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Fabio Piscaglia, Sadahisa Ogasawara
Background: Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounting for most primary liver cancers and most commonly arising from a history of advanced chronic liver disease. Among the available therapies, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most widely utilized and is considered the first-line treatment recommended for patients staged as intermediate HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B). If applied correctly, TACE can produce survival benefits without adversely affecting hepatic functional reserve...
March 2018: Liver Cancer
Charles Rivière, Stefan Lazic, Louis Dagneaux, Catherine Van Der Straeten, Justin Cobb, Sarah Muirhead-Allwood
Patients with hip osteoarthritis often have an abnormal spine-hip relation (SHR), meaning the presence of a clinically deleterious spine-hip and/or hip-spine syndrome.Definition of the individual SHR is ideally done using the EOS® imaging system or, if not available, with conventional lumbopelvic lateral radiographs.By pre-operatively screening patients with abnormal SHR, it is possible to refine total hip replacement (THR) surgical planning, which may improve outcomes.An important component of the concept of kinematically aligned total hip arthroplasty (KA THA) consists of defining the optimal acetabular cup design and orientation based on the assessment of an individual's SHR, and use of the transverse acetabular ligament to adjust the cup positioning...
February 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Kenneth Abreo, Bakhtiar M Amin, Adrian P Abreo
The maintenance of vascular access patency for end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis is necessary for survival. Many nephrologists, nurse practitioners, and nurses have limited experience with the physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula. In this review, we define key terms used in the assessment of an arteriovenous fistula. We discuss the arteriovenous fistula physical exam, including details of inspection, palpation, and auscultation. Using these concepts, we review the abnormal findings that can assist practitioners in determining the location of a stenosis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Faruk Ahmed, Moududur Rahman Khan, Najma Shaheen, Kazi Matin Uddin Ahmed, Aziz Hasan, Ireen Akhtar Chowdhury, Rafiqul Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Recent studies found a low rate of iron deficiency in Bangladeshi non-pregnant and non-lactating women. This was attributed to high iron concentrations in drinking water. However, there are limited data on iron deficiency among pregnant women in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among rural pregnant women and explore the association of groundwater iron concentration with anemia and iron deficiency in this group...
February 9, 2018: Nutrition
Luz María Peverengo, Valeria Garcia, Luz María Rodeles, Diego Mendicino, Miguel Vicco, Claudia Lagier, Verónica Gonzalez, Luis Gugliotta, Iván Marcipar
The use of chimeric molecules fusing several antigenic determinants is a promising strategy for the development of low-cost, standardized and reliable kits to determine specific antibodies. In this study, we designed and assessed a novel recombinant chimera that complements the performance of our previously developed chimera, CP1 [FRA and SAPA antigens (Ags)], to diagnose chronic Chagas disease. The new chimeric protein, named CP3, is composed of MAP, TcD and TSSAII/V/VI antigenic determinants. We compared the performance of both chimeric Ags using a panel of 67 Trypanosoma cruzi-reactive sera and 67 non-reactive ones...
March 28, 2018: Parasitology
Heather Boyce, Dan Smith, Steve Byrn, Bhawana Saluja, Wen Qu, Vadim J Gurvich, Stephen W Hoag
In vitro evaluation of abuse deterrent formulations (ADFs) is a challenge since real abuse situations are variable and ADF technology is evolving. Specifically, an assessment of an ADF to deter nasal insufflation would be valuable. In this study, a vertical diffusion cell (VDC) was used to evaluate polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based tablets manipulated by three different forces. The commercially available products Oxycontin®, an ADF, Opana®, and metoprolol tartrate tablet formulations made in our laboratory were studied...
March 26, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Francesca R Pennecchi, Ilya Kuselman, Ricardo J N B da Silva, D Brynn Hibbert
Risks of false decisions in conformity assessment of an environmental compartment due to measurement uncertainty of concentrations of two or more pollutants are discussed. Even if the assessment of conformity for each pollutant in the compartment is successful, the total probability of a false decision concerning the compartment as a whole might still be significant. A model of the total probability of a false decision, formulated on the base of the law of total probability, is used, for example, for a study of test results of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) concentration in ambient air near to three independent stone quarries located in Israel, as the sources of the air pollution...
March 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Joseph M Sturino
Although Weissella confusa was established as a species over 25 years ago, it has been understudied until very recently. Several independent observations have driven the recent interest in this important microorganism. First, this Leuconostoc-like species of Lactic Acid Bacteria is associated with agricultural environments, many spontaneous food fermentations-especially carbohydrate-rich vegetable fermentations-and silage. Second, Weissella confusa are members of the autochthonous microbiota of healthy humans and livestock...
March 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Katherine T Foster, Adriene M Beltz
Ambulatory assessment (AA) methodologies have the potential to increase understanding and treatment of addictive behavior in seemingly unprecedented ways, due in part, to their emphasis on intensive repeated assessments of an individual's addictive behavior in context. But, many analytic techniques traditionally applied to AA data - techniques that average across people and time - do not fully leverage this potential. In an effort to take advantage of the individualized, temporal nature of AA data on addictive behavior, the current paper considers three underutilized person-oriented analytic techniques: multilevel modeling, p-technique, and group iterative multiple model estimation...
December 15, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Carlton F O Hoy, Keiichiro Kushiro, Madoka Takai
Correction for 'Fabrication and assessment of an electrospun polymeric microfiber-based platform under bulk flow conditions with rapid and efficient antigen capture' by Carlton F. O. Hoy et al., Analyst, 2018, 143, 865-873.
