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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047072/involving-members-of-the-public-in-health-economics-research-insights-from-selecting-health-states-for-valuation-to-estimate-quality-adjusted-life-year-qaly-weights
#1
Elizabeth Goodwin, Kate Boddy, Lynn Tatnell, Annie Hawton
Over recent years, public involvement in health research has expanded considerably. However, public involvement in designing and conducting health economics research is seldom reported. Here we describe the development, delivery and assessment of an approach for involving people in a clearly defined piece of health economics research: selecting health states for valuation in estimating quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). This involvement formed part of a study to develop a condition-specific preference-based measure of health-related quality of life, the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-8D), and the work reported here relates to the identification of plausible, or realistic, health states for valuation...
October 19, 2017: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042825/antithrombotics-in-trauma-management-strategies-in-the-older-patients
#2
REVIEW
Henna Wong, Nicola Lovett, Nicola Curry, Ku Shah, Simon J Stanworth
The ageing population has resulted in a change in the demographics of trauma, and older adult trauma now accounts for a growing number of trauma admissions. The management of older adult trauma can be particularly challenging, and exhibits differences to that of the younger age groups affected by trauma. Frailty syndromes are closely related with falls, which are the leading cause of major trauma in older adults. Comorbid disease and antithrombotic use are more common in the older population. Physiological changes that occur with ageing can alter the expected clinical presentation of older persons after injury and their susceptibility to injury...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041962/comparative-assessment-of-an-gambiae-and-an-stephensi-mosquitoes-to-determine-transmission-reducing-activity-of-antibodies-against-p-falciparum-sexual-stage-antigens
#3
Maarten Eldering, Anaïs Bompard, Kazutoyo Miura, Will Stone, Isabelle Morlais, Anna Cohuet, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Patrick M Brock, Sanna R Rijpma, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Wouter Graumans, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Dari F Da, Carole A Long, Merribeth J Morin, Robert W Sauerwein, Thomas S Churcher, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: With the increasing interest in vaccines to interrupt malaria transmission, there is a demand for harmonization of current methods to assess Plasmodium transmission in laboratory settings. Potential vaccine candidates are currently tested in the standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) that commonly relies on Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Other mosquito species including Anopheles gambiae are the dominant malaria vectors for Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using human serum and monoclonal pre-fertilization (anti-Pfs48/45) and post-fertilization (anti-Pfs25) antibodies known to effectively inhibit sporogony, we directly compared SMFA based estimates of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) for An...
October 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039215/a-clinical-assessment-and-lung-tissue-burden-from-an-individual-who-worked-as-a-libby-vermiculite-miner
#4
Brad Black, Ronald F Dodson, James R Bruce, Lee W Poye, Claudia Henschke, Gregory Loewen
During its days of operation (1920s-1990), the world's largest source of vermiculite was extracted from a mine located near Libby, Montana. The material mined at this site was shipped for various commercial applications to numerous sites in the United States. There was a "fibrous" component with toxic potential within the vermiculite deposit that has resulted in "asbestos-like" diseases/deaths being reported in numerous studies involving miners as well as residents of the town of Libby. The present case involves the clinical assessments of an individual who worked at the mine from 1969 to 1990...
