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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938290/body-composition-changes-in-severely-burned-children-during-icu-hospitalization
#1
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Ioannis Malagaris, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Elizabeth Blears, Ron P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Children's burn hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915225/physical-activity-not-sedentary-time-predicts-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-measured-adiposity-age-5-to-19-years
#2
Kathleen F Janz, Piroska Boros, Elena M Letuchy, Soyang Kwon, Trudy L Burns, Steven M Levy
PURPOSE: To examine the associations among physical activity (PA), sedentary time (SED), and TV viewing (TV) with fat mass (FAT) and visceral adipose tissue mass (VAT) from childhood through adolescence (5-19 yr). METHODS: Participants in the Iowa Bone Development Study (n = 230 males and 233 females) were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 yr. Accelerometers measured moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA; min·d), light-intensity PA (LPA; min·d), and SED (h·d)...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891296/non-invasive-body-fat-burn-monitoring-from-exhaled-acetone-with-si-doped-wo3-sensing-nanoparticles
#3
Andreas T Güntner, Noriane A Sievi, S Jonathan Theodore, Tobias Gulich, Malcolm Kohler, Sotiris E Pratsinis
Obesity is a global health threat on the rise and its prevalence continues to grow. Yet suitable biomedical sensors to monitor the body fat burn rates in situ to guide physical activity or dietary interventions toward efficient weight loss are missing. Here, we introduce a compact and inexpensive breath acetone sensor based on Si-doped WO3 nanoparticles that can accurately follow body fat burn rates in real-time. We tested this sensor on 20 volunteers during exercise and rest and measured their individual breath acetone concentrations in good agreement to bench-top proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS)...
September 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888303/fat-grafting-for-burn-traumatic-and-surgical-scars
#4
REVIEW
Rafi Fredman, Adam J Katz, Charles Scott Hultman
Fat grafting provides a reliable modality with expanding usefulness in reconstructive plastic surgery. Owing to its mechanical and theorized regenerative properties, adipose tissue can improve scar qualities and scar related symptoms when grafted adjacent to or within a scar. In this article, the literature describing the effect of fat grafting on various types of scars, current scientific understanding of fat grafting for scars, and our current approach to the management of problematic burn scars are reviewed...
October 2017: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883527/quantifying-the-efficacy-of-first-aid-treatments-for-burn-injuries-using-mathematical-modelling-and-in-vivo-porcine-experiments
#5
Matthew J Simpson, Sean McInerney, Elliot J Carr, Leila Cuttle
First aid treatment of burns reduces scarring and improves healing. We quantify the efficacy of first aid treatments using a mathematical model to describe data from a series of in vivo porcine experiments. We study burn injuries that are subject to various first aid treatments. The treatments vary in the temperature and duration. Calibrating the mathematical model to the experimental data provides estimates of the thermal diffusivity, the rate at which thermal energy is lost to the blood, and the heat transfer coefficient controlling the loss of thermal energy at the interface of the fat and muscle...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872388/reasons-motivational-factors-and-perceived-personal-barriers-to-engagement-in-physical-activity-during-pregnancy-vary-within-the-bmi-casses-the-prenatal-prevention-project-germany
#6
Carina Bauer, Christine Graf, Anna Maria Platschek, Heiko Klaus Strüder, Nina Ferrari
BACKGROUND: International data indicate that approximately only 20.0% of pregnant women reach physical activity recommendations (≥150 minutes/week). To find ways for increasing physical activity, the reasons for exercising, motivational factors and barriers need to be determined. The aim of this pilot study was to identify these factors in respect to Body-Mass-Index-classification in German pregnant women. METHODS: 61 women (32.7±4.8 years, 13.3±3.4 weeks of gestation) participated in this study...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865836/reconstruction-of-neck-and-face-scar-contractures-using-occipito-cervico-dorsal-supercharged-super-thin-flaps-a-retrospective-analysis-of-82-cases-in-vietnam
#7
Vu Quang Vinh, Tran Van Anh, Nguyen Gia Tiên, Hiko Hyakusoku, Rei Ogawa
BACKGROUND: The concept of the "super-thin flap" (also known as the subdermal vascular network flap) was introduced in Japan in 1994. Its distinctive characteristic is its extreme thinness: it is thinned to the point that the subdermal vascular network (subdermal plexus) can be seen through the minimal fat layer. Since 2006 in Vietnam, we have used circumflex scapular artery-supercharged occipito-cervico-dorsal (OCD) super-thin flaps to reconstruct cases of neck and face scar contracture...