March 12, 2018: Analyst
Marija Pantelic, Mark Boyes, Lucie Cluver, Mildred Thabeng
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90 % of the world's adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV). HIV-stigma and the resultant fear of being identified as HIV-positive can compromise the survival of these youth by undermining anti-retroviral treatment initiation and adherence. To date, no HIV-stigma measures have been validated for use with ALHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on a two-stage study in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Firstly, we conducted a cross-cultural adaptation of an HIV stigma scale, previously used with US ALHIV...
2018: Child Indicators Research
Matthew Shawn Burkett, Angela Macci Bires, Thomas W Cline, Anthony Knight
Current literature supports outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT). This article presents results from a research study that evaluated an OPAT program that treated community-acquired pneumonia. If patients had the opportunity to receive outpatient intravenous antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia, would this prevent future hospitalization? Was there a decrease in hospital admissions? An informal cost-benefit analysis comparing OPAT with inpatient hospital admissions for the same disease was also reviewed to provide evidence whether there was a change...
April 2018: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly
Hongyu Jiang, Rajeev Badkul, Damodar Pokhrel
PURPOSE: As an alternative to cylindrical applicators, air-inflated balloon applicators have been introduced into high-dose-rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy to achieve sufficient dose to the vagina mucosa as well as to spare organs at risk, mainly the rectum and bladder. Commercial treatment planning systems which employ formulae in the AAPM Task Group No. 43 (TG 43) report do not take into account tissue inhomogeneity. Consequently, the low-density air in a balloon applicator induces different doses delivered to the mucosa from planned by these planning systems...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Mathias Anton, Alexander Khanin, Tobias Kretz, Marcel Reginatto, Clemens Elster
Model observers are mathematical classifiers that are used for the quality assessment of imaging systems such as computer tomography. The quality of the imaging system is quantified by means of the performance of a selected model observer. For binary classification tasks, the performance of the model observer is defined by the area under its ROC curve (AUC). Typically, the AUC is estimated by applying the model observer to a large set of training and test data. However, the recording of these large data sets is not always practical for routine quality assurance...
February 26, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ian C Sando, Jeffrey S Plott, Brendan M McCracken, Mohamad H Tiba, Kevin R Ward, Jeffrey H Kozlow, Paul S Cederna, Adeyiza O Momoh
BACKGROUND:  A novel arterial everter device was engineered to simplify microvascular coupling of arteries by reliably securing the stiff, muscular wall of arteries over coupler pins. We compare microvascular coupling with the everter device to manual suturing for arterial anastomoses in a live large animal model. METHODS:  In this preliminary study, bilateral external femoral arteries of five male swine were exposed and sharply divided. Arteries were anastomosed using either interrupted sutures ( n  = 5) or the everter device and Synovis Coupler ( n  = 5)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Mikel Uriarte Itzazelaia, Jasone Astorga, Eduardo Jacob, Maider Huarte, Pedro Romaña
Upcoming smart scenarios enabled by the Internet of Things (IoT) envision smart objects that provide services that can adapt to user behavior or be managed to achieve greater productivity. In such environments, smart things are inexpensive and, therefore, constrained devices. However, they are also critical components because of the importance of the information that they provide. Given this, strong security is a requirement, but not all security mechanisms in general and access control models in particular are feasible...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
A Ayad, S Lemouakni, L Tami, M Oulja, H Knouni, A Barkat
Arterial thrombosis of the newborn is rare and associated with poor prognosis, often attributed to umbilical arterial catheterization. The aortic and spontaneous forms are exceptional. Its severity requires fast and effective treatment. Although therapeutic means are numerous, no consensus has been established to date although thrombolysis and heparin therapy appear to give good results depending on the site and extent of thrombosis. We report a case of extensive thrombosis of the abdominal aorta in a 5-day-old newborn, revealed by acute hypernatremic dehydration...
February 2018: Journal de Médecine Vasculaire
Jamie O Creed, Julianne M Cyr, Hillary Owino, Shannen E Box, Mia Ives-Rublee, Brian B Sheitman, Beat D Steiner, Jefferson G Williams, Michael W Bachman, Jose G Cabanas, J Brent Myers, Seth W Glickman
OBJECTIVE: Emergency Departments (ED) are overburdened with patients experiencing acute mental health crises. Pre-hospital transport by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to community mental health and substance abuse treatment facilities could reduce ED utilization and costs. Our objective was to describe characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of acute mental health crises patients who were transported by EMS to an acute crisis unit at WakeBrook, a North Carolina community mental health center...
February 7, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Kirsten Huysamen, Michiel de Looze, Tim Bosch, Jesus Ortiz, Stefano Toxiri, Leonard W O'Sullivan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an industrial exoskeleton on muscle activity, perceived musculoskeletal effort, measured and perceived contact pressure at the trunk, thighs and shoulders, and subjective usability for simple sagittal plane lifting and lowering conditions. Twelve male participants lifted and lowered a box of 7.5 kg and 15 kg, respectively, from mid-shin height to waist height, five times, both with and without the exoskeleton. The device significantly reduced muscle activity of the Erector Spinae (12%-15%) and Biceps Femoris (5%)...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Melanie L Bell, Amy L Whitehead, Steven A Julious
Background: A pilot study can be an important step in the assessment of an intervention by providing information to design the future definitive trial. Pilot studies can be used to estimate the recruitment and retention rates and population variance and to provide preliminary evidence of efficacy potential. However, estimation is poor because pilot studies are small, so sensitivity analyses for the main trial's sample size calculations should be undertaken. Methods: We demonstrate how to carry out easy-to-perform sensitivity analysis for designing trials based on pilot data using an example...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
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