October 17, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038066/in-vitro-and-preclinical-assessment-of-an-intranasal-spray-formulation-of-parathyroid-hormone-pth-1-34-for-the-treatment-of-osteoporosis
#5
Allan J Williams, Faron Jordan, Gareth King, Andrew L Lewis, Lisbeth Illum, Tahir Masud, Alan C Perkins, Richard G Pearson
Osteoporosis treatment with PTH 1-34 injections significantly reduces the incidence of bone fracture. Potential further reductions in fracture rate should be observed through nasal spray delivery to address the poor compliance associated with patient dislike of repeated PTH 1-34 subcutaneous injections. In vitro human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cell intracellular cAMP levels were used to define PTH 1-34 nasal spray formulation bioactivity. The chemically synthesised PTH 1-34 had an EC50 of 0.76nM. Absorption enhancers polyethylene glycol (15)-hydroxystearate (Solutol(®) HS15), poloxamer 407, chitosan or sodium hyaluronate did not diminish the bioactivity of PTH 1-34 within an in vitro cell culture model (p >0...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991179/high-accuracy-decoupling-estimation-of-the-systematic-coordinate-errors-of-an-ins-and-intensified-high-dynamic-star-tracker-based-on-the-constrained-least-squares-method
#6
Jie Jiang, Wenbo Yu, Guangjun Zhang
Navigation accuracy is one of the key performance indicators of an inertial navigation system (INS). Requirements for an accuracy assessment of an INS in a real work environment are exceedingly urgent because of enormous differences between real work and laboratory test environments. An attitude accuracy assessment of an INS based on the intensified high dynamic star tracker (IHDST) is particularly suitable for a real complex dynamic environment. However, the coupled systematic coordinate errors of an INS and the IHDST severely decrease the attitude assessment accuracy of an INS...
October 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948476/feasibility-of-intraoral-ultrasonography-in-the-diagnosis-of-oral-soft-tissue-lesions-a-preclinical-assessment-on-an-ex-vivo-specimen
#7
Rossana Izzetti, Gualtiero Fantoni, Francesca Gelli, Lorenzo Faggioni, Saverio Vitali, Mario Gabriele, Davide Caramella
OBJECTIVES: The early detection of oral soft tissue lesions is an important prognostic factor, and the possibility of using ultrasonography (US) as a diagnostic tool may improve the diagnosis and characterization of tissue alterations at an early stage. This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of intraoral US by performing a preclinical assessment of an ex vivo specimen in which focal lesions were simulated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen lesions were simulated on a freshly extracted calf tongue, by introducing in the tongue different materials mimicking the appearance of various focal lesions...
September 25, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926010/economic-assessment-of-an-emerging-disease-the-case-of-schmallenberg-virus-in-france
#8
A Waret-Szkuta, P Alarcon, B Hasler, J Rushton, F Corbière, D Raboisson
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in 2011 in Germany and then in France in 2012. This study simulates the production of different ruminant systems in France and estimates, through partial budget analyses, the economic cost of SBV at the farm level, under two disease scenarios (a high-impact and low-impact scenario). A partial budget is used to evaluate the financial effect of incremental changes, and includes only resources or production that will be changed. In the high-impact scenario, the estimated impact of SBV ranged from €23 to €43 per cow per year and €19 to €37 per ewe per year...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905218/health-risk-assessment-of-an-abandoned-herbicide-factory-site-for-transportation-use-in-dalian-china
#9
Nannan Ji, Shushen Zhang, Yun Zhang, Yu Chen
An abandoned herbicide factory site was used as an example of how planning should be considered for development of the site for transportation use in Dalian, China. Exposure pathways and parameters for three types of transportation use (land for a traffic hub, land for an urban road, and land for a subway) were developed. Twenty-five sampling sites were selected and 38 soil samples were collected in March 2015. Hexachlorobenzene and benzo(a)pyrene which were extracted by Soxhlet extraction and detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were the most significant pollutants detected...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899383/paediatric-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training-program-in-latin-america-the-ribepci-experience
#10
Jesús López-Herce, Martha M Matamoros, Luis Moya, Enma Almonte, Diana Coronel, Javier Urbano, Ángel Carrillo, Jimena Del Castillo, Santiago Mencía, Ramón Moral, Flora Ordoñez, Carlos Sánchez, Lina Lagos, María Johnson, Ovidio Mendoza, Sandra Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: To describe the design and to present the results of a paediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program adapted to Latin-America. METHODS: A paediatric CPR coordinated training project was set up in several Latin-American countries with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The program was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised teaching; and independent teaching...