August 30, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855688/maximizing-non-enzymatic-methods-for-harvesting-adipose-derived-stem-from-lipoaspirate-technical-considerations-and-clinical-implications-for-regenerative-surgery
#8
Barbara Bellei, Emilia Migliano, Marinella Tedesco, Silvia Caputo, Mauro Picardo
In the past decade, adipose tissue has become a highly interesting source of adult stem cells for plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The adipose source offers two options for the isolation of regenerative cells: the enzymatic digestion an expensive time-consuming procedure lacking a common standard operating protocol, or the non-enzymatic dissociation methods based on mechanical forces to break the processed adipose tissue. Here, we propose innovative inexpensive non-enzymatic protocols to collect and concentrate clinically useful regenerative cells from adipose tissue by centrifugation of the infranatant fraction of lipoaspirate as first step, usually discarded as a byproduct of the surgical procedure, and by fat shaking and wash as second enrichment step...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854721/chronic-combined-hyperandrogenemia-and-western-style-diet-in-young-female-rhesus-macaques-causes-greater-metabolic-impairments-compared-to-either-treatment-alone
#9
C A True, D L Takahashi, S E Burns, E C Mishler, K R Bond, M C Wilcox, A R Calhoun, L A Bader, T A Dean, N D Ryan, O D Slayden, J L Cameron, R L Stouffer
STUDY QUESTION: Does developmental exposure to the combination of hyperandrogenemia and western-style diet (WSD) worsen adult metabolic function compared to either treatment alone? SUMMARY ANSWER: Young female rhesus macaques treated for 3 years, beginning at menarche, with combined testosterone (T) and WSD have increased weight gain and insulin resistance compared to controls and animals treated with either T or WSD alone. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hyperandrogenemia is a well-established component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and can be observed in peripubertal girls, indicating a potential pubertal onset of the disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817438/alternatively-activated-macrophages-drive-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-burns
#10
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Christopher Auger, Mile Stanojcic, David Patsouris, Alexandra Parousis, Slava Epelman, Marc G Jeschke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. BACKGROUND: In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809824/creation-and-transplantation-of-an-adipose-derived-stem-cell-asc-sheet-in-a-diabetic-wound-healing-model
#11
Yuka Kato, Takanori Iwata, Kaoru Washio, Toshiyuki Yoshida, Hozue Kuroda, Shunichi Morikawa, Mariko Hamada, Kazuki Ikura, Nobuyuki Kaibuchi, Masayuki Yamato, Teruo Okano, Yasuko Uchigata
Artificial skin has achieved considerable therapeutic results in clinical practice. However, artificial skin treatments for wounds in diabetic patients with impeded blood flow or with large wounds might be prolonged. Cell-based therapies have appeared as a new technique for the treatment of diabetic ulcers, and cell-sheet engineering has improved the efficacy of cell transplantation. A number of reports have suggested that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), a type of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC), exhibit therapeutic potential due to their relative abundance in adipose tissue and their accessibility for collection when compared to MSCs from other tissues...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798193/the-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-in-metabolic-homoeostasis-current-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Juan Zheng, Wen Kong, Xiaofeng Ye, Luoning Gou, Anita Regmi, Lu-Lu Chen
It has been shown that adipose tissue and skeletal muscles in lean individuals respond to meal-induced hyperinsulinemia by increase in perfusion, the effect not observed in patients with metabolic syndrome. In conditions of hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridemia, this insufficient vascularization leads to the liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and disruption of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and endothelial signalling responsible for the uptake of circulating fatty acids (FAs), whose accumulation in skeletal muscles and adipose tissue is widely associated with the impairment of insulin signalling...
