's solution at post injury hour (PIH) 1...
May 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
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