September 12, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861131/unique-down-to-our-microbes-assessment-of-an-inquiry-based-metagenomics-activity
#11
Thomas B Lentz, Laura E Ott, Sabrina D Robertson, Sarah C Windsor, Joshua B Kelley, Michael S Wollenberg, Robert R Dunn, Carlos C Goller
Metagenomics is an important method for studying microbial life. However, undergraduate exposure to metagenomics is hindered by associated software, computing demands, and dataset access. In this inquiry-based activity designed for introductory life science majors and nonmajors, students perform an investigation of the bacterial communities inhabiting the human belly button and associated metagenomics data collected through a citizen science project and visualized using an open-access bioinformatics tool. The activity is designed for attainment of the following student learning outcomes: defining terms associated with metagenomics analyses, describing the biological impact of the microbiota on human health, formulating a hypothesis, analyzing and interpreting metagenomics data to compare microbiota, evaluating a specific hypothesis, and synthesizing a conceptual model as to why bacterial populations vary...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840077/engineering-crispr-cpf1-crrnas-and-mrnas-to-maximize-genome-editing-efficiency
#12
Bin Li, Weiyu Zhao, Xiao Luo, Xinfu Zhang, Chenglong Li, Chunxi Zeng, Yizhou Dong
Cpf1, a type-V CRISPR-Cas effector endonuclease, exhibits gene-editing activity in human cells through a single RNA-guided approach. Here, we report the design and assessment of an array of 42 types of engineered Acidaminococcus sp. Cpf1 (AsCpf1) CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and 5 types of AsCpf1 mRNAs, and show that the top-performing modified crRNA (cr3'5F, containing five 2'-fluoro ribose at the 3' termini) and AsCpf1 mRNA (full ψ-modification) improved gene-cutting efficiency by, respectively, 127% and 177%, with respect to unmodified crRNA and plasmid-encoding AsCpf1...
May 2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833353/assessment-of-an-extended-interval-fondaparinux-dosing-regimen-for-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-in-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-renal-dysfunction-using-antifactor-xa-levels
#13
Krista A Wahby, Lauren K Riley, Steven D Tennenberg
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacologic options for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis are often limited in critically ill patients due to thrombocytopenia and multisystem organ dysfunction. Fondaparinux offers potential advantages in the critically ill; however, it is currently contraindicated in severe renal dysfunction (SRD). We evaluated antifactor Xa levels in critically ill patients with SRD who were receiving an extended interval dosing regimen of fondaparinux for VTE prophylaxis. METHODS: A prospective, single arm, interventional study was conducted at two academic hospitals of the Detroit Medical Center...
August 22, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830527/development-of-a-dynamic-framework-to-explain-population-patterns-of-leisure-time-physical-activity-through-agent-based-modeling
#14
Leandro M T Garcia, Ana V Diez Roux, André C R Martins, Yong Yang, Alex A Florindo
Despite the increasing body of evidences on the factors influencing leisure-time physical activity, our understanding of the mechanisms and interactions that lead to the formation and evolution of population patterns is still limited. Moreover, most frameworks in this field fail to capture dynamic processes. Our aim was to create a dynamic conceptual model depicting the interaction between key psychological attributes of individuals and main aspects of the built and social environments in which they live. This conceptual model will inform and support the development of an agent-based model aimed to explore how population patterns of LTPA in adults may emerge from the dynamic interplay between psychological traits and built and social environments...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819610/a-rare-case-of-massive-rotator-cuff-tear-and-biceps-tendon-rupture-with-posterior-shoulder-dislocation-in-a-young-adult-surgical-decision-making-and-outcome
#15
En Loong Soon, Hamid Rahmatullah Bin Abd Razak, Andrew Hwee Chye Tan
INTRODUCTION: Massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) in the context of shoulder dislocations are relatively uncommon in the young adult (<40 years) and if reported are more commonly described in association with acute traumatic anterior glenohumeral dislocations. They have rarely been described with posterior dislocations, regardless of patient age. This is the 1(st) case reported in the context of posterior dislocations, where a triad of biceps tendon rupture, posterior dislocation, and RCTs was observed during surgery...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816622/obtention-and-characterization-of-the-recombinant-simian-interleukin-15-in-escherichia-coli-for-the-preclinical-assessment-of-an-il-15-based-therapeutic-vaccine
#16
Yunier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Klaudia Martínez-Cordovez, Alexey Llopiz-Arzuaga, Yassel Ramos-Pérez, Vladimir Besada-Pérez, Dayana García-Lines, Alicia Santos-Savio
Recombinant simian IL-15 (siIL-15) was obtained for the preclinical assessment of an anti-human IL-15 vaccine. For this purpose, the cDNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a Macaca fascicularis monkey was cloned into a pIL-2 vector. The siIL-15 was expressed in E. coli strain W3110 as an insoluble protein which accounted for 13% of the total cellular proteins. Inclusion bodies were solubilized in an 8 M urea solution, which was purified by ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography up to 92% purity...