August 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768902/mixed-lineage-kinase-3-pharmacological-inhibition-attenuates-murine-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
Kyoko Tomita, Rohit Kohli, Brittany L MacLaurin, Petra Hirsova, Qianqian Guo, Luz H Gutierrez Sanchez, Harris A Gelbard, Burns C Blaxall, Samar H Ibrahim
With the increase in obesity worldwide, its associated comorbidities, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), have become a public health problem that still lacks effective therapy. We have previously reported that mixed-lineage kinase 3-deficient (MLK3-deficient) mice are protected against diet-induced NASH. Given the critical need to identify new therapeutic agents, we sought to examine whether the small-molecule MLK3 inhibitor URMC099 would be effective in reversing diet-induced murine NASH. C57BL/6J mice were fed either a diet high in saturated fat, fructose, and cholesterol (FFC), or a chow diet for 24 weeks...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768167/burning-fat-and-building-bone-by-fsh-blockade
#14
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
The rise of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hallmark of menopause associated with osteoporosis and visceral adiposity. In Nature, Zaidi and colleagues (Liu et al., 2017) report that blocking FSH action reduces body fat by promoting brown/beige fat thermogenesis, potentially providing a new intervention for the treatment of menopause-related metabolic diseases.
August 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759400/body-composition-in-adolescents-during-treatment-with-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors
#15
Chadi A Calarge, James A Mills, Kathleen F Janz, Trudy L Burns, William H Coryell, Babette S Zemel
OBJECTIVES: To examine the independent contribution of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to changes in body composition in older adolescents. METHODS: Medically healthy 15- to 20-year-olds who were unmedicated or within 1 month of starting an SSRI were prospectively followed. Psychiatric functioning and medication treatment were assessed monthly. Body Mass Index (BMI) was measured every 4 months...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741475/cachexia-and-brown-fat-a-burning-issue-in-cancer
#16
Serkan Kir, Bruce M Spiegelman
Cachexia, a progressive weight loss in cancer patients that results from tumor-induced energy wasting, is a serious problem that interferes with response to treatment and affects quality of life. Recent studies suggest that thermogenesis of adipose tissues is involved in energy wasting and also point to a link between the atrophy of fat and muscle. Tumor-derived PTHrP has emerged as a key molecule playing multiple roles in cachexia, from fat 'browning' factor to potential therapeutic target.
September 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728903/utility-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-appendicitis-during-pregnancy-a-canadian-experience
#17
Michael Burns, Cameron J Hague, Patrick Vos, Pari Tiwari, Sam M Wiseman
PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all MRI scans performed at our institution, between 2006 and 2012, for the evaluation of suspected appendicitis in pregnant women. Details of the MRI scans performed were obtained from the radiology information system as well as details of any ultrasounds carried out for the same indication...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702187/procedure-applications-and-outcomes-of-autologous-fat-grafting
#18
REVIEW
Francesco Simonacci, Nicolò Bertozzi, Michele Pio Grieco, Eugenio Grignaffini, Edoardo Raposio
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the procedure, applications, and outcomes of autologous fat grafting, a promising technique with various clinical applications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Literature review of publications concerning autologous fat grafting. RESULTS: Since its introduction, lipofilling has become increasingly popular; however, its results are variable and unpredictable. Several modifications have been made to the procedures of fat harvesting, processing, and injecting...
August 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693514/disparities-in-dietary-intake-and-physical-activity-patterns-across-the-urbanization-divide-in-the-peruvian-andes
#19
Morgan L McCloskey, Carla E Tarazona-Meza, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Catherine H Miele, Robert H Gilman, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, J Jaime Miranda, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Diet and activity are thought to worsen with urbanization, thereby increasing risk of obesity and chronic diseases. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns across the urbanization divide may help identify pathways, and therefore intervention targets, leading to the epidemic of overweight seen in low- and middle-income populations. Therefore, we sought to characterize diet and activity in a population-based study of urban and rural residents in Puno, Peru. METHODS: We compared diet and activity in 1005 (503 urban, 502 rural) participants via a lifestyle questionnaire...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679380/a-novel-botanical-formula-prevents-diabetes-by-improving-insulin-resistance
#20
Juntao Kan, Rodney A Velliquette, Kerry Grann, Charlie R Burns, Jeff Scholten, Feng Tian, Qi Zhang, Min Gui
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades to epidemic proportions in China. Individually, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed, mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) root can improve glycemia in various animal models and humans with impaired glucose metabolism and T2DM. The aim of this study was to design an optimized botanical formula containing these herbal extracts as a nutritional strategy for the prevention of insulin resistance and T2DM...
July 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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