August 17, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773179/effects-of-the-crack-tip-constraint-on-the-fracture-assessment-of-an-al-5083-o-weldment-for-low-temperature-applications
#17
Dong Hyun Moon, Jeong Yeol Park, Myung Hyun Kim
The constraint effect is the key issue in structural integrity assessments based on two parameter fracture mechanics (TPFM) to make a precise prediction of the load-bearing capacity of cracked structural components. In this study, a constraint-based failure assessment diagram (FAD) was used to assess the fracture behavior of an Al 5083-O weldment with various flaws at cryogenic temperature. The results were compared with those of BS 7910 Option 1 FAD, in terms of the maximum allowable stress. A series of fracture toughness tests were conducted with compact tension (CT) specimens at room and cryogenic temperatures...
July 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762848/healthcare-resource-utilization-and-costs-for-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-real-world-documentation-of-functional-class
#18
Robert Dufour, Janis Pruett, Nan Hu, Cassandra Lickert, Stephen Stemkowski, Yuen Tsang, Daniel Lane, William Drake
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare medical disease in which patients experience increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial pressure that can result in remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and heart, and eventually lead to right heart failure and death. As PAH progresses, patients become unable to perform even routine daily tasks without severe shortness of breath (dyspnea), fatigue, dizziness, and fainting (syncope). Treatment strategies largely depend on assessment of an individual patient's WHO Functional Class...
November 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752931/efficacy-assessment-of-an-intramammary-treatment-with-a-new-recrystallized-enrofloxacin-vs-ceftiofur-and-parenteral-enrofloxacin-in-dairy-cows-with-nonsevere-clinical-mastitis
#19
M Viveros, R Lopez-Ordaz, L Gutiérrez, J E Miranda-Calderón, H Sumano
A recrystallized form of enrofloxacin as dehydrate-HCl (enro-C) was assessed for bacteriological and clinical cure efficacies in Holstein-Friesian cows affected of nonsevere clinical mastitis. Treatments were enro-Csusp (n = 81), treated with a pharmaceutical suspension of enro-C/quarter; group enro-Cpd (n = 80) treated as above, but using enro-C powder suspended in water; group CF (n = 65), treated with ceftiofur HCl/quarter; and group enroR (n = 66), treated with standard enrofloxacin solution (5 mg/kg, intramuscular)...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745947/identity-narrative-density-preliminary-findings-from-scoring-emotional-valence-of-autobiographical-events
#20
A Novac, R G Bota, B Blinder
Autobiographical Memory is a form of declarative episodic memory known to have a significant role in identity, self-regulation, and socialization. Conceivably, it may also influence outcome of psychopathology. This is a preliminary report in which the authors are proposing the notion of Identity Narrative (IdN), a set of implicit memories acquired throughout life and consolidated according to a gradient of emotional valence. IdN may constitute an implicit scaffolding for autobiographical memory. Identity Narrative Density (IND) is a score of emotional valence referring to life events that contribute to the construction of an IdN...
July 26, 2017: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic
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